How to Differentiate Quantitative and Qualitativ Research BY Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar

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  • Quantitative research focuses on the left brain - objective, comfortable with logic, numbers, and unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning. Qualitative research deals with the right brain - the hemisphere accountable for processing data as words, emotions, feelings, emotions, colour, and music.
  • How to Differentiate Quantitative and Qualitativ Research BY Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar

    1. 1. HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH BY SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    2. 2. OVERALL FRAMEWORK SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    3. 3. KEEP IN MIND THAT … • Qualitative research generally deals in words, images and the subjective • Quantitative research generally deals in numbers, logic and the objective SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    4. 4. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Research used in range of activities from exploratory designs to means of completing explanations • Qualitative research assumes that people have meaningful actions or experiences that can be interpreted SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    5. 5. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH POPULARITY COMES FROM: *ECONOMICAL *FLEXIBLE *OPENS A DOOR TO “WHY, HOW” *RICHNESS OF DATA *BEST TO START WITH... SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    6. 6. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Identification of a given question; opportunity or information requirements • Interest in obtaining insights for motivational /social (group) or emotional and attitudinal (individual) factors • In IR: primary data of events or personalities supporting explanations and argument SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    7. 7. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS Characteristics: • 6-12 people • Lead by a trained moderator • in-depth discussion on 1 particular topic or concept • Relaxed, informal atmosphere • 1-3 hour duration Goal: • Learn and understand what people say and why? SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    8. 8. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    9. 9. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Synergy Spontaneity Speed Security Flexibility Inexpensive Representativeness Misjudgement  Lack of analysis Moderator Subjectivity SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    10. 10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative Research:   • Examples • Case studies on effect of vocational training in Papua  • Ethnographic studies on indigenous populations in Oaxaca, Mexico     Qualitative Research Types: • Case studies  • Developmental research  • Historical research  • Ethnograph studies  • Case Studies: • Purpose: to do an in depth study • In brief: Background, current status and/or environmental factors that interact for  each group (individual, institution or community)  SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    11. 11. • Characteristics of Case Studies: • It gives very detailed information about individuals / group / community • It may give a detailed explanation of a complete life cycle or part of it • Number of cases studied may be small but the number of variables studied are  usually more in-depth (e.g. if compared to a survey) • Developmental Research:   • Conducted to research on the development of individuals / group / institution /  community   • TWO TYPES: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal  • Historical Research: • Used to gain information on an event, development and/or previous educational  experience • Process may involve studying previous situation, checking on current situation,  and to predict if the same situation will occur again  • Conclusion on previous event is done based on collected facts and evidences to  answer why and how the event and repercussions occurred • Useful to solve questions that involve sensitive issues  • Important for systematically & objectively collecting and defining facts and  evidences  SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    12. 12. • Procedure for Historical Research: • Define the problem  • Specify source of evidence  • Collect evidence / reference materials  • Primary source / original (observation or witnesses of events or authentic objects – e.g. artifacts, speech  text, records etc.)  • Secondary source (materials or information collected from primary sources – e.g. paintings, films, news  reports, documents  • Critique of evidences  – External critique: confirming if collected sources are genuine and reliable (authenticity of paintings, signatures, chemical analysis etc.)  – Internal critique: conducted after authenticity of source of information is confirmed – involves evaluation of collected evidences– is it  important? Required?   • Able to explain the researched phenomenon?  • Prepare the report  • Ethnographic Research: • In-depth study of natural behaviours in a culture or social group  • Purpose – to understand relationships between behaviour and culture  – Example: In education – to understand schooling process (e.g., immigrant children) Involves widespread observations (participant &  nonparticipant)  • Here often starts research without hypothesis – hypothesis is developed in the process of observations,  and the researcher explores and test his hypothesis  SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    13. 13. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW Characteristics: • A well trained interviewer+interviewee • Interviewee is exposed to set of probing  questions • Usually face to face • Interviewer encourages the interviewee to talk  more Goal: • To collect as much as memory, attitudinal and  behavioral data from the subject SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    14. 14. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW Applications: -Interviews with professionals -Interviews with witnesses -When detailed probing is needed -Discussion of sensitive, confidential issues -When strong, social norms exist -Interviews with competitors SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    15. 15. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Concentrated issue - maximum probing Free exchange of information Easier to arrange Best for intimate, sensitive issues Flexibility Expensive Time consuming Exhausting for Interviewer Interviewer errors Respondent bias or reliability SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    16. 16. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE Definition:* • These are unstructured prompts or  stimulus that encourage the respondent to  project their underlying motivations,  beliefs, attitudes, or feelings onto an  ambiguous situation  • They are all indirect techniques that  attempt to disguise the purpose of the  research  *Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualitative_marketing_research SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    17. 17. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES   Projective Techniques Word Association Sentence Completion Tests Cartoon Tests Role Playing Third-Person Techniques Picture Interpretation /Story Telling SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    18. 18. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES Types: 1. Word Association      Customers are required to show response  to the concept they are told within 2-3  sec. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    19. 19. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 2. Sentence Completion Customers are required to complete sentences or stories in their own words • People who are concerned about ecology … • When I think of a city … • I drink a Coca-Cola, usually when . • Starbucks reminds me of… SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    20. 20. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 4. Role Playing • Respondents are asked to assume the behavior of someone else • Useful for emphatic approaches for conflict resolution Sales Supervisors are asked to become Sales Represantatives, and vice versa. SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    21. 21. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 5. Third Person Way of learning respondents feelings or opinions by asking them to answer for a third party : “your neighbour” “most people” “typical person” SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    22. 22. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 6.Picture Interpretation A technique whereby respondents are shown a picture and are asked to tell a story describing it SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    23. 23. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling to give Underlying Motivations, Beliefs, Attitudes Participation of the respondents Skills are required to analyse the responses Expensive SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    24. 24. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Degree of Structure 2. Probing of individual respondents 3. Moderator bias 4. Interpretation bias 5. Uncovering subconscious information 6. Discovering innovative information 7. Obtaining sensitive information 8. Involve unusual behavior or questioning 9. Overall usefulness Relatively high Low Relatively medium Relatively low Low High Low No Highly useful Relatively medium High Relatively high Relatively medium Medium to high Medium Medium To a limited extent Relatively low Medium Low to high Relatively high High Low High Yes Somewhat useful Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Criteria SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    25. 25. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEY SURVEY METHOD: • STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE • GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF A POPULATION • DESIGNED TO GAIN SPECIFIC INFORMATION SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    26. 26. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - SURVEY Traditional Telephone Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mail Interview Mail Panel In-Home By appointment Random Personal Interviewing E-mail Internet Survey Methods Telephone Personal Mail Electronic SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    27. 27. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - EXPERIMENTATION EXPERIMENTATION METHOD: • Scientific investigation in which • an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and • observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to the manipulation of the independent variables.* SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    28. 28. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Specific research problem Clear independent and dependent variable High level of reliability Minimum personal judgement Limited outcomes due to structured method Unability to control the environment Expensive(large number of respondents) SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    29. 29. COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CHARACTERISTICS QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE Research Objectives Discovery of new ideas,insights and feelings Validation of facts,estimates, relationships Type Of Research Usually exploratory Descriptive and causal Type Of Questions Open- ended,semi- structured, unstructured, probing Mostly structured SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    30. 30. COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH contd. CHARACTERISTICS QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE Time Of Execution Short Time Frames Usually long time frames Sample Size Small Large Type Of Analyses Subjective, Interpretitive Statistical, Descriptive,causal Researcher Skills Psychology, Sociology,CB, Social Psychology Statistics, MR, DSS, Decision Models Representativeness Limited Good SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    31. 31. SUMMARY • Qualitative methods focus on generating exploratory initial/progressive insights into questions and problems • Depth probing of hidden attitudes, feelings or behaviour • Focus Groups • In depth Interviews • Projective Techniques SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    32. 32. SUMMARY • Quantitative Research is interested in using formalised, standard structured questioning, whereby response options are pre-determined • Usually to be administered to significantly large numbers of people. Descriptive Causal (Surveys) (Experimentation) SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING
    33. 33. OVERALL FRAMEWORK Source: http://www.informedbusinessdecisions.com/RoadMapt400c.jpg SAJJAD AHMAD AWAN PHD SCHOLAR TE PLANNING

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