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Leadership and Leadership Theories by Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
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Leadership and Leadership Theories by Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning


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  • 2. LEADERSHIP  The word leadership can refer to:  The process of leading  Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 3. DEFINITION  House defines “leadership” as “the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members”.  Organizationally, leadership directly impacts the effectiveness of costs, revenue generation, service, satisfaction, earnings, market value, share price, social capital, motivation, engagement, and sustainability.  Leadership is the ability of an individual to set an example for others and lead from the from the front. It is an attitude that influences the environment around us. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 4. QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP  Guiding others through modeling (in the sense of providing a role model)  Talent and technical/ specific skill at some task at hand  Initiative and entrepreneurial drive  Charismatic inspiration – attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this esteem to motivate others  Preoccupation with a role – a dedication that consumes much of leaders‟ life – service to a cause  A clear sense of purpose (or mission) – clear goals – focus – commitment  Results-orientation-directing every action towards a mission – prioritizing activities to spend time where results most accrue  Cooperation-work well with others  Optimism –  Rejection of determinism-belief in himself to make a difference  Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to them  Self – knowledge (in non-bureaucratic structures)  Self – awareness – the ability to “lead” (as it were) one‟s own self prior to leading other selves similarly  Understanding what others say, rather than listening to how they say things SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 5. PURPOSE OF LEADERSHIP Leadership is a way of focusing and motivating a group to enable them to achieve their aims. It also involves being accountable and responsible for the group as a whole A leader should:  Provide continuity and momentum  Be flexible in allowing changes of direction SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 7. GREAT MAN THEORY  Assumptions  Leaders are born and not made.  Great leaders will arise when there is a great need.  These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great Man” was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 8. TRAIT THEORY  Assumptions  People are born with inherited traits  Some traits are particularly suited to leadership  People who make leaders have a right combination of traits  Description  Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits , then they too could also become great leaders  Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 9. Traits critical to leaders  Stogdill(1974) found the following traits and skills critical to leaders Traits Skills Adaptable to situation Clever Alert to social environment Conceptually skilled Ambitious and achievement oriented Creative Assertive Diplomatic and tactful Cooperative Fluent in speaking Decisive Knowledgeable about group task Dominant (desire to influence others Organized Dependable Persuasive Persistent Socially skilled Self -confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 10. Continued  McCall and Lombardo(1983) identified four essential primary traits for successful leader:  Emotional stability and composure: Calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under stress.  Admitting error: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into covering up.  Good interpersonal skills: Able to communicate and persuade others without resort to negative or coercive tactics.  Intellectual breadth: Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather than having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 11. BEHAVIORAL THEORY  Assumptions  Leaders can be made, rather than are born.  Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.  Description Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.  Behavioral theory is a big leap from Trait Theory, in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent.  A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. With a large enough study, you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. You can also identify behaviors which contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding.SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 12. Role Theory Assumptions  People define roles for themselves and others based on social learning and reading.  People form expectations about the roles that they and others will play.  People encourage others to act within the role expectations they have for them  People will act within the roles they adopt Description  We all have internal schemas about the role of leaders, based on what we read, discuss and so on. We subtly send these expectations to our leaders, acting as role senders, for example through the balance of decisions we take upon ourselves and the decisions we leave to the leader.  Leaders are influenced by these signals, and will generally conform to these, playing the leadership role that is put upon them by others.  Role conflict can also occur when people have differing expectations of their leaders. It also happens when leaders have different ideas about what they should be doing vs. the expectations that are put upon them. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 13. PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP  Assumptions  Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions.  People are more committed to actions  People are less competitive and more collaborative when working on joint goals.  When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision.  Style  A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders.  Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 14. Lewin’s leadership style  Autocratic: Decision without consulting others. It caused the most level of discontent  Democratic: Leader involves people in decision making.  Appreciated by people.  Problematic when there are wide range of opinion and there is no clear way of reaching an equitable final decision.  Laissez-Faire: It minimizes the leader‟s involvement in decision making. Works well when people are capable and motivated and there is no need of central coordination.SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 15. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP  No single best way to lead  Focus on maturity or readiness of followers  Ability and willingness  Adjust emphasis on task and relationship behaviors according to the readiness of followers to perform their tasks  Telling: low readiness, untrained and inexperienced employees  Selling: low/moderate readiness, trained but inexperienced employees  Participating: moderate/high readiness, able but unwilling, employees skeptical  Delegating: high readiness, employees ready and willing to take responsibilitySAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 16. Vroom and Yetton’s Normative Model  Assumptions  Decision acceptance increases commitment and effectiveness of action.  Participation increases decision acceptance  Description Decision acceptance is the degree to which a follower accepts a decision made by a leader. Decision quality is the selection of the best alternative, and is particularly important when there are many alternatives. It is also important when there are serious implications for selecting (or failing to select) the best alternative.  Vroom and Yetton defined five different decision procedures. Two are autocratic (A1 and A2), two are consultative (C1 and C2) and one is Group based (G2). • A1: Leader takes known information and then decides alone. • A2: Leader gets information from followers, and then decides alone. • C1: Leader shares problem with followers individually, listens to ideas and then decides alone. • C2: Leader shares problems with followers as a group, listens to ideas and then decides alone. • G2: Leader shares problems with followers as a group and then seeks and accepts Consensus agreement.SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 17. Continued  Situational factors that influence the method are relatively logical:  When decision quality is important and followers possess useful information, then A1 and A2 are not the best method.  When the leader sees decision quality is important but followers do not, then G2 is inappropriate.  When decision quality is important, when the problem is unstructured and the leader lacks information/ skill to make the decision alone, then G2 is best.  When decision acceptance is important and followers are unlikely to accept an autocratic decision, then A1 and A2 are inappropriate.  When decision acceptance is important but followers are likely to disagree with one another, then A1, A2 and C1 are not appropriate, because they do not give opportunity for differences to be resolved.  When decision quality is not important but decision acceptance is critical, then G2 is the best method.  When decision quality is important, all agree with this, and the decision is not likely to result from an autocratic decision then G2 is best. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 18. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership  Description: This Theory was developed to describe the way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy.  Rooted in Expectancy Theory  Leader behaviors  Directive  Supportive  Achievement-oriented  Participative SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 19. Continued Causal Variables Leader Behavior Intervening Variables Subordinate expectations Outcome Variables Subordinate effort and satisfaction Situational Moderator Variables Characteristics of task and environment Characteristics of subordinates SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 20. Supportive Leadership Reduce boredom Make job more tolerable Increase the intrinsic valence of work Increase self-confidence Lower Anxiety Increase effort- performance expectancy Supportive Leadership Increase effort SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 21. Directive Leadership Directive Leadership Increase size of incentives Increase outcome valences for task success Increase subordinate effort Strengthen reward contingencies Increase performance- reward expectancies Reduce role ambiguity Increase effort- performance expectancy SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 22. CONTINGENCY THEORY  Assumptions  The leader‟s ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader‟s preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers and various other situational factors.  Description  Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contends that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others  An effect of this is that leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change.  Discussion  Contingency theory is similar to situational theory in that there is an assumption of no simple one right way.  The main difference is that situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviors that the leader should adopt, given situational factors (often about follower behavior), whereas contingency theory takes a broader view that includes contingent factors about leader capability and other variables within the situation. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 23. Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory  Leaders prioritize between task-focus and people-focus.  Relationships, power and task structure are the three key factors that drive effective styles.  Group effectiveness dependent on an appropriate match between a leader‟s style and the demands of the situation  Situational control  Least preferred coworker SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 24. Continued  Fiedler identified a Least Preferred Co-Worker scoring for leaders by asking them first to think of a person with which they worked that they would like least to work with again, and then to score the person on a range of scales between positive factors (friendly, helpful, cheerful, etc.) and negative factors (unfriendly, unhelpful, gloomy, etc.). A high LPC leader generally scores the other person as positive and low LPC leader scores them as negative.  High LPC leaders tend to have close and positive relationships and act in a supportive way, even prioritizing the relationship before the task. Low LPC leaders put the task first and will turn to relationships only when they are satisfied with how the work is going.  Three factors are then identified about the leader, member and the task, as follows:  Leader-Member Relations: The extent to which the leader has the support and loyalties of followers and relations with them are friendly and cooperative.  Task structure: The extent to which tasks are standardized, documented and controlled.  Leader’s Position-power: The extent to which the leader has authority to assess follower performance and give reward or punishment. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 25. The Managerial Grid  Description Leaders may be concerned for their people and they also must also have some concern for the work to be done. The question is, how much attention do they pay to one or the other? This is a model defined by Blake and Mouton in the early 1960s. