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Islam   History, Value, Cultures
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Islam History, Value, Cultures

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  • Introductory remarks: Very brief snap shut. Many bullets deserve a series of presentations to cover Point of view of a secular person, who has affection to Islam. It is an important part of my culture
  • Founder: Muhammad Ibn Adbellah Born: 571 AD in Mecca. This year became known as the elephant year. In this year an Ethiopian leader called Abraha (Abraham) attacked Mecca using elephants as armored vehicles Nicknames: Almustapha (the chosen), Alamin (the faithful) Titles: The prophet, the messenger (Alrasul) Tribe: Quraiysh Descendant of Abraham Holy Book is the Quran, derived from the Arabic root ‘read’
  • The pedigree of Mohammed's family tracing back to Abraham. Son of Abdallah and Amneh. Note uncle Abutalib, viewed as monotheist by many historian, and his son Ali, Mohammed's cousin and ‘body’. Paternal uncle, Abbas, the father of the Abbassids, while the Ummayah dynasty is 3 generations away Uncle Hamzeh, whom Muhammad dearly loved, killed in a battle with Mecca, 627 The grave of his great grandfather, Hashim, is in Gaza
  • Map of Middle East Arabian Penins, Levant, + Mesopotamia, Egypt The Levant = Present day Syria + Lebanon + Palestine + Jordan Mesopotamia = Present day Iraq The fertile crescent = The Levant + Mesopotamia The Arabian Peninsula or Arabia: Includes Yemen & Oman: Sheba and Himiar, Ethiopia A reservoir for waves of Semitic migration to the north; 1st 3500 B.C., last 7th Century, AD. Brought new faith, Arabized Middle East and N. Africa 3500 BC. E. path: With Sumarins  the Babylonians (prev., Accadians). INVENTED THE WHEEL. Later: Assyrians and Caledonians. 3500 BC. W. path thru Alhijaz to Egypt Mixed with the locals and assimilated  the Egyptian civilization 2500 BC, Amurians and Canannites in the Levant Coastal Cananites  Phoenicians: Alphabet, glass, Navy 1500 BC. Araamites, Levant. Hebrewits, Palestine 500 BC the Nabatians (Pitra). Strategic location of Mecca in the path of trade and commerce: Far East, E, Fertile Crescent, Egypt
  • Arabia: The inhabitants referred to as Arabs (derived from nomadic) First mention of ‘Arab’ in 854 D.C. (the Assyrian, Schalmannassar) Arabs of the North (mainly nomads), and Arabs of South (mostly urban) Arabs of the North believed to be descendants of Adnan-Ismail-Abraham North, mainly Alhijaz and Najd. The south, Yemen (  Ethiopia) and Oman. Sheba and Himiar civilization, the Maarib Dam Tribal society, nomadic, and sub-farming communities with fierce tribal wars in a pattern of vendetta and counter-vendetta Few tribes were Christians, but many were polytheistic. Jewish presence Separate idols or false gods for each pagan tribe No unifying factor except language and loyalty to the tribe Fading of Yemen and Southern Arabia as trade and business center Mecca became a cultural and business center. It also hosts Alcaaba (= cube), an important holy shrine for all tribes, built by Abraham Power struggle for control of Mecca
  • The Holly Roman or Byzantine empire in the west (the Levant) and the Sassans or Persian Empire to the east (Persia and parts of Mesopotamia or Iraq) Two Arabian dynasties in Northern Arabia were allies or satellites for either the Byzantine or the Persian Empire Ailing Persian Empire, exhausted from wars with the Byzantines, and with Arabian tribes in East Arabia The Byzantine empire : Capital Constantinople (Istanbul, in present day Turkey). Included the whole Levant, Egypt t and parts of N. Africa Christianity was the state religion since the 3rd century Inhabitants of the Levant were mainly Arabs (or at least Semites), mostly Christians, with some Jews For locals, the Byzantine empire was a foreign occupying power Sectarian conflicts between the people of the Levant and the state Thus, there was a need for a new faith to unify the Arabian tribes, to drive out a foreign and brutal power from the Levant, and to inherit an ailing Persian empire. Economical boom of Alhijaz (Mecca) was an important factor in the spread of Arabism and Islam
