Curriculm Theory by Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar

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Curriculm Theory by Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar

  1. 1. Curriculum Theory Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  2. 2. The foundation of curriculum that is least appreciated is curriculum theory. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  3. 3. The behaviorist approach to curriculum is based largely on psychological theories of learning. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  4. 4. We are no longer satisfied with merely being technicians following curriculum development recipes in blind adherence to past models of previous thinking. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  5. 5. They are very much immersed in investigating how current curricula are created and maintained and how particular programs evolve and emerge in response to dynamic times. They wish to produce theoretical knowledge that can serve the practical purposes of explaining, prescribing, guiding, and describing what people involved in education do within the curriculum arena and within the general social context. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  6. 6.  With theory, curriculum decision makes can draw on the most advanced and valid knowledge available and apply it to many situations.  We can provide ourselves with ways of viewing the world and how it works so that education will be “real,” will relate to the world, and will have applicability to real issues and challenges. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  7. 7. Theoretical Perspectives  The challenge of bringing into focus visions of the future and then skillfully initiating actions that assure attainment of these visions is not small.  Curriculum is a complex phenomenon existing within ever expanding social and political dynamics. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  8. 8.  Perhaps we can be more receptive to theory if we realize that theorizing is a process that engages us in imagining the how and why of certain phenomena.  It challenges us to analyze why we think a curriculum should be developed in a certain way for particular students and focused on certain content.  Theory can also suggest ways in which we can teach what we think is important. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  9. 9.  In many ways, theory is an expression of belief.  George Beauchamp has asserted that all theories are derived from three broad categories of knowledge: (1) the humanities; (2) the natural sciences; and (3) the social sciences. These divisions of knowledge are well established as the basic realms of knowledge. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  10. 10.  There are two major categories of curriculum theories – design theories and engineering theories.  Design theories address the basic organization of the curriculum plan. For this, curricularists draw on philosophy as well as on social and psychology theory.  Engineering theories explain, describe, predict, or even guide curriculum-development activities. They involve specific plans, principles, and/or methods or procedures. Engineering theories of curriculum are also partially based on principles of measurement and statistics. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  11. 11. The Meaning of Theory “A theory is a way of making sense of a disturbing situation so as to allow us most effectively to bring to bear our repertoire of habits, and even more important, to modify habits or discard them altogether, replacing new ones as the situation demands…” - Abraham Kaplan Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  12. 12. A challenge for curricularists is to determine just what aspect of the field of curriculum we are processing. Our assumption is that the field of curriculum should involve curricularists in theorizing about curriculum design and curriculum development. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  13. 13. Most curricularists do seem to agree on two points.  First, curricularists agree that curriculum is of fundamental importance to our teachers and students, and to the nature of teaching and learning.  Second, curriculum development is greatly influenced by the values we bring to the process. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  14. 14. The term theory sometimes refers to a set of propositions inductively derived from empirical findings. These generalizations refer to various facts, laws, or hypotheses that are related to each other in a systematic way and that form a type of whole – an entity. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  15. 15. Scientific theory, then, is comprised of general facts, laws, or hypotheses related to each other. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  16. 16. Scientific theory is a “set of assumptions from which can be derived by purely logicomathematical procedures, a larger set of empirical laws. The theory furnished an explanation of these empirical laws and unifies the subject matter.” Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  17. 17. Philosophical and Humanistic Theory  Such theories produce a set of assumptions or beliefs that explain what ought to be.  Philosophers’ theories describe their outlooks – their views of reality and their place within it. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  18. 18.  Much of the theory that relates to education, and specifically to curriculum, stems from the philosophical and/or humanistic orientation. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  19. 19.  Philosophical and humanistic theory is largely normative (based on values). It essentially indicates what should or should not be included or done in some action.  Humanistic theory emphasizes the melding of the emotion and physical with the intellectual. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  20. 20. The Functions of Theory  Educators may ask, “Why do we need theory at all?” Often, they do not wait for a reply and state, “I do not need your damn theory.” Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  21. 21. The aim of science is to understand the phenomena studied. Philosophers also seek answers to their questions: What is knowledge, what is reality, what is of value? Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  22. 22. Theory comes from the Greek word theoria connoting “wakefulness of mind.” It is a type of “pure viewing” of truth. Theory explains reality; it makes people aware of their world and its interactions. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  23. 23. Many writers have ascribed four functions to theory:  Description  Prediction  Explanation  Guidance Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  24. 24.  