Education, social structure and development by Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab

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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_structure

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  • 1. Education, Social Structure and Development By Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab Dated 04.11.2009
  • 2. Objectives • At the end of this presentation, the participants • • • • • • 2 should be able to: Define Education, Social Structure and Development. Express role of social structure in development Describe how education shapes social structure Identify different types of social structure Differentiate between different types of social structure Explain how education, social structure and development relate each others Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 3. Introduction In the introduction, I will present definitions of different important terms. 3 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 4. Development Development is the process of studying qualitative change in existing phenomenon or event.  Development implies a qualitative change in the way the society carries out its activities, such as through more progressive attitudes and behavior by the population, the adoption of more effective social organizations or more advanced technology which may have been developed elsewhere. 4 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 5. Education & Sociology of Education • Education is the process of transmitting existing knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, culture etc. to the upcoming generation. • Education is the process of revealing hidden potentials and qualities of the individual to make him an effective member of the society. • The sociology of education is the study of how educational institutions determine social structures, experiences, and other outcomes. It is particularly concerned with the schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult, and continuing education. • 5 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 6. Social Structure The pattern of relationships that results from people carrying out the expected roles of the statuses they hold. Status–a position in the social structure (either ascribed or achieved) Role–the expected behavior of a person holding a particular status 6 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 7. Social Structure • Social structure is a term used in sociology and anthropology to refer to relationships or bonds between groups of individuals (e.g. societies). • Sociology is the scientific or systematic study of human societies. It is a branch of social science (with which it is informally synonymous) that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge about human social structure and activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare. 7 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 8. Social Development • Social development is a process which results in the 8 transformation of social structures in a manner which improves the capacity of the society to fulfill its aspirations. Society develops by consciousness and social consciousness develops by organization. • Social change can evolve from a number of different sources, including contact with other societies (diffusion), changes in the ecosystem (which can cause the loss of natural resources or widespread disease), technological change (epitomized by the Industrial Revolution, which created a new social group, the urban proletariat), and population growth and other demographic variables. Social change is also spurred by ideological,Awan PhD ScholarandDTSC economic, TE political movements. Sajjad Ahmad Khushab
  • 9. Overview of Social Structure society is grouped into structurally related groups or sets of roles, with different functions, meanings or purposes. One example of social structure is the idea of "social stratification", which refers to the idea that society is separated into different strata (levels), guided (if only partially) by the underlying structures in the social system. 9 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 10. Overview Continued Social structure may be seen to influence important social systems including the economic system, legal system, political system, cultural system, and others. Family, religion, law, economy and class are all social structures. The "social system" is the parent system of those various systems that are embedded in it. 10 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 11. Origins and evolution • Some believe that social structure is naturally developed. It may be caused by larger system needs, such as the need for labour, management, professional and military classes, or by conflicts between groups, such as competition among political parties or among elites and masses. • Others believe that this structuring is not a result of natural processes, but is socially constructed. It may be created by the power of elites who seek to retain their power, or by economic systems that place emphasis upon competition or cooperation. 11 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 12. Continued • The most thorough account of the evolution of social structure is perhaps provided by structure and agency accounts that allow for a sophisticated analysis of the co-evolution of social structure and human agency, where socialised agents with a degree of autonomy take action in social systems where their action is on the one hand mediated by existing institutional structure and expectations but may, on the other hand, influence or transform that institutional structure. 12 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 13. TYPES OF SOCIAL STRUCTURES Some types of social structures that modern sociologist differentiate are relation structures (in family or larger familylike clan structures), communication structures (how information is passed in organizations) and sociometric structures (structures of sympathy, antipathy and indifference in organisations - this was studied by Jacob L. Moreno). 13 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 14. INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE VS RELATIONAL STRUCTURE • ...social structure is seen as comprising those cultural or normative patterns that define the expectations of agents hold about each other's behaviour and that organize their enduring relations with each other. • whereas in the latter: • “...social structure is seen as comprising the relationships themselves, understood as patterns of causal interconnection and interdependence among agents and their actions, as well as the positions that they occupy.” 14 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 15. MICROSTRUCTURE VS MACROSTRUCTURE • Microstructure is the pattern of relations between most basic elements of social life, that cannot be further divided and have no social structure of their own (for example, pattern of relations between individuals in a group composed of individuals - where individuals have no social structure, or a structure of organizations as a pattern of relations between social positions or social roles, where those positions and roles have no structure by themselves). • Macrostructure is thus a kind of 'second level' structure, a pattern of relations between objects that have their own structure (for example, a political social structure between political parties, as political parties have their own social structure). 15 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 16. Types of Structure Continued • normative structure — pattern of relations in given structure (organisation) between norms and modes of operations of people of varying social positions • ideal structure — pattern of relations between beliefs and views of people of varying social potions • interest structure — pattern of relations between goals and desires of people of varying social positions • interaction structure — forms of communications of people of varying social positions 16 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 17. Five Indicators of Development Valantin. R. (1996) describes the following indicators of economic and social development. Literacy, education, and skills  Health  Income and economic welfare  Choice, democracy, and participation  Technology 17 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 18. Indicators of development in society through Social Structure Simmel (1971) identified a number of indicators of development in society. Tools Means of Transport Products of Sciences Technology Arts Language Intellectual sphere 18 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab •Conventional wisdom •Religious dogma •Philosophical Systems •Legal systems •Moral codes •Ideals
  • 19. Conclusion Education can shape the social structures existing in our institutions, organizations and firms and can ultimately bring immersive development in every sphere of life. 19 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab
  • 20. Thanks Questions Please 20 Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE DTSC Khushab