  • 571: Lost both parents at early childhood. As a young man,he worked in convoys of trade to and from the Levant 696 : Marries a wealthy Quraiyshian business woman called Khadeejah (age 40) for whom he worked 610: Confessed to Khadeejah. First believers: Khadeejah, uncle Abutalib, Ali, and Abu-bakr 619: Both Khadeejah and Abutalib die 610-622: Muhammad survived several assassination attempts, and the Muslim community narrowly escaped extermination by the powerful city of Mecca 622-632: Fighting a deadly war in order to survive. Soon after he felt his people were safe, Muhammad devoted attention to building a peaceful coalition of tribes. Achieved victory by ingenious and inspiring campaign of nonviolence. 629: Massive conversion of Arabian trubes 632
  • Abu-Bakr: “ He who worshipped Muhammad, Muhammad have died. He who worshipped God, God is immortal” Omar Ibn Elkhattab “ Since when you can enslave humans who were born free ?!” A remarkable personality with attributes of legendary dimensions. His exemplary modesty, justice and competence are in the collective memory of Arabs Alyarmuk (20 Aug, 636), decisive defeat of the Byzantine Alqadisyah (31 May, 637), decisive defeat of the Persians The pledge to the Jerusalemites
  • Center of the empire and its capital move out of Arabia to the Levant; Damascus Muawyia (661-680) as a top leader and strategist Power Struggle continues between Damascus, Alhijaz (Madeenah) and S. Iraq The Ummayah Caliphs succeed in brutally liquidating all rivals Karbalaa in S. Iraq (10 Nov, 680) and the emerge of the Sheeha Addelmalek Ben Marwan (685-705) builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock (691) in Jerusalem Expansion continues westward to include all N. Africa (to the Atlantic) and the Iberian Peninsula in the W, and reached the wall of China in the E, and much of central Asia (Caspian sea) in the N. 711: Arabs Conquer Spain and Portugal. Tariq Bin Ziad Expansion into Western Europe blocked by Charles Martell in France, 732 Massive translation of Greek and Indian writings Arabization of the empire Bloom of architecture, arts, agriculture, and science
  • Center of the Empire moves from Levant to Iraq and Iran At 762, Almansur (2nd Caliph) builds Baghdad, his capital Science, technology, arts, architecture, and wealth at their peaks Baghdad, with over 2 Million people, is the glamorous center of the world Lighted streets, public bathes, public libraries and hospitals everywhere After 900, Caliphs lost real power became in the hands of various Asian power groups Other dynasties emerged in Egypt, Spain, and various parts of the Levant. Symbolic loyalty remained to the Abbassid Caliph A second Ummayah dynasty in Spain in the 9th century Qurtoba competes with Baghdad as center of the world At 968 Cairo is built. Later, Alazhar University
  • Middle-Eastern origin of all monotheistic faiths Judaism (in Palestine) reformed old Egyptian monotheism, Christianity (in Palestine) reformed Judaism, and Islam reformed both Judaism and Christianity
  • Note that Jihad is not one of 5 pillars Faith: Emphasize God (not Allah) Prayer: Facing Jerusalem (Alquds or Beit-elmaqdis) till 629, then facing Mecca Ablution or wash: One should wash and clean his/her body before prayer No priesthood or mass service. Imam serves no function during prayer. Direct link between the person who pray and God Zakat The only ‘No excuse’ pillar Fasting I fasted
  • Spell out bullets 1-4. Very strict about proper conduct of war Very strict about treatment of war prisoner A person who enter homes of Muslim leaders is safe
  • One of my favorite Hadiths
  • 2. A Muslim is not a true Muslim without acknowledging and respecting them 3. “Mary” Chapter, and Mary’s father chapter 4. Absolutely one deity. Good prophets of God cannot be killed, God takes their soul to Heaven 5. 6.
  • 2. Abdelmalek and the Christians in his literary circles. St. John of Damascus (the golden mouth), Alakhtal 3, 4. Keys of the Holy Sepulcher are until today with a Muslim family, and they consider it an honor to guard and serve (clean) Christianity’s holiest shrine few of many specific instructions to soldiers: When Abu Bakr stood on the borders of Syria he gave very specific instructions to his soldiers: “In the desert,” he said, “you will find people who have secluded themselves in cells; let them alone, for they have secluded themselves for the sake of God.” Likewise, when Omar went to Syria, he actually stayed with the Bishop of Ayla and went out of his way to meet the Christian Holy Men in the town.
  • Empowered by this equality, women took active role in Islam. Many examples, such as Asma, Fatima, Aiyshah
  • I will mention part of the list of those whose works were translated to Latin languages and directly influenced later European renaissance Alrazi: Mention his story
  • Xx xx xx Arab scientists did not come up with the quantum, but, ….
  • In my mind, the decimal system of numbers is the most fundamental after the alphabet Imagine we still use Roman numerals. Computers? Arabic numerals and # of angles Tables of trigonometry. Literary translation of the Arabic terms
  • I should have put “calculated” rather than measured Influenced Kepler George Kennedy
  • Currently there are 7 Arab US Congressmen
  • Anthony Quinn converted to Islam after he stared in Alressalah (the Message). In an interview he was asked, “name something you regeret”, his repply was, “I regret I did not become a muslim much earlier”.

Islam   History, Value, Cultures Islam History, Value, Cultures Presentation Transcript

  • Islam: History, values and culture Shahbaz Younis
  • PRESENTATION OUTLINE
    • Introductory Remarks
    • Historical overview
    • Islam as a monotheistic religion
      • the Quran
      • God or Allah
      • pillars and values
      • social code and reforms
      • relation with other faiths
      • the Sunni and Shiha sects
    • Science and civilization
    • Islam today, and Arab Americans
    • Suggested reading, distribution of
    • educational material
    • Qs & As
  • Islam
    • Founder: Muhammad Ibn (son of) Adballah
    • Born: 571 AD in Mecca, Arabia
    • Descendant of Abraham
    • Nicknames: Almustapha (the chosen), Alamin (the faithful)
    • Titles: The prophet, the messenger (Alrasul)
    • Tribe: Quraiysh
    • Holy Book: The Quran, derived from ‘read’
  • Quraiysh Qussaiy Abdmanaf Abdshams Hashem (Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas Abulahab Alhareth (661-750) (750-1258) Muhammad Ali Adbelmuttalib Ummayah Dynasty Abbbassides Dynasty Abraham Ismail Adnan
  • Historical Overview
  • • Mecca • Medinah The Levant Mesopotamia The fertile Crescent H I j a z EGYPT ARABIA Dynasties of the South
  • Middle East, 7th Century
    • The Arabian Peninsula
      • The source of Arabs and the Semitic race
      • Mostly desert, few urbanized areas
      • Urban centers, Mecca
      • Mainly tribal society
      • First mention of ‘Arabs’, 854 B.C.
      • Arabs of the North and Arabs of the South
      • Dynasties in the south
      • Religions
        • Christianity (inclusive), Judaism (exclusive), polytheism
    • The Sassanid or Persian Empire
      • Ailing
    • The Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire
      • Christianity is the state religion, 3rd century
      • A foreign occupying power
      • Sectarian conflicts with the locals
  • Byzantine Empire * Persian Empire An Arabian dynasty An Arabian dynasty * •
    • 571 Muhammad born in Mecca.
    • 610 First revelation in the Harraa cave (27 Ramadan).
    • 622 “Hijra”or Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution
    • and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).
      • Year 1 in the Islamic calendar
      • ‘ Missionaries’ sent all over Arabia
        • building peaceful coalition
    • 629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE)
      • destroys idols in Alqaaba.
      • single-handedly, brings peace to war-torn Arabia
    • 632 Muhammad dies in Almadinah. Unmarked grave (his will)
    Islam, 610-632
  • Islam by the death of Mohammed 632
    • Abu-Bakr - 632-634
      • The first elected official. Wise leader, crisis manager
    • Omar Ibn Elkhattab - 634-644
      • A first-rate statesman. Honest, modest and just.
      • Conquered the Levant, Egypt, Iraq, Persia
        • Damascus (9 / 635) and Jerusalem (5 / 638) surrender peacefully
          • Omar’s pledge to the Jerusalemites
      • A modern state: Treasury, communication, defense. Engraved currency.
    • Othman bin Affan - 644-656
      • Collected and compiled the Quran
      • Emergence of power struggle
    • Ali Bin Abitalib - 656-661
      • Power struggle escalated to armed conflict
      • Emergence of political parties
      • End of democracy. Ummayah Dynasty in Damascus, Muawyia (661-680)
    632-661: the Four Elected Successors (Caliphs )
  • Islam at 644, the year Omar died
  • The Ummayah Dynasty, 661-750
    • Empire center and capital move to Damascus
    • Expansion: All N. Africa (Atlantic), W. Europe, much of C. Asia, the wall of China
      • 711: Conquer of Spain and Portugal. Tariq Bin Ziyad
    • Expansion into W. Europe blocked in France by Charles Martial, 732
    • Power Struggle continues, but the Caliphs brutally liquidate all rivals
      • Karbalaa in S. Iraq (10 Nov, 680) and the emerge of the Shiha
    • Addelmalek builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (691)
    • Massive translation of Greek and Indian writings
    • Arabization of the empire
    • Bloom of architecture, arts, agriculture, and science
  • 732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed
  • The Abbassides Dynasty, 750-1258
    • The center of the Empire moves to Iraq and Iran
    • Baghdad, built 762 AD by Almansur (2nd Caliph).
    • With over 2 M, Baghdad becomes the glamorous center of the world
      • Science, art, architecture, learning, and wealth
      • Lighted streets, public baths, public libraries and hospitals everywhere
    • Other dynasties in Egypt, Spain, and parts of the Levant.
    • A 2nd Ummayah dynasty in Spain, 9th century
      • Qurtoba (Cordova) competes with Baghdad
    • Cairo, built 968 AD
  • Islam as Monotheistic Religion
    • Islam:
    • ” Surrender”, related to ‘salaam’, or peace.
    • Abraham, father of all prophets, is the first Muslim
    • Islam is also a code for social conduct
    • Quran plus the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadith) = Shareeha (constitution), as Interpreted by Islamic scholars
    • Muhammad is the last prophet (33: 40).
    • Gabriel highest ranking angel
    • The Quran:
    • Islam’s holy book, an inspired scripture. God’s word inspired to his messenger,
    • 114 Chapters (chapter = Surah), 4 to >200 verses/chapter (verse = Aiyah)
    • Confirms most narratives and prophets of the Jewish and Christian faiths
      • Special place for Virgin Mary, the only female (the Chapter of Mary)
    • Allah is the word for God used by Christian and Muslim Arabs
      • God = Allah (Arabic) = Eluhim (Hebrew) = El (Aramaic)
    • One and only one God, no trinity
    • Arabic as the language of the Quran
    • The framework for Muslim life. Essential practices
      • 1. The declaration of faith:
        • "There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God"
      • 2. Prayer:
        • Five obligatory prayers each day.
        • A direct link between the worshiper and God.
        • No hierarchical authority or priesthood
      • 3 . Zakat:
        • Obligatory charitable giving.
        • Wealth belong to God and it is held in trust by humans.
        • Zakat , or, "purification" by setting aside a portion (2.5%) for the needy
      • 4. Fasting:
        • From sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan
      • 5. Pilgrimage:
        • A pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca, Arabia. Only those who can
    The 'Five Pillars' of Islam
  • Jihad and the Conduct of War
    • Islam is not addicted to war, and jihad is not one of its "pillars”
    • Jihad in Arabic does not mean "holy war”. It means "struggle” or “strive”.
    • It is the difficult effort needed to put God's will into practice at every level
    • The "greater jihad” in the Quran is that of the soul, of the tongue, of the pen, of faith, of morality, etc. The "smaller jihad" is that of arms.
    • Many directives in the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadiths):
      • He told his companions as they go home after a battle "We are returning from the lesser jihad [the battle] to the greater jihad, at home"
      • Three levels:
        • Personal: That of the soul
        • Verbal: Raising one's voice in the name of Allah on behalf of justice.
          • " The most excellent jihad is the speaking of truth in the face of a tyrant " (Hadith)
        • Physical: Combat waged in defense against oppression and transgression.
          • Profoundly misunderstood in today's world .
    • Much of the Koran revealed in the context of an all-out war imposed on early
    • Muslims by the powerful city of Mecca, and many passages deal with the conduct
    • of armed struggle.
