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Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
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Problems and issues in distance education by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab

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  • 1. Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab 1
  • 2. WELCOME BY Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab 2
  • 3. Problems and Issues in Distance Education
  • 4. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENTATION   To define the terms ‘Problem’ and ‘Issue’ To explain the problems of Distance Education by focusing on:        Quality Of Instruction Cost Effectiveness Misuse Of Technology The Role Of Technicians Problems With Equipment Attitudes Towards Distance Learning Instructor Concerns Student Concerns
  • 5. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENTATION  To explain the issues of Distance Education by converging on: Technological Literacy - Including Computer Literacy  Program Evaluation and Accreditation  Losing the Content in the Technology  Alienating Instructors  Non-Native Language Instruction  Institutional Support for Distance Learners Increasing Regional Focus Copyright Issues  
  • 6. ‘PROBLEM’ & ‘ISSUE’ DEFINED Problem   A doubtful or difficult material requiring a solution Something hard to understand or accomplish or deal with Issue   A point in question An important subject of debate (The Australian Oxford Dictionary, 2004)
  • 7. PROBLEMS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab 7
  • 8. QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION     Depends on the attitude of the administration and the instructors Administration’s belief that the technology itself will improve the quality of the class Issue is not technology itself, but how it is used in the design and delivery of courses Instructor’s understanding of the needs of the students, and an understanding of the target population is required (Omoregie, 1997)
  • 9. QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION  Decision makers view distance programs as second rate, a “necessary but deficient form of education”  Academic departments have no strong mandates to adjust their curriculum and instruction to fit distance learning beyond cursory cooperation  Off campus instructors to be “a demoralized bunch, perceiving poor working conditions, isolation, personal and professional deprivation”  Administration and instructors lack in true commitment which is bound to have a negative influence on the entire distance learning experience (Sherritt, 1996)
  • 10. COST EFFECTIVENESS  Potential cost-effectiveness of using online technologies in distance education is uncertain Phelps (1991)  A program may be efficient but not cost effective if the outputs do not contribute to the program objectives Atkinson (1983)  Cost of online courses is considerably more expensive, if implemented as a primary teaching medium instead of an enhancement Caffarella (1992)
  • 11. COST EFFECTIVENESS  Live instruction with the instructor traveling to the remote site can compress the class into fewer weeks, is one-third the cost of any other alternative  The startup costs, maintenance costs, and personnel costs be factored in to arrive at a true cost for a distance-learning program (Carr, 2001)  The costs associated with training technicians and instructors should not be overlooked, the staff delivering the instruction should be well trained
  • 12. MISUSE OF TECHNOLOGY      The possibility of not utilizing all its potential Problems arise from a lack of training, some from the instructor’s attitudes about using the technology, and still others by hardware problems Administration may feel that the technology itself will improve the course The best distance education practices depend on creative, well-informed instructors (Greenberg,1998) Instructors must be trained not only to use technology, but also to shift the way in which they organize and deliver material (Palloff & Pratt, 2000)
  • 13. THE ROLE OF TECHNICIANS     Technicians can indirectly influence the learning environment by “orientating participants to the technology, reducing the anxiety of the participants” (including the instructor), “and by advising the instructor on instructional techniques” (Olenski, 1995) Technicians can see a difference in superiority of the instructors who adapt their styles to the technology, and those who do not (Olenski, 1995) Instructors need to adapt to the educational environment, they must also adapt to another person in the room that can help or hinder the delivery of the lesson Much of the outcome depends on the attitude of the instructor
  • 14. PROBLEMS WITH EQUIPMENT     A great detriment to the effectiveness of distance learning If there are too many instances, the entire course can be affected Unanticipated technical problems with the system can shorten the class time and discussion that may negatively affect the overall quality of the presentation (Teaster and Bliesner,1999) Failure of the hardware can be a very frustrating thing for all involved in distance learning  For the technician, the frustration and inability to keep the class running smoothly may affect the instructor’s view of their competency, causing friction  For the student, an inability to get a flow to the class can hinder the learning process  Students used to the traditional face-to-face instruction and not having a tolerance for ambiguity, will have a difficult time
  • 15. ATTITUDES TOWARDS DISTANCE LEARNING       Instructor must be properly trained and motivated to be effective An instructor must have technological skills and confidence to use all of the various electronic devices Instructors must also change the manner in which information is delivered While lecture does not work well, multimedia presentations are successful (Weber 1996) “To effectively bridge the gaps between classroom and distance teaching, faculty need to look at the distance teaching from the students’ point of view”. The faculty must also be aware of getting instructional materials, handouts, tests, and other class items to both sites simultaneously (Walcott1994) Instructors to develop a sense of community between the sites, achieve maximum participation, and get the participants to buy in to the process
