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Definition of...
Are buddy systems and employee mentoring programs the same?
Why do organizations implement formal mentoring programs?
Does...
may coach, but a coach is not a mentor. Mentoring is “relational,” while coaching is “functional.” There
are other signifi...
Interest in mentoring has varied over time and has been affected by economic and social factors.
Organizations recognize t...
 The organization benefits indirectly, as the focus is exclusively on the mentoree
Formal mentoring:
 Goals are establis...
Because managers hold significant power over employees’ work lives, most employees
demonstrate only their strengths and hi...
 Gains satisfaction in sharing expertise with others.
 Re-energizes the mentor’s career.
 Gains an ally in promoting th...
What does a Mentoring Program Manager do?
Coordinating the mentoring process within the organization means working with a ...
How can you determine an organization’s need for mentoring?
Some organizations conduct focus groups, employee surveys or b...
person develop the specific skills being taught in the program. Training-based mentoring is
limited, because it focuses on...
Corporate Learning Strategies
Daniel R. Tobin, Ph.D.
Mentoring and Coaching
Copyright ©1998 Daniel R. Tobin
Having a mento...
unlocking an employee's potential to maximize their own performance, helping them
to learn rather than teaching them. Coac...
2. What are the costs and benefit of each of those options? (This gets
the employee to think through each option in a larg...
 " ... the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical,
economic, and chance factors that c...
Strongly Agree
5. I am pleased with the career advancement opportunities available to me.
I am pleased with the career adv...
Career coaching frequently involves helping individuals prepare for a career change or helping
employees advance in their ...
Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track, usually
for a management po...
Employees pursuing further education or a second career may also use job sharing. Job sharing offers
advantages over part-...
development ultimately belongs to each individual. Once the personal commitment is made,
several career development action...
someone who offers informal career advice. If the mentor can nominate the employee for career
development activities- such...
requirements. There is a clear strategic value in continuously training and developing employees in order to
enhance the o...
 Technology-based approaches - computer-based training or distance learning.
 Formal classroom courses, seminars, confer...
Learning theories and training
Training approach
Extension personnel around the world in need of training
Types of trainin...
assignments, lesson plans, motivation, tests, and evaluation. The focus in this model is
intervention by the training staf...
job unless they can earn a certificate, diploma, or degree from the appropriate institution.
Preservice training contents ...
specialists, administrators, subject-matter officers, extension supervisors, and frontline workers
updated and enables the...
1. The AEOs lack subject-matter knowledge.
2. The AEOs do not conduct training well.
3. The training centre lacks training...
Once training needs have been identified and training activities have been decided as part of
the solution, a needs analys...
8. Review the findings. The results of the job-task analysis should be discussed with significant
people in the training s...
Job Analysis Worksheet
Job: Agriculture Extension Officer
Tasks: Frequency performeda
Importanceb
Learning difficultyb
Tot...
Presenting the subject 1 2 3 (4) 5 [ ] [ ]
Maintaining sequence 1 2 (3) 4 5 [ ] [ ]
Maintaining eye
contact
1 (2) 3 4 5 [Y...
2. Group discussion. The trainer leads the group of trainees in discussing a topic.
3. Demonstration. The trainer shows th...
is concerned with the extent to which the trainees were able to apply their knowledge to real
field situations. Results ar...
Halim, A., & Ali, M. M. (1988). Administration and management of training programmes.
Bangladesh Journal of Training and D...
section three, presents a number of factors that should be considered by people
considering Human Resource Management as a...
Proactive HR managers recognize the importance of career
planning and development in satisfying individual and
organizatio...
•
Mentoring helps inculcate corporate values.
•
Mentoring improves employee job satisfaction and motivation.
•
Mentors can...
the boardroom of the new millennium because business discussions that
start on the golf course often end up in the boardro...
flexible work schedules, part-time work, homework, job sharing and flexible
leave provisions not only help but result in i...
Some people work in HRM without academic qualifications, but it is
evident that the increasing demands by employers for pr...
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
employee developmentCareer counseling
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employee developmentCareer counseling

  1. 1. HOME | CONTACT US | BLOG  Products  Clients  Why Us?  Mentoring Benefits  Resources  Blog  Contact Us Definition of Mentoring, Benefits of Mentoring, & Other FAQs Definition of mentoring: what exactly is mentoring? What does a mentor do? Are mentoring and coaching identical?
  2. 2. Are buddy systems and employee mentoring programs the same? Why do organizations implement formal mentoring programs? Does mentoring happen naturally? How are informal and formal mentoring different? What do you mean by “chemistry” and “compatibility”? Why do organizations need a structured corporate mentoring program? Aren’t managers already performing this role? What are the benefits of mentoring? How does an organization know when it’s ready to implement a formal mentoring program? What does a Mentoring Program Manager do? How can we create a pilot mentoring program? How can you determine an organization’s need for mentoring? Are there different types of mentoring models in a structured program? What are they? What is the role of diversity in mentoring? What results can be achieved in a structured mentoring program? Why shouldn’t we create a program ourselves? What does an outside consulting firm offer a prospective client? What is mentoring? Mentoring is most often defined as a professional relationship in which an experienced person (the mentor) assists another (the mentoree) in developing specific skills and knowledge that will enhance the less-experienced person’s professional and personal growth. (Top) What does a mentor do? The following are among the mentor’s functions:  Teaches the mentoree about a specific issue  Coaches the mentoree on a particular skill  Facilitates the mentoree’s growth by sharing resources and networks  Challenges the mentoree to move beyond his or her comfort zone  Creates a safe learning environment for taking risks  Focuses on the mentoree’s total development (Top) Are mentoring and coaching identical? No. People often confuse mentoring and coaching. Though related, they are not the same. A mentor
  3. 3. may coach, but a coach is not a mentor. Mentoring is “relational,” while coaching is “functional.” There are other significant differences. Coaching characteristics:  Managers coach all of their staff as a required part of the job  Coaching takes place within the confines of a formal manager-employee relationship  Focuses on developing individuals within their current jobs  Interest is functional, arising out of the need to ensure that individuals can perform the tasks required to the best of their abilities  Relationship tends to be initiated and driven by an individual’s manager  Relationship is finite - ends as an individual transfers to another job Mentoring characteristics:  Takes place outside of a line manager-employee relationship, at the mutual consent of a mentor and the person being mentored  Is career-focused or focuses on professional development that may be outside a mentoree’s area of work  Relationship is personal - a mentor provides both professional and personal support  Relationship may be initiated by a mentor or created through a match initiated by the organization  Relationship crosses job boundaries  Relationship may last for a specific period of time (nine months to a year) in a formal program, at which point the pair may continue in an informal mentoring relationship (Top) Are buddy systems and mentoring programs the same? No. Buddy systems are initiated by organizations to help new employees adjust to jobs during their first few months of employment. Buddies are most often peers in the same department, who assist new employees for short periods of time and require no specialized training as a buddy. Mentoring is a more complex relationship and focuses on both short- and long-term professional development goals. Though a mentor may be an employee’s peer, most often a mentor is a person at least one level higher in the organization who is not within the mentoree’s direct supervisory line of management. (Top) Why do organizations implement formal mentoring programs?
  4. 4. Interest in mentoring has varied over time and has been affected by economic and social factors. Organizations recognize that workforce demographics have changed dramatically in recent years, as women and members of different minority groups have joined the workforce in greater numbers. In addition, technology has automated traditional employee functions and continues to affect on-the-job performance, altering the way people see themselves within the corporate structure. With these changes, organizations are finding it difficult to recruit and retain qualified personnel. As corporate downsizing continues, organizations are also experiencing a flattening of their organizations, challenging them to provide sufficient growth opportunities for employees. On the plus side, organizations find today’s employees exhibit a more flexible approach to work. On the minus side, employees may feel less loyalty to the organizations for which they work. Organizations now look to mentoring to implement a strategic game plan that includes:  Recruitment  Retention  Professional development  Development of a multicultural workforce (Top) Does mentoring happen naturally? Absolutely. Informal mentoring occurs all the time and is a powerful experience. The problem is that informal mentoring is often accessible only to a few employees and its benefits are limited only to those few who participate. Formal or structured mentoring takes mentoring to the next level and expands its usefulness and corporate value beyond that of a single mentor-mentoree pairing. (Top) How are informal and formal mentoring different? Informal and formal mentoring are often confused, but they are very different in their approaches and outcomes. Informal mentoring:  Goals of the relationship are not specified  Outcomes are not measured  Access is limited and may be exclusive  Mentors and mentorees self-select on the basis of personal chemistry  Mentoring lasts a long time; sometimes a lifetime
  5. 5.  The organization benefits indirectly, as the focus is exclusively on the mentoree Formal mentoring:  Goals are established from the beginning by the organization and the employee mentoree  Outcomes are measured  Access is open to all who meet program criteria  Mentors and mentorees are paired based on compatibility  Training and support in mentoring is provided Organization and employee both benefit directly. (Top) What do you mean by “chemistry” and “compatibility?” "Chemistry" is an intense, very personal feeling – an initial connection or attraction between two individuals that may develop into a strong, emotional bond. Unstructured and unpredictable, it is the basis for an informal mentoring relationship. "Compatibility" occurs when individuals work together in harmony to achieve a common purpose. In formal mentoring, that means a more-seasoned person leading someone less experienced through a structured professional-development program in much the same way teachers facilitate learning. (Top) Why do organizations need a structured mentoring program? Aren’t managers already performing this role? While many managers demonstrate mentoring behavior on an informal basis, it is very different from having a structured mentoring program. There is a qualitative difference between a manager-employee relationship and a mentor-mentoree relationship.  Managerial Role The manager-employee relationship focuses on achieving the objectives of the department and the company. The manager assigns tasks, evaluates the outcome,conducts performance reviews, and recommends possible salary increases and promotions.
