Ln19 miller950022 17_ln19

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Ln19 miller950022 17_ln19

  1. 1. Chapter 19 Demand and Supply Elasticity
  2. 2. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-2 Introduction In recent years, revenues received by musicians have been decreasing, even though prices of music albums and concert tickets have been increasing. This phenomenon can be explained by a key concept known as price elasticity of demand. After reading this chapter, you will understand more about the relationship between prices and revenues.
  3. 3. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-3 Learning Objectives • Express and calculate price elasticity of demand • Understand the relationship between the price elasticity of demand and total revenues • Discuss the factors that determine the price elasticity of demand
  4. 4. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-4 Learning Objectives (cont'd) • Describe the cross price elasticity of demand and how it may be used to indicate whether two goods are substitutes or complements • Explain the income elasticity of demand • Classify supply elasticities and explain how the length of time for adjustment affects the price elasticity of supply
  5. 5. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-5 Chapter Outline • Price Elasticity • Price Elasticity Ranges • Elasticity and Total Revenues • Determinants of the Price Elasticity of Demand • Cross Price Elasticity of Demand • Income Elasticity of Demand • Price Elasticity of Supply
  6. 6. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-6 Did You Know That ... • Economists have estimated that when bank debit- card transaction fees increase by 10 percent, the number of debit-card transactions that people wish to utilize declines by nearly 67 percent? • A special name for quantity responsiveness is elasticity, which is one of the topics in this chapter.
  7. 7. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-7 Price Elasticity • Price Elasticity of Demand (Ep) – The responsiveness of quantity demanded of a commodity to changes in its price – Defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price
  8. 8. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-8 Price Elasticity (cont'd) • Price Elasticity of Demand (Ep) Ep = Percentage change in quantity demanded Percentage change in price
  9. 9. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-9 Ep = –1% +10% = –.1 Price Elasticity (cont'd) • Example – Price of oil increases 10% – Quantity demanded decreases 1%
  10. 10. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-10 Price Elasticity (cont'd) • Question – How would you interpret an elasticity of –0.1? • Answer – A 10% increase in the price of oil will lead to a 1% decrease in quantity demanded.
  11. 11. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-11 Price Elasticity (cont'd) • Relative quantities only – Elasticity is measuring the change in quantity relative to the change in price • Always negative – An increase in price decreases the quantity demanded, ceteris paribus – By convention, the minus sign is ignored
  12. 12. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-12 Price Elasticity (cont’d) • Calculating Elasticity change in Q sum of quantities/2 Ep = change in P sum of prices/2 or ∆ in Q (Q1 + Q2)/2 Ep = ∆ in P (P1 + P2)/2
  13. 13. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-13 Example: The Price Elasticity of Demand for a Tablet Device • During a two-month period, the price of Hewlett- Packard’s TouchPad decreased from $499.99 to $99.99. • In response, the total quantity demanded rose from 25,000 per month to 425,000 per month. • During this period the total quantity of natural gas consumed in the United States increased from 62.21 billion cubic feet per day to 62.64 billion cubic feet per day. • Assuming other things were equal, what is the price elasticity of demand?
  14. 14. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-14 Example: The Price Elasticity of Demand for a Tablet Device (cont'd) • Use the elasticity formula: 425,000 – 25,000 ÷ $499.99 - $99.99 (425,000 + 25,000)/2 ($499.99+$99.99)/2 = 1.33 ● The price elasticity of 1.33 means that a 1% decrease in price generated a 1.33% increase in the quantity of TouchPads demanded.
  15. 15. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-15 Price Elasticity Ranges • Elastic Demand – Percentage change in quantity demanded is larger than the percentage change in price – Total expenditures and price are inversely related in the elastic region of the demand curve – Ep > 1
  16. 16. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-16 Price Elasticity Ranges (cont'd) • Unit Elasticity of Demand – Percentage change in quantity demanded is equal to the percentage change in price – Total expenditures are invariant to price changes in the unit-elastic region of the demand curve – Ep = 1
  17. 17. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-17 Price Elasticity Ranges (cont'd) • Inelastic Demand – Percentage change in quantity demanded is smaller than the percentage change in price – Total expenditures and price are directly related in the inelastic region of the demand curve – Ep < 1
  18. 18. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-18 Price Elasticity Ranges (cont'd) • Elastic demand – % change in Q > % change in P; Ep > 1 • Unit-elastic – % change in Q = % change in P; Ep = 1 • Inelastic demand – % change in Q < % change in P; Ep < 1
  19. 19. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-19 Price Elasticity Ranges (cont'd) • Extreme elasticities – Perfectly Inelastic Demand • A demand curve that is a vertical line • It has only one quantity demanded for each price • No matter what the price, quantity demanded does not change • A demand that exhibits zero responsiveness to price changes
  20. 20. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-20 Figure 19-1 Extreme Price Elasticities, Panel (a)
  21. 21. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-21 Price Elasticity Ranges (cont'd) • Extreme elasticities – Perfectly Elastic Demand • A demand curve that is a horizontal line • It has only one price for every quantity. • The slightest increase in price leads to zero quantity demanded.
