An effective way for teaching of science Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning


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An effective way for teaching of science Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning

  1. 1. By Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  3. 3. What is Science?  As a way to explore nature  As a subject to understand the secrets of the universe  As a long list of facts to be memorized SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  4. 4. The Nature of science • Science is a process of finding facts, laws, principles, and concepts but the content does not represent science. • Science is the quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. • The nature of science is to investigate through experiences and then to logically explain the data gained through those experiences. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  5. 5. • How science teaching tends to differ from other teachings? SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  6. 6. The Scientific Method A Way to Solve a Problem SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  7. 7. What is the Scientific Method? • It is the steps someone takes to identify a question, develop a hypothesis, design and carry out steps or procedures to test the hypothesis, and document observations and findings to share with someone else. • In other words, it’s a way to solve a problem. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  8. 8. Scientific Method SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  9. 9. Everyday Science Scientific Method Observation Hypothesis (prediction) Test Observe result Revise hypothesis? New test? Scientific Theory Car Repair Engine won’t turn over. Predict battery is dead. Replace battery. Engine now turns over. Not needed. Not needed. Cars won’t work without a fully charged battery. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  10. 10. Scientist have to take the time to think logically when they are investigating a question or problem. • They break things down into many steps that make sense. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  11. 11. Observation • Using the senses consciously or un Consciously to notice relevant details • Identifying similarities and differences • Making measurements or comparisons using appropriate instruments SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  12. 12. The role of instruments in science • Extend our powers of observation. • Can be used to quantify our observations • Help achieve condition and perform manipulations necessary to make SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346 observations and
  13. 13. Scientists develop a question, gather information: SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  14. 14. Scientific Questions? A question is considered scientific when, in order to find the answer, people usually go through these steps • Make careful observations • Set up an experiment and explore the results • Test their ideas through further experiments • Ask others to repeat the experiments SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  15. 15. Scientific Hypothesis • It is a testable assumption, or guess, often used to explain an observed phenomenon. • We never prove a hypothesis….Confirm or fail to confirm SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  16. 16. Prediction • Prediction means attempting to say what might happen without being able to explain why (early stage) • Relating to a previous experience and explaining how a prediction is derived from it • Basing a prediction on a pattern on an observable pattern SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  17. 17. The next step scientists take is to create and conduct an experiment to test their hypothesis. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  18. 18. Test/Experiments • To test their hypothesis and prediction, the scientist conduct the test. All scientific tests need to minimize the number of possible conclusions. Often this is done by running an experimental test alongside a control test. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  19. 19. Control/Experimental • What is a controlled experiment? • In a controlled experiment there is generally only one factor being tested. It is called the independent or manipulated variable. A control is a test in which the independent variable is kept constant in order to measure changes in the dependent variable. In a control, all variables are identical to the experimental setup—your original setup—except for the independent variable. Factors that are identical in both the experimental setup and the control setup are the controlled variables. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  20. 20. • The dependent or responding variable is the factor that is measured. • There are at least two test groups. • Control Group • Experimental Group • All factors are held constant. • All factors are constant except the one factor being manipulated (variable). SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  21. 21. A key to experiments is observing what happens and writing it down. • Gathering information or data and documenting it so it is readable and makes sense to others is really important. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  22. 22. Once a scientist completes an experiment, they often repeat it to see if they get the same findings and results. • This is really what we call verification, or checking things out to make sure everything was valid and will happen again and again. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  23. 23. Scientists share their experiments and findings with others. • Because they share their experiments and findings, scientists can learn from each other and often use someone else’s experiences to help them with what they are studying or SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346 doing.
  24. 24. Conclusions • Scientist can follow many paths in doing science regardless of which path is taken, the key elements are same as mentioned in the figures. • The results of test invariably lead to further observations, questions, and scientific hypothesis, meaning that the scientific process can never have any end. SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  25. 25. The steps of the Scientific Method are: • • • • • Observation Question Hypothesis Predication Experiment SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346
  26. 26. Scientific Method SAJJAD A AWAN Y804346