  6. 6. Because managers hold significant power over employees’ work lives, most employees demonstrate only their strengths and hide their weaknesses in the work environment.  Mentoring Role A mentor-mentoree relationship focuses on developing the mentoree professionally and personally. As such, the mentor does not evaluate the mentoree with respect to his or her current job, does not conduct performance reviews of the mentoree, and does not provide input about salary increases and promotions. This creates a safe learning environment, where the mentoree feels free to discuss issues openly and honestly, without worrying about negative consequences on the job. The roles of manager and mentor are fundamentally different. That’s why structured mentoring programs never pair mentors with their direct reports. (Top) What are the benefits of mentoring? Mentoring benefits the organization, mentors and mentorees. A successful mentoring program benefits your organization by:  Enhancing strategic business initiatives  Encouraging retention  Reducing turnover costs  Improving productivity  Breaking down the "silo" mentality that hinders cooperation among company departments or divisions.  Elevating knowledge transfer from just getting information and to retaining the practical experience and wisdom gained from long-term employees.  Enhancing professional development.  Linking employees with valuable knowledge and information to other employees in need of such information  Using your own employees, instead of outside consultants, as internal experts for professional development  Supporting the creation of a multicultural workforce by creating relationships among diverse employees and allowing equal access to mentoring.  Creating a mentoring culture, which continuously promotes individual employee growth and development. Mentors enjoy many benefits, including:  Gains insights from the mentoree’s background and history that can be used in the mentor’s professional and personal development.
  7. 7.  Gains satisfaction in sharing expertise with others.  Re-energizes the mentor’s career.  Gains an ally in promoting the organization’s well-being.  Learns more about other areas within the organization. Mentorees enjoy many benefits, including:  Gains from the mentor’s expertise  Receives critical feedback in key areas, such as communications, interpersonal relationships, technical abilities, change management and leadership skills  Develops a sharper focus on what is needed to grow professionally within the organization  Learns specific skills and knowledge that are relevant to personal goals  Networks with a more influential employee  Gains knowledge about the organization’s culture and unspoken rules that can be critical for success; as a result, adapts more quickly to the organization’s culture  Has a friendly ear with which to share frustrations as well as successes. (Top) How does an organization know when it’s ready to implement a formal mentoring program? An organization that values its employees and is committed to providing opportunities for them to remain and grow within the organization is an ideal candidate for initiating a mentoring program. Ideally, the organization has an internal structure to support a successful program. Examples include:  A performance management program  Developed competencies  A valued-training function  Diversity training  A succession-planning process  A management development program  Strategic business objectives In addition, there should be individuals within the higher ranks of the organization who will champion the mentoring initiative and help make it happen. Advocates may include the organization’s president, vice presidents and other influential executives. A Mentoring Program Manager (MPM) is also needed to coordinate the mentoring program. The MPM should be someone who is perceived as a facilitator, listener and coalition-builder – a person who is trusted. MPM is not a full-time position, so mentoring responsibilities must be balanced with the MPM’s other duties. Typically, such a person works in a Human Resources, Organizational Development, Training or Diversity Department. (Top)
  8. 8. What does a Mentoring Program Manager do? Coordinating the mentoring process within the organization means working with a Management Mentors consultant, as well as fellow employees, to design and implement a mentoring initiative that fits the organization’s culture. The initiative forms the basis for ongoing mentoring. During the pilot, a Mentoring Program Manager (MPM) typically works with 20 to 30 individuals (10 to 15 pairs). The manager contacts them on a regular basis, making certain the relationships are going well and that the mentoring program is achieving its goals. The MPM offers each pair whatever resources may be needed. The MPM also becomes the organization’s internal mentoring expert, serving as a resource for various departments and divisions that have an interest in pursuing mentoring. The amount of time this take varies. Normally, a MPM spends one to four hours per week coordinating the project, depending on how often the mentor-mentoree pairs meet. Further reading: Identifying Model Program Managers (Top) How can we create a pilot mentoring program? The Mentoring Program Manager forms a task force of 6-8 people. Members of the task force should represent a cross-section of the organization, including potential mentors and mentorees, supervisory personnel and any stakeholders who can bring value to the process. For example, a representative from Human Resources might help tie department goals with the goals of the mentoring program. The task force:  Determines the goals of the program  Chooses the proper mentoring model  Selects criteria for mentors and mentorees  Defines other critical components of the program  Interviews potential candidates  Matches participants  Evaluates results at the end of the pilot program (Top)
  9. 9. How can you determine an organization’s need for mentoring? Some organizations conduct focus groups, employee surveys or both to determine where the need for mentoring is greatest, and whether there is sufficient support for a mentoring program. Other organizations rely on task force members, who have been asked to participate because of their knowledge of the organization and the population being targeted.The appropriate method depends on what steps an organization has already taken as well as what resources are available. In general, focus groups are relatively low-cost, while surveys can be costly. If you would like Management Mentors to create a focus group or conduct a survey for you, click here. (Top) Are there different types of mentoring models in a structured program? What are they? One of the advantages of mentoring is that it can be adapted to any organization’s culture and resources. There are several mentoring models to choose from when developing a mentoring program, including: NOTE: Download our free thought paper: Corporate Mentoring Models -- One Size Doesn't Fit All  One-On-One Mentoring The most common mentoring model, one-on-one mentoring matches one mentor with one mentoree. Most people prefer this model because it allows both mentor and mentoree to develop a personal relationship and provides individual support for the mentoree. Availability of mentors is the only limitation.  Resource-Based Mentoring Resource-based mentoring offers some of the same features as one-on-one mentoring. The main difference is that mentors and mentorees are not interviewed and matched by a Mentoring Program Manager. Instead, mentors agree to add their names to a list of available mentors from which a mentoree can choose. It is up to the mentoree to initiate the process by asking one of the volunteer mentors for assistance. This model typically has limited support within the organization and may result in mismatched mentor-mentoree pairing.  Group Mentoring Group mentoring requires a mentor to work with 4-6 mentorees at one time. The group meets once or twice a month to discuss various topics. Combining senior and peer mentoring, the mentor and the peers help one another learn and develop appropriate skills and knowledge. Group mentoring is limited by the difficulty of regularly scheduling meetings for the entire group. It also lacks the personal relationship that most people prefer in mentoring. For this reason, it is often combined with the one-on-one model. For example, some organizations provide each mentoree with a specific mentor. In addition, the organization offers periodic meetings in which a senior executive meets with all of the mentors and mentorees, who then share their knowledge and expertise.  Training-Based Mentoring This model is tied directly to a training program. A mentor is assigned to a mentoree to help that
  10. 10. person develop the specific skills being taught in the program. Training-based mentoring is limited, because it focuses on the subject at hand and doesn’t help the mentoree develop a broader skill set.  Executive Mentoring This top-down model may be the most effective way to create a mentoring culture and cultivate skills and knowledge throughout an organization. It is also an effective succession-planning tool, because it prevents the knowledge "brain drain" that would otherwise take place when senior management retires. For further information, click here. (Top) What is the role of diversity in mentoring? Mentoring can be of great value to women and people of color. These are the employees who have often been disenfranchised within organizations and have not been “chosen” by informal mentors. However, if mentoring is to be successful as a tool for empowering employees, it needs to be truly diverse – representing everyone within the organization and not just women and people of color. By including the broadest spectrum of people, mentoring offers everyone the opportunity to grow professionally and personally without regard to gender or race. A successful mentoring program needs to balance the need for inclusion with the need for fair representation. For many years, some organizations thought of mentoring only as a tool to help women and people of color. Viewed inappropriately as a remedial program, mentoring lacked widespread support within most organizations. These mentoring programs did not provide mentorees with the assistance they really needed. Good intentions gone astray resulted in a misapplication of mentoring. Diversity is equally important when choosing mentors within organizations. Because many mentoring programs are geared to management levels, today’s mentor population still tends to be made up of white males. As organizations seek to devise mentoring programs, they need to include mentors who are both non-white and non-male. Using the resource-based or group-based models, tied to the one-on- one mentoring model, can help diversify the mentor population. For example, one of the mentoring goals might be to learn how to navigate effectively through the organization’s culture. Using the group model, an organization might have a panel of diverse employees meeting with the entire mentor-mentoree population to share how they have successfully navigated that culture
  11. 11. Corporate Learning Strategies Daniel R. Tobin, Ph.D. Mentoring and Coaching Copyright ©1998 Daniel R. Tobin Having a mentor and/or a coach can be very helpful to your career development in your company. Many people confuse the two roles. In this article, we will talk about the differences between the two roles, discuss how you can use a mentor and a coach, and talk about your own role as a coach for your employees. The roles of mentor and coach differ in several ways. The mentor acts as your counselor, providing advice on career paths, development opportunities, and an overview of what it takes to become a leader in the company. Typically, the mentor is a senior manager, at least two levels above you in the organization. The mentor must have broader experience in the company and the ability to place you into assignments that will help with your development. A critical element in the mentoring relationship is a mutual respect between you and your mentor. For example, the publisher of one of my books told me that he had a mentor when he first joined a large publishing company. "Once a month, I had lunch with my mentor, a senior vice president in the company. I learned more about the publishing industry and how the company really worked at those lunches than I could have in years if I had to discover all of it myself." The coach is more of a tutor, observing your work and actions, providing comments on execution, and teaching skills which may be lacking. Coaches can come from many sources. A coach can be a colleague, a manager, or an employee, and doesn't have to come from the same function or division in which you work. For example, a coach may come from the company's personnel or training function. Some senior executive hire an outside consultant to act as their coach. It is critical in the coaching relationship for the coach to have opportunities to observe your work and for you to respect the coach and be open to feedback. Both mentoring and coaching must be viewed as long-term relationships -- a commitment of two years should be obtained before the relationship is established. These two roles, whether performed by one person or two, are an essential ingredient in your career development. No matter how much education and training you receive, and no matter how excellent that instruction may be, the incorporation of new skills and knowledge into your work takes time, practice, and feedback. The mentor provides guidance and opportunities for practice. The coach observes and critiques the performance and provides you with an outside perspective on your skills. Your Role as a Coach As a manager, you should also be a coach for your employees. When you act as a coach, you are giving your employees your time and attention and, more importantly, you are helping them master their work and grow their own knowledge and skills. You are also showing respect for their individual capabilities and providing what I consider the most important motivation a person can have -- the opportunity for self- development. Coaching is not telling your employees what to do or providing simple answers to their questions. Coaching is helping your employees discover the answers themselves. It is