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 26. Concern for people High Country club management Team manageme nt Medium Middle of the road manage ment Low Impoverished management Authority complianc e Low Medium High Concern for production (Task) SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 27. Continued….  Impoverished management: Minimum effort to get the work done. Basically a lazy approach that avoids as much work as possible.  Authority-compliance: Strong focus on task, but with little concern for people. Focus on efficiency, including the elimination of people wherever possible.  Country Club management: Care and concern for the people, with a comfortable and friendly environment and collegial style. But a low focus on task may give questionable results.  Middle of the road management: A weak balance of focus on both people and the work. Doing enough to get things done, but not pushing the boundaries of what may be possible.  Team management: Firing on all cylinders: people are committed to task and leader is committed to people (as well as task). SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 28. Cognitive Resource Theory  Assumptions:  Intelligence and experience and other cognitive resources and factors in leadership success.  Cognitive capabilities, although significant are not enough to predict leadership success.  Stress impacts the ability to make decisions.  Description: Cognitive Resource Theory predicts that:  A leader’s cognitive ability contributes to the performance of the team only when the leader’s approach is directive. • When leaders are better at planning and decision-making, in order for their plans and decisions to be implemented, they need to tell people what to do, rather than hope they agree with them. • When they are not better than people in the team, then a non- directive approach is more appropriate, for example where they facilitate an open discussion where the ideas of team can be aired and the best approach identified and implemented.SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 29. Continued…  Stress affects the relationship between intelligence and decision quality.  When there is low stress, then intelligence is fully functional and makes an optimal contribution. However, during high stress, a natural intelligence not only makes no difference, but it may also have a negative effect.  When there is a high stress situation and intelligence is impaired, experience of the same or similar situations enables the leader to react in appropriate ways without having to think carefully about the situation. Experience of decision-making under stress also will contribute to a better decision than trying to muddle through with brain-power alone.  For simple tasks, leader intelligence and experience is irrelevant. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 30. Developments in leadership: current themes and trends  Charismatic  Transactional Leadership  Transformational SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 31. Transactional Leadership  Focus on the management of the organisation  Focus on procedures and efficiency  Focus on working to rules and contracts  Managing current issues and problems SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 32. Transformational Leadership  Involves Widespread changes to a business or organisation  Requires:  Long term strategic planning  Clear objectives  Clear vision  Leading by example – walk the walk  Efficiency of systems and processes SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 33. Continued Transformational Leadership Idealized Influence Inspiration Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional Leadership Contingent reward Management by exception (active or passive) Laissez faire Performance beyond expectations Agreed upon performance Leader/follower exchange Broadening and Elevating follower goals SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 34. Leadership: More recent developments New Leadership (1980s+) Dispersed Leadership (1990s+ Leaders as managers of meaning •Leaders as charismatic and visionary •Focus on successful „top‟ leaders •Leaders are not „heroic‟or formally designated but widely dispersed •Nurture leadership capacity in others •Dispersion of leadership through teams •Recognition of non-traditional leadership skills, e.g. organizing, networking SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 35. Leadership: critical issues and trends  Temporal shifts in understanding what constitutes leadership  Reappraisal of charismatic and transformational model  Critical reassessment of attempts to identify and catalogue a series of „competencies‟ associated with leadership  Critical reassessment of ways in which leadership training and development has been attempted  Evidence of links between leadership and performance SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 36. Emergent Themes: Towards an Integrative, Holistic Model of Leadership  Vision and mission  Shared values  Strategy  Empowerment  Influence, motivation and inspiration SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 37. A New Conceptual Model TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP TRADITIONAL MANAGER NEW LEADER- MANAGER Envision Communicate Inspire Energize Create Innovative Discover Mobilize Direct Develop Focus Plan Schedule Allocate Delegate Manage quality Learn Encourage Open Handle ambiguity „break down barriers Partner Enable Co-create SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 38. Leadership Challenges Ahead  Globalization  New technology  Deregulation and privatization  Intense competition  Increasing inter-dependence  Higher-quality products, services and customer care  People‟s increasing expectations SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 39. The New Organization  Knowledge based  Permanently flexible‟  Partnerships  The „virtual organization‟, networked through IT  The „learning organization‟  Leadership rather than management SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 40. Meeting the Challenges Ahead  Not only… •Responding positively to the need for change  but also… •Actively creating change SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR
  • 41. Staff of „Excellent‟ authorities are more likely to…  Have an input into work planning  Have an opportunity to show their initiative  Believe their manager listens to their ideas  Have a say in management decisions  Have the opportunity to let the authority know how they feel about things that affect them and their work  Feel their authority keeps them well-informed  Believe that the reasons for change are well communicated, & that change is well managed SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR