Diversification of education by Sajjad Awan

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Diversification of education by Sajjad Awan

  1. 1. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  2. 2.  Diversity is a measure of differentiation of a system/population/phenomenon (Huisman 1995) Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  3. 3. …societies:  society as a discrete and bounded entity, easily identifiable, recognizable from others of its kind  society as comprised of different cultures, groups, actors, but each with identifiable and recognizable identity  multiculturalism vs. assimilation, integration Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  4. 4. ….education:  Systemic [institutional] diversity (types of institutions: undergraduate, postgraduate, vocational, community colleges, etc);  Structural diversity (autonomy, governance, relationship w/the state, funding mechanisms);  Program diversity (curricula, internationalization?, etc.) Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  5. 5.  population ecology: organizations (HEIs) are populations competing for a limited number of resources they depend on.  resource dependency: organizations are dependant on resources [environment], but also influence it in return  institutional isomorphism(similarity or identity of form or shape or structure): successful institutions tend to imitate one another, even across disciplinary boundaries (van Vught 1996) Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  6. 6. MODES  FORMAL/CONVENTIONAL  NON-FORMAL  DISTANCE EDUCATION CONTENTS  ADULT EDUCATION  LITERACY  WOMEN EDUCATION  ENGINEERING  ETC Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  7. 7.  EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY  EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND ITS EFFECTS  PEDOGOGICAL PRACTICE  RESOURCES AVAILABLE  EFFECTS ON SOCIETY  INDICIDUAL STATUS AND EQUALIZATION OF INCOME  SOCIO-CULTURAL EFFECTS Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  8. 8. -Low level of participation in tertiary education for middle-level -Developing economy -High failure rates at secondary school with large numbers of students, excluded from college level training and education opportunities Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  9. 9. Programs serve a very traditional student population relying on traditional modes Limited vertical or horizontal articulation among public and private tertiary institutions Needs of adult working students, physically disabled students, academic under-prepared students, geographically remote students not adequately addressed Duplication of efforts and wastage of students’ time and resources Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  10. 10. Skills mismatch between outputs of training institutions and labor market needs Chronic unemployment and underemployment… Concentration of higher education and training programs in very limited areas Limits economic diversification possibilities… Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  11. 11.  United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987, development is sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  12. 12.  aims to help people to develop the attitudes, skills and knowledge to make informed decisions for the benefit of themselves and others, now and in the future, and to act upon these decisions. Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  13. 13.  UNESCO is the lead agency, seeks to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning, in order to address the social, economic, cultural and environmental problems we face in the 21st century. Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  14. 14.  It is an active learning process, founded on values of solidarity, equality, inclusion and co-operation. It enables people to move from basic awareness of international development priorities and sustainable human development, through understanding of the causes and effects of global issues to personal involvement and informed actions.  Development education fosters the full participation of all citizens in world-wide poverty eradication, and the fight against exclusion. It seeks to influence more just and sustainable economic, social, environmental, human rights based national and international policies. Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  15. 15. Socio-Economic Development Central Role of Higher Education/ Technology Development In National Plans-- VISION!!!! Linkages Between Applied Research & Industrial Development Govt.Facilitating Policies Quality /Relevance Of Education/Research STANDARDS!! Budgetary Allocations (Min.2% of GNP)- The-catch-up game! Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar
  16. 16. • It is possible for countries to catch up (eg. East Asian Tigers, China etc.) China’s Strategy---the Five Pillars a) Massive Human Resource Development b) Highest priority to Science & Technology c) Promotion of Hi-Tech Industries d) Emphasis on Value-added Agriculture e) Self-reliance in Defense Manufacturing Last two hundred years: One key lesson: Sajjad Awan PhD Scholar

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