  12. 12. unlocking an employee's potential to maximize their own performance, helping them to learn rather than teaching them. Coaching is must more time-consuming than giving orders, but is also much more satisfying to both the employee and the manager. When you hold a coaching session with an employee, you guide them through a thinking process, helping them to discover the answers to their own questions, rather than imposing a solution. The questions below are designed to guide you through this process. Coaching Questions A. Questions Related to the Employee's Goals 1. What is the goal of this discussion? What goal or activity are you working on? (For example, you may be talking about a project the employee has undertaken or about the employee's routine work, such as customer relations.) 2. What do you want to accomplish, both short-term and long-term? (The length of time will often affect what can be accomplished.) 3. Are we talking about something you want to produce, or about how you work (an end goal such as completing a product design or a performance goal such as improving your writing skills)? 4. If the goal positive, challenging, attainable, and measurable? (If none of these criteria are met, you should question whether the goal is worthwhile.) B. Is the Goal Realistic? 1. What is happening now related to your goal? (Few goals are isolated from other people and plans within the company, and it is important to be aware of what else is happening that will affect your plans.) 2. Who is involved and how do those people view your goal? (Most goals involve other people, and you need to ensure that those people are aware of what you are doing and support your efforts.) 3. What have you done about this so far and what results did your actions produce? (You need to know whether the situation you are discussing is about a future plan or is trying to fix a problem that has already arisen.) 4. What is happening, both inside and outside your group and the company, that will affect your goal? (No one works in isolation, and you need to recognize that other programs and events, both locally and in the larger world, may affect what you are doing.) 5. What are the major constraints to finding a way to more forward? (You cannot overcome barriers to your goal unless you recognize what they are and deal with them.) C. Questions On Options for Action 1. What options do you have? (Getting the employee to consider alternative actions can not only help to broaden his perspective on the situation, it can also help you discover options that you may not have considered in the past.)
  13. 13. 2. What are the costs and benefit of each of those options? (This gets the employee to think through each option in a larger context.) 3. What if ...? (If the employee has not considered all of the options you can think of, you can help to expand his thinking by raising other possibilities in the form of "what if ..." questions.) 4. Would you like another suggestion? (If the "what if" questions don't help the employee to consider other options you would like him to consider, ask if he would like another suggestion. It is important to ask the question in this way, rather than imposing your own solution on the employee. Imposing a solution does not help the employee learn. Of course, there are times when you must impose a solution, such as when the employee's plan will be dangerous to himself or others.) D. Questioning the Employee's Will to Succeed 1. What are you going to do, and when will you do it? (Get the employee to commit to a plan of action.) 2. Will this meet your goal? (If not, why do it?) 3. What obstacles do you expect to face, and how will you overcome them? (This is also a reality test.) 4. Who needs to know what you are doing, and what support do you need? (Make certain the employee recognizes the other parties that need to be involved or who will be affected by his work.) 5. Rate yourself, on a scale of 1 to 10, on the likelihood of carrying out this action. (If the rating is low, why bother continuing with the planning exercise?) These questions are meant to serve as a guide, not as a fixed list that you must go through in every coaching situation. But using questions such as these will provide surprisingly positive results, whether you are using them with an employee, a peer, or your own manager. I have also used this method very successfully with my teen-aged daughter to get her to consider the thoroughness of her plans and the consequences of her actions. Coaching your employees will make you a better manager and a more valuable company employee, and can only help you in your own career development Career Development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving preferred future. In organizational development (or OD), the study of career development looks at:  how individuals manage their careers within and between organizations and,  how organizations structure the career progress of their members, it can also be tied into succession planning within most of the organizations. In personal development, career development is:
  14. 14.  " ... the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economic, and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual." [1]  The evolution or development of a career - informed by (1) Experience within a specific field of interest (with career, job, or task specific skills as by-product) (2) Success at each stage of development, (3) educational attainment commensurate with each incremental stage, (4) Communications (the capacity to analytically reflect your suitability for a given job via cover letter, resume, and/or the interview process), and (5) understanding of career development as a navigable process. (Angelo J. Rivera)  "... the lifelong psychological and behavioral processes as well as contextual influences shaping one’s career over the life span. As such, career development involves the person’s creation of a career pattern, decision-making style, integration of life roles, values expression, and life-role self concepts. Are you satisfied with the investment that your organization makes in development of employees’ career 1. Yes { } 2. No { } 2. I am satisfied that I have the opportunities to apply my talents and expertise. I am satisfied that I have the opportunities to apply my talents and expertise. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. I am satisfied with the job-related training my organization offers. I am satisfied with the job-related training my organization offers. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree 4. My organization is dedicated to my professional development. My organization is dedicated to my professional development. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree Agree
  15. 15. Strongly Agree 5. I am pleased with the career advancement opportunities available to me. I am pleased with the career advancement opportunities available to me. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree 6. I am satisfied with my opportunities for professional growth. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral/Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree  Career development initiatives by organizations are a key retention tool and ensure that the best talent is retained. Career development activities give employees a clear focus about their career track and also ensure their career aspirations are met. Career development focuses on a whole range of activities and this research specifically addressed: mentoring, coaching and formal training activities, and their effect on employee performance. The key objectives were to establish whether mentoring, coaching and formal training had an effect on employee performance in ICRAF, a research-based institution. The research design adopted was descriptive research and the target population was 385, from which a sample of 277 was drawn. The study yielded a response rate of 76%. The data was analysed using multiple regression analysis and yielded significant results. Keywords: Career Development, Mentoring and Coaching Career Pathing Career pathing, also called career tracking, is a process of outlining an individual career plan, usually within an organization. Career pathing is most often used as a part of management training and development, although individuals may develop their own career track, either alone, or in conjunction with a career coach. Employees follow pre-determined steps along the career path to develop expertise in managing different types of organizational situations and to reach their career goal. Periodic checks evaluate progress, as well as determining what further training or experience is needed to move to the next step. Career pathing often uses several other career development interventions as part of the process. These include cross- training, job rotation, job enrichment or enlargement, and temporary assignments. Career Coaching/Counseling
  16. 16. Career coaching frequently involves helping individuals prepare for a career change or helping employees advance in their existing jobs. From the employee's view, career coaching consists of evaluating interests, values, work styles, and skills. From the organization's view, it consists of matching employee talents with organizational needs, recruiting and retaining talent in the company, identifying training and development needs, and assisting employees in specifying and locating new employment opportunities within the organization. Cross-Training Cross-trained workers are taught skills outside their current job assignment so they can be called upon to perform a variety of tasks as the need arises. Many workers and supervisors find themselves cross- training each other, just to make the day-to-day work life manageable. As a career development intervention, however, companies put into place a formal program of cross-training. Cross-training helps organizations to balance workloads so everyone is busy, and allows the company to respond quickly to employee absences. It also allows employees and departments within an organization to gain a better understanding of the ``big picture'', and to improve communications and relations. Employees who are cross-trained are more valuable to the company, and more marketable in the work world overall. Flexitime Flextime is one of the most popular and most widely known career development interventions. Flexitime gives employees the opportunity to balance their work and personal lives by restructuring the typical workday to accommodate individual employee schedules. Employers who offer flexitime often report decreased use of paid leave, decreased tardiness and increased productivity. Other benefits for the employer include a low-cost method of providing personal time off and extending service hours without overtime pay. This career development intervention is popular with employees who have extended families or young children, who may be facing ``burn-out'', and those seeking further education or pursuing second careers. Flexitime allows employees to set their own schedules, within limitations set by management. For example, workers may adjust their starting and ending times, but are required to be at the office during management specified core or peak hours. Working four ten-hour days is an example of a compressed workweek form of flexitime. Flexitime may also be combined with other interventions, such as job sharing, job rotation, and phased retirement. Job Rotation Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives : for simply staffing jobs, for orienting new employees, for preventing job boredom, and, finally, for training employees and enhancing their career development.
  17. 17. Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track, usually for a management position, where they are expected to perform a variety of duties, and have a variety of skills and competencies. Job rotation is often confused with crosstraining. While both interventions perform essentially the same service of providing employees with a varied set of skills, job rotation goes beyond this. Besides being used as a means of management training, job rotation can also be used as a form of job enrichment, by adding increased responsibilities, increasing challenge, and reducing boredom or burnout. Job Enlargement Job enlargement is defined as increasing the number of tasks a worker performs, with all of the tasks at the same level of responsibility, and is also sometimes referred to as ``horizontal job loading'' . Be careful not to confuse job enlargement with job enrichment, which will be discussed later. Job enlargement and job enrichment can both be used with plateaued workers or workers who are experiencing burnout, and with especially high achievers. These two interventions may be used in conjunction with each other, or with other career development interventions such as job rotation and temporary assignments. Both interventions provide the employee with increased skills, making him or her more valuable to the company, or more marketable in the job search. Job Enrichment Job enrichment involves increasing a worker's responsibility and control over his or her work, and is also called ``vertical job loading''. Job enrichment allows you to expand your responsibilities or change your role to develop new competencies without leaving your current position or the organization altogether. Job enrichment is also used as an effective motivational technique. According to this perspective, if a job provides a sense of responsibility, a sense of significance and information concerning performance, the employees will be internally motivated to high levels of performance. The key to creating this situation is to enrich jobs so they provide five core characteristics: task variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback. Job Sharing With job sharing, a full-time job is split between two employees. The two employees share the duties and responsibilities, as well as the salary and benefits of the job. These two employees must also work closely together, and with management, to co-ordinate hours, duties, and communication among themselves and other departments in the organization. Most often, job sharing is used by parents or adults caring for their parents, and affords employees a better balance between their work and personal lives.
  18. 18. Employees pursuing further education or a second career may also use job sharing. Job sharing offers advantages over part-time work in that employees are able to maintain their professional status as well as some of their job benefits. One example of the advantage over flexitime situations is that with flexitime, parents may still require extended day care hours. Benefits to the employer include having ``two heads instead of one'', retaining valued and experienced employees, and down time due to vacation or sickness is reduced, because the job share partners cover for each other. Phased Retirement Organizations typically devote far more energy to recruiting and retraining than to phasing out workers. Phased retirement is one intervention that workers and employers can use at the latter end of the career cycle. During phased retirement, workers gradually taper their work schedules until they reach full retirement. Other career development interventions such as flextime and job sharing are typically incorporated into phased retirement arrangements. Retirees may work part time and serve as mentors or trainers to their successors. Benefits to employees include a greater sense of control over the transition from work to retirement, lowering the risk of economic insecurity, and more social support. The employer benefits by retaining valued talent and minimizing labor shortages. Career development comprises those personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a career plan. The personnel department may sponsor these actions or they may be activities that employees undertake independent of the department. That is career development may be organizational and individual career development. From an organizational career standpoint, career development involves tracking career paths. In contrast, individual career development focuses on assisting individuals to identify their major career goals and to determine what they need to do to attain these goals. Each person must accept responsibility for his own career; assess his own interests, skills and values and take the step required to ensure a happy and fulfilling career. It is unwise to leave these jobs to others. In the case of individual career development, the focus is entirely on the individual and includes his career outside the organization as well as inside. So while organizational career development looks at individuals filling the needs of the organization, individual career development addresses each individual’s personal work career irrespective of whether this work is performed. Career development begins with the individual. Each person must accept his responsibility for career development, or career progress is likely to suffer. The primary responsibility for career planning and development rests with the individual employee. The responsibility for career
  19. 19. development ultimately belongs to each individual. Once the personal commitment is made, several career development actions may prove useful. These actions involve: Job performance: Career progress rests largely upon performance. The most important action an individual can undertake to further his career is good job performance. When performance is substandard, regardless of other career development efforts, even modest career goals are usually unattainable. Individuals who perform poorly are disregarded quickly by the personnel department and by management decision- makers. Exposure: Career progress is furthered by exposure. Exposure means becoming known by those who decide on promotions, transfers, and other career opportunities. Without exposure, good performers may not get a chance at the opportunities needed to achieve their career goals. Managers gain exposure primarily through their performance, written reports, oral presentations, committee work, community service, and even the hours they work. Resignation: When an individual sees greater career opportunities elsewhere, a resignation may be the only way to meet his career goals. Some employees change employers as part of a conscious career strategy. Resigning in order to further one’s career with another employer has been called leveraging. Organizational loyalty: In many organizations, people put loyalty to their career above loyalty to their organization. Sometimes, employers try to buy this loyalty with high pay or benefits; other organizations try to build employee loyalty through good management treatment and effective human resource practices, including career planning and development. By offering careers, not just jobs, many organizations nurture a pool of talent that consistently allows them to staff senior management positions from among life-long employees. And many employees use their dedication and loyalty to the company as a career tactic. In Japan, employees tend to be very loyal to their employer because many firms will hire only entry-level workers. Mentors and sponsors: Mentoring has become a very popular concept. The idea is simple: an older, more experienced person helps a young person grow and advance by providing advice, support, and encouragement. Good teachers, coaches, parents and bosses- all take on some mentoring functions. A mentor is a teacher, an advisor, a sponsor, and a confidant. A mentor is
  20. 20. someone who offers informal career advice. If the mentor can nominate the employee for career development activities- such as training programs, transfers or promotions- then the mentor becomes a sponsor. A sponsor is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities for others. Often the employee’s sponsor is the immediate supervisor, although others may serve as nominators. Key subordinate: Successful managers rely on subordinates who aid the manager’s development and performance. The subordinates may possess highly specialized knowledge and skills that the manager may learn from them. Or the employee may perform a crucial role in helping a manager achieve good performance. In either case, employees of this type are key subordinates. They exhibit loyalty and dedication to their bosses. They gather and interpret information, offer skills that supplement those of their managers, and work unselfishly to further their manager’s careers. They benefit by also moving up the career ladder when the manager is promoted and by receiving important delegations that serve to develop their careers. These people complement personnel department objectives through their teamwork, motivation, and dedication. Growth opportunities: When employees expand their abilities, they complement the organization’s objectives. For example, enrolling in a training program, taking noncredit courses, pursuing an additional degree can contribute to employee growth. These growth opportunities aid both the personnel department’s objectives of developing internal replacements and the individual’s personal career plan. Membership in the private clubs and professional associations may also afford growth opportunities. Community service activities provide opportunities for growth and recognition. Contribute to an Employee's Career Development? Typical Scenario: You want to enhance an employee's skills to optimize performance and reinforce the employee's ability to take on broader responsibilities; or changes in your organization's functions require your staff to develop new skills. Principle: An important part of every manager's job is that of continuing the development of the people who work under his/her direction to ensure a productive workforce and the on-going ability to meet changing job
  21. 21. requirements. There is a clear strategic value in continuously training and developing employees in order to enhance the organization's ability to meet its mission and to increase the ability of employees to achieve rewarding careers within the organization. As a manager, you have several responsibilities in this area: analyzing organizational needs and identifying specific training requirements, developing training plans for the overall organization and individual employees within it, obtaining and allocating resources effectively to accomplish training needs and produce desired gains in organizational efficiency, and evaluating the impact of training efforts and making necessary adjustments to ensure maximum results. Where Do I Start? You should start your training effort by carefully thinking about the organization's strategic goals and objectives, your unit's goals and objectives, what work is to be performed, and the strengths and weaknesses of your staff. Then think carefully about the knowledge and skills needed to do the job. Knowing what a job requires and how well you want it done will give you data to make training decisions. You should also look at broad performance issues and opportunities needed to change or improve the organization and the individual employee's strength and growth opportunities. An individual "needs assessment" focuses on the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities required of each employee. (Individual needs should be viewed within the context of strategic goals of the organization in order to ensure professional growth and development of employees within established career paths.) Your servicing human resources office (SHRO) can direct you to resources to help you assess the individual training needs of your employees. Rules and Flexibilities: Managers must consider all employees fairly for training opportunities. Selection of employees for training must ensure that all employees are selected without regard to political preference, race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or handicapping condition, and with proper regard for their privacy and constitutional rights as provided by the Merit System Principles. Additionally, merit promotion procedures must be followed in selecting employees for training which is primarily to prepare trainees for advancement and which is not directly related to improving performance in their current positions. Managers have wide flexibility in the training area in choosing training sources, curricula, etc. Depending on your office budget, you can pay all or part of the costs associated with training, including registration fees, books, materials, etc., that will contribute to your office's mission. You should be aware, however, that training requests cannot be funded "after the fact" (after the course has begun). Basic Steps:  Determine training needs by forecasting the direction your organization will take in the next 2-5 years. Determine what skills will be required. Determine whether your employees possess the necessary skills to plan and implement programs and activities required by the anticipated direction.  To determine individual employee needs, examine the difference between projected necessary skills and current skills. You can also meet with employees to discuss career goals and determine what additional capabilities are required for career progression.  Once you've determined your training needs, you will have to decide how best to meet them.  Rather than relying solely on formal classroom training, you should explore all alternatives and select the most effective one. Alternatives include:  Workplace approaches - formal on-the-job training, mentoring, developmental assignments.  Some university programs offer financial assistance to Government employees (e.g., Cornell's School of Business and Wharton). Some programs last eight weeks, while others last up to two years. Some are part-time; some are full-time. Self-study approaches - self-paced instruction, correspondence courses and independent readings.
  22. 22.  Technology-based approaches - computer-based training or distance learning.  Formal classroom courses, seminars, conferences and workshops conducted by colleges and universities, private companies, contractors, Government agencies, professional and scientific organizations, and professional associations. In those cases where a training need exists for a number of employees, an on-site contract course may be the most cost- effective alternative.  Your SHRO can direct you to information on available training courses and seminars. Good Management Practices:  Be sure that training and career development are related to organizational needs or employee needs in the current position. Look for opportunities to provide career enhancement such as details, job rotations, etc., rather than relying solely on formal training.  Some offices require that you develop an annual Individual Development Plan (IDP) for each employee. When it is not required, it is strongly recommended that you develop an annual IDP for each employee. Your SHRO can assist you in the preparation of an IDP. It should be reviewed periodically during the Year to determine if any changes need to be made because of new priorities, changing budget situations or new organizational goals.  Once training is completed, it is critically important to assess the effect it has had on the organization and/or the employee's performance. You may want to set up a meeting with employees immediately after formal training to "debrief" them. Similarly, you might require a written summary report of what was accomplished or learned and how it will be applied on the job. Often the lessons learned can be passed to other employees in a summary form, thus extending the value of the training without additional cost. Checklist  Budget and plan for training and development efforts  Meet with employees and identify their needs and career goals  Identify most effective training resources  Develop Individual Development Plans (Optional)  Look for opportunities to provide career enhancement Abdul Halim and Md. Mozahar Ali Abdul Halim is a Professor in the Department of Agricultural Extension Education and Director of the Extension Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Md. Mozahar Ali is an Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension) in the Graduate Training Institute, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
  23. 23. Learning theories and training Training approach Extension personnel around the world in need of training Types of training Phases of training Implementation phase Evaluation phase References Training is the process of acquiring specific skills to perform a job better (Jucious, 1963). It helps people to become qualified and proficient in doing some jobs (Dahama, 1979). Usually an organization facilitates the employees' learning through training so that their modified behaviour contributes to the attainment of the organization's goals and objectives. Van Dersal (1962) defined training as the process of teaching, informing, or educating people so that (1) they may become as well qualified as possible to do their job, and (2) they become qualified to perform in positions of greater difficulty and responsibility. Flippo (1961) differentiated between education and training, locating these at the two ends of a continuum of personnel development ranging from a general education to specific training. While training is concerned with those activities which are designed to improve human performance on the job that employees are at present doing or are being hired to do, education is concerned with increasing general knowledge and understanding of the total environment. Education is the development of the human mind, and it increases the powers of observation, analysis, integration, understanding, decision making, and adjustment to new situations. Learning theories and training Learning theories are the basic materials which are usually applied in all educational and training activities. The more one understands learning theories, the better he or she will be able to make decisions and apply them to achieving the objectives. The behaviourists, the cognitivists, and the humanists emphasize different aspects of the teaching-learning process in their approaches. While the behaviourists stress external conditions (environment) resulting in observations and measurable changes in behaviour, the cognitivists are more concerned with how the mind works (mental processes such as coding, categorizing, and representing information in memory). The humanists, on the other hand, emphasize the affective aspects (e.g., emotions, attitudes) of human behaviour that influence learning (IRRI, 1990). In extension systems, effective training must be able to take care of all the theories of learning in order to change the action, belief, and knowledge components of a trainee simultaneously. Andragogy (a theory of adult learning) is usually used rather than pedagogy (a theory of child learning) in extension training. Training approach There are three approaches to training: (1) the traditional approach, (2) the experiential approach, and (3) the performance-based approach (Rama, Etling, & Bowen, 1993). In the traditional approach, the training staff designs the objectives, contents, teaching techniques,
  24. 24. assignments, lesson plans, motivation, tests, and evaluation. The focus in this model is intervention by the training staff. In the experiential approach, the trainer incorporates experiences where in the learner becomes active and influences the training process. Unlike the academic approach inherent in the traditional model, experiential training emphasizes real or simulated situations in which the trainees will eventually operate. In this model, the objectives and other elements of training are jointly determined by the trainers and trainees. Trainers primarily serve as facilitators, catalysts, or resource persons. In the performance-based approach to training, goals are measured through attainment of a given level of proficiency instead of passing grades of the trainees. Emphasis is given to acquiring specific observable skills for a task. This performance-based teacher education (PBTE) model, developed by Elam (1971), is mostly task or skill centred and is also applicable to nonformal educational organizations such as extension. Extension personnel around the world in need of training Worldwide, there are currently more than 600,000 extension workers comprised of administrative staff, subject-matter specialists (SMS), fieldworkers, and some multipurpose unidentified people; the Asian and Pacific countries have absorbed more than 70 per cent of them (Bahal, Swanson, & Earner, 1992). The percentage of extension personnel by position, as reported by Swanson, Earner, and Bahal (1990), was 7 per cent administrative, 14 per cent SMS, and 79 per cent field staff, with regional differences. Almost 13 per cent of extension workers are women, with significant regional differences (Bahal et al., 1992). The ratio of SMS to field staff is also low in Asia, Africa, the Near East, and Latin American countries, varying from about 1:11 to 1:14. The ratio for countries of Europe and North America varies from 1:1.5 to 1:1.6. The worldwide ratio of SMS to field staff is 1:11.5 (Swanson et al., 1990). Deficiencies in knowledge, skills, and ability among extension personnel, particularly those of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are remarkable. About 39 per cent of the extension personnel worldwide have a secondary-level and 33 per cent an intermediate-level education (Bahal et al., 1992). Moreover, within each region, there is a lot of variation in basic academic qualifications of the frontline extension workers, SMS, and administrators. Differences in training received are also wide. In Africa, most frontline extension workers still have only a secondary school diploma (Bahal et al., 1992). The poor educational background of extension personnel necessitates regular training. Types of training Training may broadly be categorized into two types: preservice training and inservice training. Preservice training is more academic in nature and is offered by formal institutions following definite curricula and syllabuses for a certain duration to offer a formal degree or diploma. Inservice training, on the other hand, is offered by the organization from time to time for the development of skills and knowledge of the incumbents. Preservice Training Preservice training is a process through which individuals are made ready to enter a certain kind of professional job such as agriculture, medicine, or engineering. They have to attend regular classes in a formal institution and need to complete a definite curriculum and courses successfully to receive a formal degree or diploma. They are not entitled to get a professional
  25. 25. job unless they can earn a certificate, diploma, or degree from the appropriate institution. Preservice training contents emphasize mostly technical subject matter such as crops, animal husbandry, and fisheries as well as pedagogical skills to prepare the students to work in agriculture. In general two types of preservice training are available for agricultural staff. These are (1) degree level (at least a bachelor's degree in agriculture or related field), which is usually offered for four years by a university or agricultural college; and (2) diploma level, which is mostly offered by the schools of agriculture for a period of two to three years. The entry point for the former is normally twelve years of schooling and for the latter ten years of schooling. Inservice Training and Staff Development Inservice training is a process of staff development for the purpose of improving the performance of an incumbent holding a position with assigned job responsibilities. It promotes the professional growth of individuals. "It is a program designed to strengthen the competencies of extension workers while they are on the job" (Malone, 1984, p. 209). Inservice training is a problem-centred, learner-oriented, and time-bound series of activities which provide the opportunity to develop a sense of purpose, broaden perception of the clientele, and increase capacity to gain knowledge and mastery of techniques. Inservice training may broadly be categorized into five different types: (1) induction or orientation training, (2) foundation training, (3) on-the-job training, (4) refresher or maintenance training, and (5) career development training. All of these types of training are needed for the proper development of extension staff throughout their service life. Induction or Orientation Training. Induction training is given immediately after employment to introduce the new extension staff members to their positions. It begins on the first day the new employee is on the job (Rogers & Olmsted, 1957). This type of training is aimed at acquainting the new employee with the organization and its personnel. Induction training for all new personnel should develop an attitude of personal dedication to the service of people and the organization. This kind of training supplements whatever preservice training the new personnel might have had (Halim and Ali, 1988). Concerning the characteristics of a new employee. Van Dersal (1962) said that when people start to work in an organization for the first time, they are eager to know what sort of outfit they are getting into, what they are supposed to do, and whom they will work with. They are likely to be more attentive and open-minded than experienced employees. In fact, the most favourable time for gaining employees' attention and for moulding good habits among them is when they are new to the job. Foundation Training. Foundation training is inservice training which is also appropriate for newly recruited personnel. Besides technical competence and routine instruction about the organization, every staff member needs some professional knowledge about various rules and regulations of the government, financial transactions, administrative capability, communication skills, leadership ability, coordination and cooperation among institutions and their linkage mechanism, report writing, and so on. Foundation training is made available to employees to strengthen the foundation of their service career. This training is usually provided at an early stage of service life. Maintenance or Refresher Training. This training is offered to update and maintain the specialized subject-matter knowledge of the incumbents. Refresher training keeps the
  26. 26. specialists, administrators, subject-matter officers, extension supervisors, and frontline workers updated and enables them to add to the knowledge and skills they have already. Maintenance or refresher training usually deals with new information and new methods, as well as review of older materials. This type of training is needed both to keep employees at the peak of their possible production and to prevent them from getting into a rut (Van Dersal, 1962). On-the-Job Training. This is ad hoc or regularly scheduled training, such as fortnightly training under the training and visit (T&V) system of extension, and is provided by the superior officer or the subject-matter specialists to the subordinate field staff. This training is generally problem or technology oriented and may include formal presentations, informal discussion, and opportunities to try out new skills and knowledge in the field. The superior officer, administrator, or subject-matter specialist of each extension department must play a role in providing on-the- job training to the staff while conducting day-to-day normal activities. Career or Development Training. This type of in-service training is designed to upgrade the knowledge, skills, and ability of employees to help them assume greater responsibility in higher positions. The training is arranged departmentally for successful extension workers, at all levels, for their own continuing education and professional development. Malone (1984) opined that extension services that provide the opportunity for all staff to prepare a plan for career training will receive the benefits of having longer tenured and more satisfied employees, which increases both the effectiveness and efficiency of an extension service. Malone stated that "career development is the act of acquiring information and resources that enables one to plan a program of lifelong learning related to his or her worklife" (p. 216). Although extension workers are responsible for designing their own career development education, the extension organization sometimes sets some criteria and provides opportunities for the staff by offering options. Phases of training Training is a circular process that begins with needs identification and after a number of steps ends with evaluation of the training activity. A change or deficiency in any step of the training process affects the whole system, and therefore it is important for a trainer to have a clear understanding about all phases and steps of the training process. In the broadest view, there are three phases of a training process: planning, implementation, and evaluation. Planning Phase The planning phase encompasses several activities, two of which - training needs identification and curriculum development - are very important. Training Needs Identification. Training need is a condition where there is a gap between "what is" and "what should be" in terms of incumbents' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviour for a particular situation at one point in time. This gap is called "a problem," which usually occurs when a difference exists between "desired performance" and "actual performance." The needs identification process assists trainers in making sure that they have matched a training programme to a training problem. For example, agricultural extension officers (AEOs) have been giving training to village extension workers (VEWs), but performance of the VEWs is not improving. The reasons may be:
  27. 27. 1. The AEOs lack subject-matter knowledge. 2. The AEOs do not conduct training well. 3. The training centre lacks training facilities. 4. The VEWs are organized not to work properly until their demands are satisfied by the government. The first two problems are related to knowledge and skills and can be solved effectively by a training programme, but the third and fourth problems need government attention to solve. Training needs identification is possible through different analytical procedures. The major procedures used in determining training needs are the following: Organizational analysis determines where training emphasis should be placed within the organization and is based on the objectives of an organization. Concerning what one should do in analysing an organization, McGhee and Thayer (1961) suggest four steps: 1. Stating the goals and objectives of an organization 2. Analysing the human resources 3. Analysing efficiency indices 4. Analysing the organizational climate The results of these analyses are then compared with the objectives of the organization. These comparisons point to specific areas in which training is needed. Individual analysis aims at identifying specific training needs for an individual or group of employees so that training can be tailored to their needs. This analysis centres on individuals and their specific needs concerning the skills, knowledge, or attitudes they must develop to perform their assigned tasks. The possible methods or techniques for individual analysis include performance appraisal, interviews, questionnaires, tests, analysis of behaviour, informal talks, checklist, counseling, critical incidents, recording, surveys, and observations. Group analysis includes a number of techniques in which a group of well-informed employees discuss different aspects of the organization, the employees, and the tasks to identify the major discrepancies in achieving predetermined targets for each of them with a view to assessing training needs as distinguished from other necessary changes for removing these discrepancies. The major techniques which are used in this approach are brainstorming, buzzing, cardsorts, advisory committee, conferences, problem clinic, role playing, simulation, task forces, workshops, and so forth. Many problems exist in an organization, but some problems cannot be solved by training. After a preliminary needs analysis, which gives probable causes and solutions, the results should be verified with the concerned personnel of the organization to determine whether training is an appropriate action to solve that problem. Curriculum Development. This is the most important part in a training programme after a need for training has been identified. The curriculum specifies what will be taught and how it will be taught. It provides the framework and foundation of training. The first phase of curriculum development determines what will be taught, that is, the training content.
  28. 28. Once training needs have been identified and training activities have been decided as part of the solution, a needs analysis should be done to determine knowledge, skills, and attitude requirements and performance deficiencies. The needs analysis procedure involves breaking down the "training problem" into its basic parts in different successive phases to identify and understand the important components in each phase. Ultimately it leads to identifying and understanding the training content. The training needs analysis process can be divided into three distinct analytical phases: job analysis, task analysis, and knowledge and skill-gap analysis. A. Job analysis. Job analysis is a method of determining major areas of tasks where training may be needed (see JA Worksheet). It involves the dissecting of a job into its component events or parts. This analysis allows a trainer to better understand what an employee does in an organization. Job analysis involves the "task identification" of a particular job (Wentling, 1992). The techniques used in task identification include job questionnaire, interview, participant observation, work sampling, job audit, and small-group discussion. The following steps may provide a guide for completion of job analysis: 1. Identify the job that is to be the subject of the analysis. This involves defining the focal point for the job analysis. It may include the entire job of a group of employees or only a specific segment of their job. 2. Prepare a list of tasks which can be done following different approaches and methods. Four approaches can be used to identify job tasks: (1) expertsidentify and list critical tasks, (2) observations and interviews are conducted with employees, (3) meetings are held with group representatives, and (4) a tentative list of task is reviewed by employees and their supervisors. 3. Verify the tasks. The draft list of tasks should be verified by experts, workers, and supervisors in the analysis process. This can be done through expert review, small-group discussions, and inter views. When the tasks are verified, a final list of job tasks is prepared. 4. Determine the frequency. The workers and super visors can fill in a form indicating how frequently each task in a job is performed. Different scales such as "seldom," "occasionally," "weekly to monthly," "daily to weekly," and "daily" can be used to quantify the intensity of a task accomplished. 5. Determine the importance. Not all tasks are equally important to a job. An occasionally performed task may be very important. Therefore, a relative importance rating is useful along with frequency rating. A scale such as "marginally important," "moderately important," and "extremely important" may be used to determine the relative importance of the job tasks. 6. Estimate the learning difficulty. An estimate of learning difficulty is another dimension of the job-task analysis. It shows the trainer the employees' perception of difficulty, which may be different from the trainer's own perception. A scale such as "easy," "moderately difficult," "very difficult," and "extremely difficult" may be used to determine the difficulty indices of job tasks. 7. Calculate the total score. This can be done by simply adding the scores for frequency, importance, and learning difficulty for each task. The column for total score in a worksheet indicates the priority tasks for training if these are training problems.
  29. 29. 8. Review the findings. The results of the job-task analysis should be discussed with significant people in the training system, including government leaders, programme directors, and others interested in related training. B. Task analysis. The output of the job analysis is a list of broad job tasks, based on importance, learning difficulty, and frequency of doing the task. Each task is a complex set of procedures in itself, and therefore it needs further analysis to find out which specific segment of the of the task is critical in designing a training programme (see Task Analysis Worksheet). To do this, it is necessary to follow a method called task analysis, which is similar to job analysis. Task analysis procedures include preparing a blank task analysis worksheet, writing down the name of the job at the top of each sheet, and then making copies. Each of these forms will be used for breaking down and analysing each of the most important job tasks. Therefore, it is necessary to write one important task identified for training on each of the task analysis worksheets and to list all component parts of each task on its respective task analysis worksheet. This is followed by the steps used for job analysis to find out the frequency, importance, and learning difficulty for each step of the tasks. Then the score for each component part is put in the "total score" column, and the results are discussed with concerned personnel in the organization. The job analysis and task analysis processes are similar to each other, so the model for both worksheets is the same. The important difference between these two steps of analysis is that "the job analysis helps us identify major blocks of content to include in training; the task analysis helps us understand what comprises an individual block" (Wentling, 1992). Both are very important to the curriculum development process. What needs to be taught and what steps are involved in the process are completed by these analyses and comprise the major steps in curriculum development. C. Knowledge and skill-gap analysis. The knowledge or skill-gap analysis is a process of determining the training needs of individual employees in relation to the important tasks-steps or components of tasks identified for training (see Skill-Gap Analysis Worksheet). The skill-gap analysis determines how skilled or proficient individual employees are on these tasks-steps or components, how much individuals differ from desired performance, and whether or not they need training. It would be a waste of resources and frustrating to the trainer and trainees to design and deliver training on topics and skills where the trainees are already able and proficient. A priority list of the tasks identified for training according to the total score in the job analysis is made. Then, the steps or components that were identified on each task analysis worksheet are listed on the skill-gap analysis worksheet. This is followed by rating each step- component in terms of the trainee's current proficiency on a scale of 1 to 5, as shown in the legend of the worksheet. Identifying the steps-components that appear to have low proficiency is required because there is a gap between what is desired and the current situation. After this, a review is done to ponder whether the gap can be decreased or removed through training or whether training is the most appropriate method. There may be some steps-components for which measures other than training are more appropriate. At this stage, key personnel such as subject-matter specialists, supervisors, and extension-training experts should discuss the findings before finalizing the curriculum. This helps to identify different perspectives and to avoid unnoticed mistakes or biases in curriculum development. The training needs analyses provide many things to a trainer. The analyses determine the training contents and how deficient the trainees are in these contents, and the sequence of tasks provides the sequence of training activity.