  22. 22. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-22 Figure 19-1 Extreme Price Elasticities, Panel (b)
  23. 23. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-23 Elasticity and Total Revenues • When demand is elastic, a negative relationship exists between changes in price and changes in total revenues • When demand is unit-elastic, changes in price do not change total revenues • When demand is inelastic, a positive relationship exists between changes in price and total revenues
  24. 24. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-24 Example: Price and Revenue Changes and Price Elasticity of Demand for Air Travel • During a recent period, the per-mile price that passengers paid to fly on U.S. airlines rose by 14 percent. • Associated with this price increase was a 17 percent rise in total revenues received by airlines. • Thus, within this time interval, demand was inelastic.
  25. 25. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-25 Figure 19-2 The Relationship Between Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenues for Cellular Phone Service, Panel (a)
  26. 26. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-26 Figure 19-2 The Relationship Between Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenues for Cellular Phone Service, Panel (b)
  27. 27. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-27 Figure 19-2 The Relationship Between Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenues for Cellular Phone Service, Panel (c)
  28. 28. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-28 Elasticity and Total Revenues (cont'd) • Elasticity-revenue relationship – Total revenues are the product of price times units sold. – The law of demand states along a given curve, price is inverse to quantity.
  29. 29. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-29 Elasticity and Total Revenues (cont'd) • What happens to the product of price times quantity depends on which of the opposing forces exerts a greater force on total revenues • This is what price elasticity of demand is designed to measure: responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in price
  30. 30. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-30 Table 19-1 Relationship Between Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenues
  31. 31. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-31 What If . . . The government offers to pay for higher-priced health care to try to reduce society’s overall health care expenditures? • Estimates of the price elasticity of demand for most health care services vary between 0.2 and 0.6, indicating that the demand for health care is inelastic. • So, when health care prices increase, consumers spend more on these services. • Suppose the government were to step into the market to pay for health care in response to an observed increase in prices.
  32. 32. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-32 What If . . . The government offers to pay for higher-priced health care to try to reduce society’s overall health care expenditures? (cont’d) • Government expenditures on health care would increase. • Taken together, the private and public sectors constitute society. • Therefore, the intervention would serve to increase total expenditures on health care.
  33. 33. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-33 Determinants of the Price Elasticity of Demand • Existence of substitutes – The closer the substitutes and the more substitutes there are, the more elastic is demand • Share of the budget – The greater the share of the consumer’s total budget spent on a good, the greater is the price elasticity
  34. 34. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-34 Determinants of the Price Elasticity of Demand (cont'd) • The length of time allowed for adjustment – The longer any price change persists, the greater is the elasticity of demand – Price elasticity is greater in the long run than in the short run
  35. 35. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-35 Figure 19-3 Short-Run and Long-Run Price Elasticity of Demand
  36. 36. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-36 Determinants of the Price Elasticity of Demand (cont'd) • How to define the short run and the long run – The short run is a time period too short for consumers to fully adjust to a price change – The long run is a time period long enough for consumers to fully adjust to a change in price, other things constant
  37. 37. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-37 Example: What Do Real-World Price Elasticities of Demand Look Like? • Economists have found that estimated elasticities of demand are greater in the long run than in the short run. • Remember that even though we are leaving off the negative sign, there is an inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded.
  38. 38. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-38 Table 19-2 Price Elasticities of Demand for Selected Goods
  39. 39. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-39 Cross Price Elasticity of Demand • Cross Price Elasticity of Demand (Exy) – The percentage change in the demand for one good (holding its price constant) divided by the percentage change in the price of a related good
  40. 40. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-40 Cross Price Elasticity of Demand (cont'd) • Formula for computing cross price elasticity of demand between good X and good Y % change in amount of good X demanded % change in price of good Y Exy =
  41. 41. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-41 Cross Price Elasticity of Demand (cont'd) • Substitutes – Exy would be positive • An increase in the price of X would increase the quantity of Y demanded at each price. • Complements – Exy would be negative • An increase in the price of X would decrease the quantity of Y demanded at each price.