      • While one finds " slay [enemies] wherever you find them!" (e.g., 4: 89),
      • in almost every case it is followed by something like "if they let you be,
      • and do not make war on you, and offer you peace, God does not allow you
      • to harm them" (2:90; 4: 90; 5: 2; 8: 61; 22: 39)
      • Since good and evil cannot be equal, repel thou evil with something that is
      • better, and love he between whom and thy self was enmity may then become
      • as though he had always been close unto thee, a true friend" (41:34)
    • God does not allow harm of civilian, and requests the protection of women,
    • children and the elderly during war (4:96; 9: 91; 48: 16,17)
      • “ If any one slew a person--unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief
      • in the land--it would be as if he slew the whole people; and if anyone saved
      • a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people.” (5:32)
    • You shall feed and protect prisoners of war, and you shall not expect a
    • reward (4: 25,36; 5:24)
    • Thus, the only permissible war in the Quran is one of self-defense, you
    • cannot kill unarmed (civilian), and you have to protect prisoners of war
    Jihad and the Conduct of War
  • Jihad and the Conduct of War
    • Warfare is always evil. Sometimes you have to fight to avoid persecution. e.g., the one Mecca inflicted on early Muslims (2: 191; 2: 217), or to preserve decent values (4: 75; 22: 40)
    • Muslims may not begin hostilities
      • "Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors." (2: 190).
        • Notice: Defensive war, fight back
    • Hostilities must be brought to an end as quickly as possible, and must cease the minute the enemy sues for peace (2:192-3; 41:34)
    • ‘ Martyrdom’: Those killed during fighting or while doing civic duties (martyrs) are promised a place in heaven (several passages, e.g., 2:154; 3:169-172)
    • However, suicide is not allowed; it is forbidden and condemned (e.g., 6:151, 17:33, 25:68)
    • One of my favorite Hadiths
      • 'Do not attack a temple, a church, a synagogue. Do not bring a tree or a plant down. Do not harm a horse or a camel’
  • Relation with other Faiths
    • Like the Torah, the Quran permits retaliation eye for eye, tooth for tooth.
    • But, like the Gospels, it says “it is meritorious to forgo revenge in a spirit of charity (5: 45)
    • Acknowledges Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses,
    • David, Solomon, Zacharia, Jesus, John the paptist, and others as the “ the good prophets of God”
    • A special place for Jesus and Mary (e.g., 3:45,46; 4:156-158; 19:1-98)
    • Accepts that Mary’s conception is from God’s soul.
    • Rejects the divinity of Jesus (no trinity).
    • Jesus was not killed (e.g., 4:155-159; 5:17-19)
    • Islam did not impose itself by the sword.
      • "There must be no coercion in matters of faith" (2: 256)
    • Muslims have to respect Jews and Christians, the "People of the Book,"
    • who worship the same God (e.g., 2:62; 29:46).
      • "And dispute ye not with the People of the Book , except with means better,
      • unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong: but say, 'We believe in
      • the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down
      • to you; Our Allah and your Allah is one ; and it is to Him we bow.”
    • In one of his last public sermons Muhammad said
      • “ God tells all human beings, "O people! We have formed you into nations
      • and tribes so that you may know one another" (49: 13). Do not conquer,
      • convert, subjugate, revile or slaughter but to reach out toward others with
      • intelligence and understanding”
    • The Levant remained mainly Christian for almost 200 Yrs.
      • No one was forced to convert to Islam
    • The right of all faiths to warship was respected
    • Sites of warship, holy places and shrines of all faiths were protected
    Relation with other Faiths
    • Charity, Charity, Charity ….
      • On top of the Zakat. Help the orphan, the poor, the ill, the lost, the homeless, the elderly
      • Endless times in the Quran (16 times in Chapters 2-5 alone)
    • Freedom, Integrity, Equality, Justice ….
      • “ An hour of justice by a ruler is better than sixty days of hard work” (Hadith)
      • Endless request for justice in the Quran (e.g., 2: 282; 6; 152)
        • “ O mankind, We’ve created you from a male and a female and have made
        • you nations and tribes that you may know and interact with each other.
        • The noblest of you in the sight of God is the best in conduct” (49:13).