Description provides a narrative classification of knowledge in a particular theoretical field. It furnished a structure through which individuals’ interpretations of complex activities can be verified. It organizes and summarizes knowledge. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  25. 25.  Prediction – A theory can predict the occurrence of as yet unobserved events on the basis of explanatory principles embedded in it. Perhaps this is the ultimate function of theory. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  26. 26.  Explanation addresses “why.” It not only points out the relationships between phenomena, but suggests either explicitly or implicitly the reasons for the relationships. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  27. 27.  Guidance. Theory also acts as a guide. It helps researchers choose data for analysis and make economical summaries of the data. The theory generated promotes further investigation. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  28. 28. Theory Building  Essentially, the process of theory development is tied to inductive and deductive thinking.  Induction means building a theory by accumulating and summarizing a variety of inquiries.  They form propositions on the basis of research that began as tentative hypotheses they tested and validated. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  29. 29.  Deduction, in contrast to induction, is the process of inferring necessary conclusions from a combination of premises whose truth has either been accepted as given or assumed to be true. People employing deduction develop theory by constructing logical sequences. They proceed from the general to the specific. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  30. 30. Steps in Theory Building  To engage in theory is to deal with symbols, facts, or words that can be classified into large concepts and generalizations.  The problem with theory is when it must be applied in the real world. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  31. 31.  Defining Terms. One of the basic rules in theory building is to be clear about terms.  Selecting terms is governed by two rules:  The wording must be clear, and  The terms, once defined, must be used consistently. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  32. 32.  Concepts are either nominal or operational.  Nominal definitions present the attributes of a term or concept.  In contrast, operational definitions indicate the context in which the concept is employed. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  33. 33. These primitive terms are accepted by those who use them in their theoretical work. In mathematics, for example, the terms “point” or “straight line” are primitive terms. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  34. 34. Another category of terms used in theory is theoretical terms or operational constructs; theories with any degree of sophistication contain such terms. A construct is a concept that represents relationships among things and/or events and their properties. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  35. 35.  Classifying. The second activity in theory building is classification. Theorists attempt to organize and integrate what they know about the areas being theorized. They begin summarizing discovered uniformities of relationships between two or more variables or concepts. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  36. 36. Curriculum Theory The challenge to curricularists is to make sense out of the complexity of the field of curriculum and to determine whether they should create their own curriculum theory or theories, borrow theories from other disciplines – such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy – or do both. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  37. 37. To create a single curriculum theory that would describe, and more importantly explain, curriculum is perhaps an unrealistic goal; curriculum covers too many aspects of education. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  38. 38. Maccias’ Theory Consequently, they organized theory as formal theory, even theory, valuational theory, and praxiological theory. 1. Formal theory. This theory deals with speculation about the structure of the disciplines that comprise the curriculum. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  39. 39. 2. Event theory. This theory, very similar to what we have been discussing as scientific theory, refers to speculation about occurrences. It attempts to predict what will occur given certain circumstances. 3. Valuational theory. This theory involves speculation about the appropriate means to attain the objectives most desired and to include the content judged to be the best. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  40. 40. 4. Praxiological theory. Such theory refers to speculation about appropriate means to attain what is considered valuable. It is about practices. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  41. 41. Johnson’s Theory  Johnson’s definition of curriculum – an intended series of learning outcomes – they should realize the usefulness of distinguishing between theorizing about curriculum as a plan and theorizing about the means by which such plans are generated. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  42. 42. Macdonald’s Theory  Macdonald defines curriculum as the social system that actually produces a plan for instruction, which he in turn defines as another social system within which formal teaching and learning take place.  Teaching is different from instruction and is defined as a personality system–the teacher–acting in a particular manner to facilitate learning.  Learning is defined as a personality system too; the student becomes involved in specialized task-related behaviors. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  43. 43. Curriculum Inquiry  Curricularists are confronted with making sense of the world, not only to describe it but to manage it in the present and to entertain and initiate ways of modifying it in the future. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  44. 44.  Decker Walker, who is classified by some as a conceptual curricularist, has outlined five questions: 1. What are the major features of a given curriculum? 2. What are the personal and social consequences that a given curriculum feature elicits? 3. What accounts for the stability and change in curriculum features? Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar
  45. 45. 4. What accounts for people’s judgments of the merit or worth of various curriculum features? 5. What sorts of curriculum features should be part of a curriculum designed for a particular purpose? Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar

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