  30. 30. Job Analysis Worksheet Job: Agriculture Extension Officer Tasks: Frequency performeda Importanceb Learning difficultyb Total score Focus 1. Supervision 4 3 1 8 ... 2. Conducting training 4 3 3 10 yes 3. Planning programmes 2 3 2 7 ... 4. Research trial 2 2 1 5 ... ......... ... ... ... ... ... ......... ... ... ... ... ... ......... ... ... ... ... ... a 1 = Seldom b 1 = Marginally important c 1 = Easy 2 = Occasionally 2 = Moderately important 2 = Moderately difficult 3 = Weekly to monthly 3 = Extremely important 3 = Very difficult 4 = Daily to weekly 4 = Extremely difficult 5 = Daily Task Analysis Worksheet Job: Agriculture Extension Officer Task: Conducting training Components/steps Frequency Performeda Importanceb Difficultyc Learning Score Total Focus Establishing rapport 5 3 1 9 - Introducing the topic - - - - - Presenting the subject 5 3 1 9 - Maintaining sequence - - - - - Maintaining eye contact - - - - - Using A/V aids in time 5 3 4 12 yes - - - - - - - - Summarizing the lecture 5 3 3 11 yes a 1 = Seldom b 1 = Marginally important c 1 = Easy 2 = Moderately important 2 = Moderately important 2 = Moderately difficult 3 = Weekly to monthly 3 = Extremely important 3 = Very difficult 4 = Daily to weekly 4 = Extremely difficult 5 = Daily Skill-Gap Analysis Worksheet Job: Agriculture Extension Officer Task: Delivering lecture in VEWs training Steps-components Level of proficiency Is proficiency a problem? Can problem be solved by training? Establishing rapport 1 2 3 (4) 5 [ ] [ ] Introducing the topic 1 2 (3) 4 5 [Y] [Y]
  31. 31. Presenting the subject 1 2 3 (4) 5 [ ] [ ] Maintaining sequence 1 2 (3) 4 5 [ ] [ ] Maintaining eye contact 1 (2) 3 4 5 [Y] [Y] Using A/V aids in time 1 (2) 3 4 5 [ ] [ ] Supplying handouts 1 2 (3) 4 5 [Y] [N] ......... 1 2 3 4 5 [ ] [ ] Summarizing the lecture (1) 2 3 4 5 [Y] [Y] 1 = Cannot do at all 2 = Can do less than half of the task 3 = Can do more than half but less than total 4 = Can do total but cannot maintain time schedule 5 = Can do within time schedule Selecting a Training Method A training programme has a better chance of success when its training methods are carefully selected. A training method is a strategy or tactic that a trainer uses to deliver the content so that the trainees achieve the objective (Wentling, 1992). Selecting an appropriate training method is perhaps the most important step in training activity once the training contents are identified. There are many training methods, but not all of these are equally suitable for all topics and in all situations. To achieve the training objective, a trainer should select the most appropriate training method for the content to involve the trainees in the learning process. Four major factors are considered when selecting a training method: the learning objective, the content, the trainees, and the practical requirements (Wentling, 1992). According to Bass and Vaughan (1966), training methods should be selected on the basis of the degree to which they do the following: 1. Allow active participation of the learners. 2. Help the learners transfer learning experiences from training to the job situation. 3. Provide the learners with knowledge of results about their attempts to improve. 4. Provide some means for the learners to be reinforced for the appropriate behaviour. 5. Provide the learners with an opportunity to practise and to repeat when needed. 6. Motivate the learners to improve their own performance. 7. Help learners increase their willingness to change. These criteria indicate that a single training method will not satisfy the objectives of a training programme. A variety of training methods are available to a trainer. The most commonly used methods include: 1. Instructor presentation. The trainer orally presents new information to the trainees, usually through lecture. Instructor presentation may include classroom lecture, seminar, workshop, and the like.
  32. 32. 2. Group discussion. The trainer leads the group of trainees in discussing a topic. 3. Demonstration. The trainer shows the correct steps for completing a task, or shows an example of a correctly completed task. 4. Assigned reading. The trainer gives the trainees reading assignments that provide new information. 5. Exercise. The trainer assigns problems to be solved either on paper or in real situations related to the topic of the training activity. 6. Case study. The trainer gives the trainees information about a situation and directs them to come to a decision or solve a problem concerning the situation. 7. Role play. Trainees act out a real-life situation in an instructional setting. 8. Field visit and study tour. Trainees are given the opportunity to observe and interact with the problem being solved or skill being learned. Implementation phase Once the planning phase of a training programme is complete, then it is time to implement the course. Implementation is the point where a trainer activates the training plan, or it is the process of putting a training programme into operation. The first step towards implementing a training programme is publicity. Most of the well- established training centres develop training brochures which contain course descriptions, prepare an annual calendar of training opportunities, and inform concerned organizations, agencies, or departments well ahead of time about their training plans. Once the training centre and concerned organizations agree to implement training, the next step is to arrange available resources such as sufficient funds for the course and facilities for food, lodging, transportation, and recreation. All these resources need to be well managed and coordinated to run the programme smoothly. Evaluation phase Evaluation is a process to determine the relevance, effectiveness, and impact of activities in light of their objectives. In evaluating an extension training programme, one needs to consider that most training activities exist in a larger context of projects, programmes, and plans. Thus Raab et al. (1987, p. 5) define training evaluation as "a systematic process of collecting information for and about a training activity which can then be used for guiding decision making and for assessing the relevance and effectiveness of various training components." Kirkpatrick (1976) suggested four criteria to evaluate training programmes: (1) reaction, (2) learning, (3) behaviour, and (4) results. Each criterion is used to measure the different aspects of a training programme. Reaction measures how the trainees liked the programme in terms of content, methods, duration, trainers, facilities, and management. Learning measures the trainees' skills and knowledge which they were able to absorb at the time of training. Behaviour
  33. 33. is concerned with the extent to which the trainees were able to apply their knowledge to real field situations. Results are concerned with the tangible impact of the training programme on individuals, their job environment, or the organization as a whole. Types of Evaluation On the basis of the time dimension, evaluation may be classified as (1) formative evaluation and (2) summative evaluation. Formative evaluation involves the collection of relevant and useful data while the training programme is being conducted. This information can identify the drawbacks and unintended outcomes and is helpful in revising the plan and structure of training programmes to suit the needs of the situation. Summative evaluation is done at the end of the programme and makes an overall assessment of its effectiveness in relation to achieving the objectives and goals. Raab et al. (1987), however, classified evaluation into four major types: (1) evaluation for planning, (2) process evaluation, (3) terminal evaluation, and (4) impact evaluation. Evaluation for planning provides information with which planning decisions are made. Training contents and procedures (methods and materials) are usually planned at this stage in order to choose or guide the development of instructional aids and strategies. Process evaluation is conducted to detect or predict defects in the procedural design of a training activity during the implementation phase (Raab et al., 1987). Through this process the key elements of the training activities are systematically monitored, problems are identified, and attempts are made to rectify the mistakes before they become serious. Process evaluation is periodically conducted throughout the entire period of the programme. Terminal evaluation is conducted to find out the effectiveness of a training programme after it is completed. The objectives of terminal evaluation are to determine the degree to which desired benefits and goals have been achieved, along with the causes of failure, if any. Impact evaluation assesses changes in on-the-job behaviour as a result of training efforts. It provides feedback from the trainees and supervisors about the outcomes of training. It measures how appropriate the training was in changing the behaviour of participants in real-life situations. References Bahal, R., Swanson, B. E., & Farner, B. J. (1992). Human resources in agricultural extension: A worldwide analysis. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 28 (3, 4), 1-9. Bass, B. M., & Vaughan, J. A. (1966). Training in industry: The management of learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Dahama, O. P. (1979). Extension and rural welfare. New Delhi: Ram Parsad and Sons. Elam, S. (1971). Performance based teacher education: What is the state of the art. Washington, DC: AACTE. Flippo, E. B. (1961). Principles of personnel management. New York: McGraw Hill.