  • 16. ATTITUDES TOWARDS DISTANCE LEARNING  The idea of learning as a collaborative process is very important        when students are separated by distance Instructors to have adaptations they need to make to the technology An instructor used to visual cues may find it difficult to adapt to a situation such as compressed video The students at the remote site are not always in clear view of the instructor McKnight (2000) contends that proximity and eye contact are important factors in education that are limited in the distance learning environment Professors are unable to observe the emotions of the students and cannot detect “moments of anxiety” Inability to respond to student needs Lack of feeling of a true class among students (Hiltz & Wellman, 1997)
  • 17. INSTRUCTOR CONCERNS     Concerns about how it will change their role in education A moderately positive attitude about distance learning in general, but moderately negative attitudes about their own use of it Clark (1993) Reliance too much on distance-learning techniques, the discipline would “risk losing our collective soul in the rush to convenience, cost-effectiveness, and accountability” Gober (1998) Knowledge and course design skill in the material may be out of their access
  • 18. INSTRUCTOR CONCERNS  Administration may hire less skilled, and cheaper, workers to deliver the technologically prepackaged course  Rewards may not always be there for the good distance-learning instructor (Noble, 1998)  Tenure and promotion usually do not recognize excellent off campus teaching (Sherritt, 1996)  Many of the instructors concerns are valid and should be addressed by administration
  • 19. STUDENT CONCERNS      Not all students are suited to this type of learning Not all subjects are best taught via this medium More mature students are the most likely to find success with distance learning Successful student needs to have a number of characteristics such as tolerance for ambiguity, a need for autonomy, and an ability to be flexible (Threkeld & Brzoska, 1994) Distance learning requires students to be more focused, better time managers, and to be able to work independently and with group members Hardy and Boaz (1997)
  • 20. STUDENT CONCERNS  Many distance learners are already in professions  Distance education students need to feel a part of a virtual learning community Greenburg (1998)  Student feel less pressure to perform individually, and more pressure to collaborate and be part of the team (Kantor, 1998 cited in Greenberg, 1998)  Students also need the attention of the instructors. In a situation where eye contact and proximity are limited, students cannot be disciplined nor affirmed by eye contact and body language (McKnight, 2000)  Students may also have a difficult time reading the reactions of the remote location class members due to lack of interaction
  • 21. ISSUES OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab 21
  • 22. TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY INCLUDING COMPUTER LITERACY  The target population will require training in the use of the tools, and so will the providers  Instructors will need focused training in order to make effective use of the technologies involved
  • 23. PROGRAM EVALUATION AND ACCREDITATION     Ensuring that distance education programs be as well developed as their in-house counterparts Mechanisms to be developed for faculty evaluation of programs originating at their institutions Need to have standards for course evaluation and program accreditation Successful programs be re-evaluated before implementing in different environment (Mugridge, 1991)
  • 24. LOSING THE CONTENT IN THE TECHNOLOGY    Need to avoid simply providing information, rather than instruction Avoid simply transmitting lectures through this new medium Do not focus on the technology rather than the instructional design and support (Douglas, 1993)
  • 25. ALIENATING INSTRUCTORS  Faculty to be involved in the whole process ,esp to reduce costs  Distance education technologies should not be alternatives to teaching  Failing to address these issues can lead to significant faculty rejection of the proposals, and may include Union confrontation ( DeLoughry 1995 - Distance learning...Maine)
  • 26. NON-NATIVE LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION  Many of the tools available, whether on the Internet or not, have severe limitations in their ability to accommodate non-native language instruction  2-byte character systems like Chinese are especially problematic  Slowly becoming less of an issue on the Internet as standards begin to coalesce
  • 27. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT FOR DISTANCE LEARNERS  Course content is just one element of the education, the institutions provide  Need to provide with similar support to that received by on-campus users  Include everything from full library support to academic counselling - in addition to more mundane administrative assistance (Jacobsen 1994)
  • 28. INCREASING REGIONAL FOCUS  It is not credible to expect that learners who are a      dozen time zones apart will be interested in participating in live programs Offer sessions tailored to the needs of students in specific areas Regional consortia or education hubs may begin to form Danger of becoming isolated from the more global learning environment In most cases there will be benefit in designing programs Involve the learner in discussion and collaboration with those outside their immediate circle of fellow 'classmates'
  • 29. COPYRIGHT ISSUES  Many questions of copyright in an electronic environment remain unanswered  It is important to examine the goals and intentions of the program  Make sure that the necessary clearances have been obtained as needed
  • 30. ?
  • 31. THANK YOU VERY MUCH Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab 31

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