  42. 42. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-42 Income Elasticity of Demand • Income Elasticity of Demand (Ei) – The percentage change in demand for any good, holding its price constant, divided by the percentage change in income – The responsiveness of demand to changes in income, holding the good’s relative price constant
  43. 43. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-43 Income Elasticity of Demand (cont'd) Percentage change in demand Percentage change in income Ei =
  44. 44. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-44 Income Elasticity of Demand (cont'd) • Calculating the income elasticity of demand Ei = Change in quantity ÷ Change in income Average quantity Average income – The income elasticity of demand can be either negative or positive – Remember that in calculating the income elasticity of demand, the price of the good is assumed to be constant
  45. 45. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-45 Table 19-3 How Income Affects Quantity of Blu-Ray Discs Demanded
  46. 46. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-46 Income Elasticity of Demand (cont'd) • From Table 19-3, income elasticity of demand for digital apps: Ei = 2/[(6+8)/2] = 2/7 $2000/[($4000+$60000)/2] 2/5 = 0.71
  47. 47. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-47 Example: Are Wal-Mart’s Products Inferior Goods? • Since the economic downturn of 2008 – 2009, WalMart’s sales have outpaced those of other retailers. • Economic research shows that the income elasticity of demand for products sold by Wal-Mart is -0.7. • This inverse relationship between income and purchases at Wal-Mart demonstrates that Wal- Mart’s product line constitutes an inferior good.
  48. 48. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-48 Price Elasticity of Supply • Price Elasticity of Supply (Es) – The responsiveness of the quantity supplied of a commodity to a change in its price – The percentage change in quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in price
  49. 49. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-49 Percentage change in quantity supplied Percentage change in price ES = Price Elasticity of Supply (cont'd) • Formula for computing price elasticity of supply
  50. 50. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-50 Price Elasticity of Supply (cont'd) • Classifying supply elasticities – Perfectly Elastic Supply • Quantity supplied falls to zero when there is the slightest decrease in price • The supply curve is horizontal at a given price
  51. 51. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-51 Price Elasticity of Supply (cont'd) • Classifying supply elasticities – Perfectly Inelastic Supply • Quantity supplied is constant no matter what happens to price • The supply curve is vertical at a given price
  52. 52. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-52 Figure 19-4 The Extremes in Supply Curves
  53. 53. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-53 Price Elasticity of Supply (cont'd) • Price elasticity of supply and length of time for adjustment 1. The longer the time allowed for adjustment, the more resources can flow into (out of) an industry through expansion (contraction) of existing firms. 2. The longer the time allowed for adjustment, the entry (exit) of firms increases (decreases) production in an industry.
  54. 54. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-54 Figure 19-5 Short-Run and Long-Run Price Elasticity of Supply
  55. 55. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-55 You Are There: Implications of Housing Demand Elasticities in China • The income elasticity of demand for housing in China has been estimated to be about 0.7. • With household income in China rising 10 percent annually, the amount of housing demanded rises by 7 percent per year. • This increase in demand for housing explains the 10 percent annual increase in housing prices. • The price elasticity of demand for housing is about 0.3. • So even though housing prices are increasing, the resulting decrease in quantity along the demand curve is less than proportionate.
  56. 56. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-56 Issues & Applications: Rock Stars Face High Price Elasticities of Demand • Most rock musicians earn revenues from sales of recorded music and from concerts. • When prices of digital albums increased by 5 percent during a recent 12-month period, revenues from these sales declined by 13 percent. – This suggests an elastic demand for recorded music. – For concert tickets as well the demand appears to be elastic. • Managers and promoters of rock musicians are beginning to realize that lower prices for recordings and live performances will likely result in higher revenues.
  57. 57. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-57 Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives • Expressing and calculating the price elasticity of demand – Percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price
  58. 58. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-58 Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) • The relationship between the price elasticity of demand and total revenues – When demand is elastic, price and total revenue are inversely related – When demand is inelastic, price and total revenue are positively related – When demand is unit-elastic, total revenue does not change when price changes
  59. 59. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-59 Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) • Factors that determine price elasticity of demand – Availability of substitutes – Percentage of a person’s budget spent on the good – The length of time allowed for adjustment to a price change
  60. 60. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-60 Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) • The cross price elasticity of demand and using it to determine whether two goods are substitutes or complements – Percentage change in the demand for one good divided by the percentage change in the price of a related good – If cross elasticity is positive, the goods are substitutes. – If cross elasticity is negative, the goods are complements.
  61. 61. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-61 Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) • Income elasticity of demand – Responsiveness of the demand for the good to a change in income – Percentage change in the demand for a good divided by the percentage change in income.
  62. 62. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19-62 Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) • Classifying supply elasticities and how the length of time for adjustment affects price elasticity of supply – Elastic supply: price elasticity of supply is greater than 1 – Inelastic supply: price elasticity of supply is less than 1 – Unit-elastic supply: price elasticity of supply is equal to 1 – The longer the time period for adjustment, the more elastic is supply

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