  34. 34. Halim, A., & Ali, M. M. (1988). Administration and management of training programmes. Bangladesh Journal of Training and Development, 1 (2), 1-19. IRRI. (1990). Training and technology transfer course performance objectives manual. Manila: International Rice Research Institute. Jucious, M. J. (1963). Personnel management (5th ed.). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin. Kirkpatrick, D. (1976). Evaluation Management and supervisory development involves the training of managers and supervisors in basic leadership skills, enabling them to effectively function in their positions. For managers, training initiatives are focused on providing them with the tools to balance the effective management of their employee resources with the strategies and goals of the organization. Managers learn to develop their employees effectively by helping employees learn and change, as well as by identifying and preparing them for future responsibilities. Management development may also include programs for developing decision-making skills, creating and managing successful work teams, allocating resources effectively, budgeting, business planning, and goal setting. C h a p t e r 1 0 C a r e e r P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Learning Objectives • Understand the importance of career planning and development. • Identify the responsibility for career planning and development. • Discuss the HR department’s role in career planning and development. • Discuss some of the major factors contributing to successful career development. • Understand the preparation desirable for a career in HRM. Chapter outline Chapter 10 is divided into three main sections. Section one discusses the importance of career planning anddevelopment in today’s rapidly changing business environment. The second section extends the ideas presented in the first section and examines the relationship between HR planning and career planning anddevelopment. It central focus is issues that are important for the development and maintenance of careers in businesses today. The final section,
  35. 35. section three, presents a number of factors that should be considered by people considering Human Resource Management as a career. Importance of career planning and development Until recently, employees could join an organisation fully expecting to stay with it for their entire career. Now, life-long careers are a thing of the past. Some naive employees still feel that they are immune to theongoing reductions because they are doing good work and adding value to the organisation. However,increasing competition, rapid technological change, relentless restructuring and downsizing mean that high performance no longer protects employees from dismissal. People increasingly will move from opportunity to opportunity without regard for traditional job boundaries. Some experts predict that soon full-time careers will no longer be the norm. Realistic career planning forces employees to be proactive and to anticipate problems and opportunities. It does this by making them establish and examine their career objectives. Career planning and development involves two processes — career planning (employee centered) and career management (organization centered). Career management is integral to HR planning, but HR planning and/or career management does not exist or are not integrated in some organizations. Ideally, career planning and development should be seen as a process that aligns the interests and skills of employees with the needs of the organization. This means that careers must be managed strategically so the skills demanded by the organization’s strategic business objectives are understood and a work force with a matching profile of skills is developed. Career planning and development play a major part in ensuring that the organization has a competitive and knowledgeable work force. HR planning and career planning and development Employees and organizations are paying more attention to career planning and development because: Employees are increasingly concerned about their quality of life There is EEO legislation and AA pressures Educational levels and employee aspirations are rising Workers are making the transition from vertical careers to lateral careers Organizations have an increasing sense of obligation to employees. ‘The most valuable thing that a business can give its members,’ says Handy, ‘is no longer employment but employability, the security of a saleable skill. Shortages of skilled workers are producing a global talent war. HR department’s responsibility
  36. 36. Proactive HR managers recognize the importance of career planning and development in satisfying individual and organizational needs. If the HR department is fully aware of the organization’s future HR needs, career chances and training and development opportunities, then it is well placed to promote career planning among employees. Factorsincareerdevelopment Individual employees must accept the responsibility for their own career development. Failure to do so will prevent smooth and optimal career progression. Factors that are important to successful career development and growth include: Performance - Employees who perform badly are rarely considered for training and development opportunities, international assignments or promotion. Exposure - If an employee is to succeed, he or she must become known to senior management. Employees can become known to the organization’s decision makers through superior performance, report writing, presentations,; and involvement in company training and development programs and social activities. Qualifications - US research indicates that a strong correlation exists between graduate earnings and the quality of the university they attended. Employer reputation - Some organizations have a ‘star’ reputation as breeding grounds for high- potential employees. Consequently, getting a job with the right company can be an important factor in career success and long-term employability. Nepotism - Thirty per cent of publicly listed companies in Hong Kong have boards of directors on which half or more of the executive directors are related as family members .Mentor-Successfulmanagersusuallyhaveamentororsponsorwhohelpsadvancetheir careerbyofferingadvice,givinginstructionandopeningupcareeropportunities. Benefitsof mentoring • The protégé, by developing more skills and self-confidence, performs better and provides longer service to the organization. • Mentoring, by identifying talent, helps companies encourage and capitalize on diversity. • Mentoring provides a structure for the growth and development of all employees.
  37. 37. • Mentoring helps inculcate corporate values. • Mentoring improves employee job satisfaction and motivation. • Mentors can buffer women from discrimination and help them overcome gender-related barriers to advancement. Unfortunately women and minorities often find themselves excluded from mentoring relationships. This is because mentoring is frequently based on personal relationships built up outside working hours. Ingratiation - Ingratiation may be an effective career strategy, especially when associated with competence . Development - Ongoing expansion of skills and knowledge makes an employee more valuable and, therefore, more attractive to the organization . International experience - International experience is increasingly a key to career success (particularly for those aspiring to top management). Language skills - The internationalization of business and the development of global business centers demand that fast-track managers possess not only good English skills but competency in a second (or third) language. Computer and Keyboard skills - To have a competitive advantage, computer literacy is a must. High skilled employees must be “technology capable”. Networking - It is extremely important for an employee to build a network of contacts who are likely to be useful to his or her career development. Goal setting - ‘Successful career planners are self-motivated, self- starters who are hard- working, and most important of all, goal directed. They have established what goals they want to achieve and how to go about it’ . Financial PlanningSkills - Today savvy employees know there are no lifelong employment guarantees. Golf - Golf is at the center of business, especially in Asia where most major business deals are concluded on the golf course. The golf course is now called
  38. 38. the boardroom of the new millennium because business discussions that start on the golf course often end up in the boardroom . Appearance - There is ample evidence to indicate that appearance plays an important role in compensation and career success. Career plateau A career plateau refers to that point in an employee’s career at which the probability of an additional promotion is minimal. When this happens, employees find themselves blocked and unable to achieve further advancement. If an employee is to avoid plateauing, it is critical that he or she have the ability to adapt and develop in the face of change or transition. Employees are now ‘reaching plateaus earlier in their careers than did their predecessors — and far earlier than their own expectations — [so] it is important for organizations and individuals to prepare to cope with the phenomenon successfully, particularly when the signs of an impending plateau are observed’. The risk of obsolescence is less if organizations accept responsibility for employee development and if employees are prepared to invest time in their development. Dual careers As more women enter the work force, HR managers must develop specific policies and programs designed to accommodate the dual career aspirations of employees and their spouses. HR managers must be particularly alert to the implications of an employed spou se when providing career counseling to an employee. Dual career couples need to be flexible, to be mutually committed to both careers, to adopt coping mechanisms (such as clearly separating work and non-work roles) and to develop the skills of career planning. Organizations, in turn, can provide flexible work schedules, counseling, effective career management, child care and support with transfers and relocations. Work-family conflict Work family conflict is evidenced by the dual-income family and the single-parent family. People today are f a c e d wi t h p r o b l e ms o f r e d e f i n i n g wh a t i s me a n t b y s u c c e s s a n d h o w t o b a l a n c e wo r k a n d f a mi l y. Particularly for women, the integration of work and family responsibilities can be difficult because job demands compete with the traditional family demands of being mother, wife and housekeeper. Men who place family first also face a problem with companies and co- workers. Family-responsive policies such as provision of child care or assistance with child-care expenses and the introduction of
  39. 39. flexible work schedules, part-time work, homework, job sharing and flexible leave provisions not only help but result in increased employee commitment. Outplacement Outplacement is a special type of counseling designed to help a terminated employee locate a new career. S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d b y o u t p l a c e me n t c o n s u l t a n t s v a r y b u t g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e : a d v i c e o n t e r mi n a t i o n procedures; career evaluation; psychological appraisal; interview training; résumé preparation; job search techniques, and the provision of office and secretarial services Careers in human resource management Those contemplating a career in HRM need to think carefully about their career objectives and how they plan to achieve them. HRM offers many exciting opportunities but also has its limitations. Few HRM practitioners, for example, become managing directors or achieve the same status and income as their counterparts in line management. To enhance personal satisfaction and professional success, individuals should thoroughly assess their own needs and expectations, and gather as much information as they can about HR work, career paths, opportunities, rewards and so on. Job variety - Job opportunities exist for both generalists and specialists in HRM. Remuneration - Remuneration for HRM employees has lagged behind that paid to employees in functions such as finance and marketing; Australian and US data suggest that the median earnings of full-time HR professionals are in decline and that male HR professionals, on average, still earn more than their female counterparts. However, as HRM moves away from its traditional status of cost Centre to that of profit contributor and strategic business partner, the magnitude of the monetary differential is reducing (particularly in banking and financial services and hi-tech companies). Working conditions - HR departments are frequented by applicants, employees, union officials, government inspectors and visitors, so they need to present a favorable image of the organization as a place of employment. Consequently, most HR offices tend to be clean and pleasant places in which to work. Career preparation — education -
  40. 40. Some people work in HRM without academic qualifications, but it is evident that the increasing demands by employers for professional competence and know-how make tertiary education essential. Career preparation — competencies - Ulrich argues that the HR manager of the future should be a strategic business partner, an administrative expert, a champion for employees and a change agent. This, says Ulrich, demands competence in knowledge of the business, knowledge of HR, change management, and credibility 5 Career preparation — experience - Probably the most beneficial entry to HRM is from a line management function such as marketing. This enables the individual to better understand the problems faced by line managers and to appreciate the importance of bottom-line impact. It also promotes flexibility and provides increased career opportunities outside HRM. Accreditation - Admission to the AHRI is open to graduates and non-graduates . HRM as a profession - Whether or not HRM is a profession has long been debated. What is not questioned is or not that HR managers should be ‘professional’ in terms of their qualifications and performance . Professional associations - The professional association with the largest membership is the AHRI . Summary Increasing competition, accelerating change and relentless restructuring have made career planning and development critical for both organizations and employees. Effective career planning is essential for employees if they are to fully achieve their career objectives. Organizations, in turn, must realize a better match between employee career aspirations and job opportunities to obtain the supply of qualified human resources needed to achieve strategic organizational objectives. A l t h o u g h s o me H R d e p a r t me n t s p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e v i a i n f o r ma t i o n a n d c o u n s e l i n g , t h e p r i me responsibility for career planning is with the employee. Important factors contributing to

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