        • No Arab is privileged over non-Arab but by his or her conduct (Hadith)
        • All people are equal like the teeth of a comb (Hadith)
        • “ You are not considered faithful in the sight of God unless you like for
        • your brother (read, others) what you like for yourself ” (Hadith)
        • when you are greeted with a greeting of peace, answer with an even better greeting, or at least the like thereof " (4: 86).
    Social Justice
    • Right and Status of Women
    • Eliminated many pre-Islamic discriminatory practices
    • Gave women rights (e.g., inheritance) and equality to men, both were made
    • from a single soul (e.g., 4:1)
    • Limited the number of wives a man can marry
    • Treat women with kindness and respect their rights as equal to men
    • The hijab or head scarf
    • Modest dress apply to women and men equally (Quran and Hadith).
    • Women are required to cover their bodies so that their figure is not revealed.
    • Women are not required to cover their faces.
    • The forbidden or ‘taboo’ (muharramat) include pork, blood, improperly butchered
    • animals, baby animals, gambling, and charging interest
    • Alcohol drinking was gradually disallowed
    Other Values
  • Science and Civilization
    • A dedicated quest for knowledge and a burst of scientific innovation
    • in a multi-ethnic and multi-faith society
    • Lasted for over 8 centuries, and produced a plethora of knowledge and
    • discoveries in all disciplines
    • Induced the later European renaissance
    • The Arabic tong, invigorated by the Quran, was the vehicle, and tolerant,
    • inclusive, and knowledge-advocate Islamic faith was the culture
    • Repeated requests in both the Quran and the Hadith for seeking
    • knowledge, and application of rational thinking
      • Seek knowledge even in China
      • Seek knowledge from crib to grave
      • On judgement day, the ink of scientists is valued by God higher
      • than the blood of martyrs
      • The two important disciplines of science are theology and Biology
    • Initially, massive translation of Greek and Indian writings
      • preserved all literary and scientific works and transmitted them to Europe
    • Medicine and Pharmacy
    • Chemistry and Physics
    • Mathmatics
    • Astronomy
  • Medicine and Pharmacy
    • Institutionalized and regulated the practice of Medicine and Pharmacy
      • The modern concept of clinics
      • Board exams and license to practice. Regulatory boards (FDA's!!!)
      • Classification of plants and Algae for their medical use, and outlined possible side effects (PDR’s!!)
    • Hospitals :
      • Tens, including specialized, in each of Baghdad, Qurtoba, and Damascus.
      • Mobile hospitals for emergency.
      • Departments and University Hospitals.
      • Patients records and vital signs, urine tests, family history.
    • Surgery :
      • Threads from animals intestine.
      • Opium and Hashish for Anesthesia.
      • Alcohol as disinfectant.
      • Treatment of cataract, and removal of kidney and gallbladder stones
    • Autopsy !!!
      • Students training (Anatomy)
      • Cause of death
    • Abu-bakr Elrazzy ; 9th Century
      • Father of Physicians, great clinician and experimentalist
      • Many books including “Smallpox and Measles”
    • Ibn-Elhaytham : 10th Century
      • Multidisciplinary scientist. Ophthalmologist
      • Mechanism of sight. Function of the eye
      • Over 100 books in Med. and Math.
    • Ibn-Seena (Avisai) : 10th Century
      • The “Qannun”, the medical text book in Europe till 19th Cen.
      • Described the medical use of over 2700 plants
      • Light has a finite speed, which is much faster than the speed of sound
    • Ibn-Rushd (Aviros) : 13th Century
      • Philosopher and Physician. Many books
    • Ibn-Elnafees :
      • Blood circulation and the role of lungs
    • Abulkassim Alzahrawi (Abulcasis or Albucasis) : 11th Century
      • One of the greatest surgeons. A good dentist and GP.
      • Removal of breast cancer.
      • Hemophilia and its hereditary transmission (female to male)
    Known Physicians
    • Arabic terms and methods of preparation for Alkali, Alcohol, Tartarate
    • Discovered and prepared in pure form 28 elements (Ibn Elhaytham)
    • The processes of crystallization, fermentation, distillation, sublimation,
    • Preparation of acids (H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 ) and bases (NaOH)
    • Light travels in straight lines. Laws of refraction, reflection and illusion of light.
    • Eluded to the Magnetic properties of some objects
    Chemistry and Physics
    • Arabic numeral and the decimal system of numbers.
      • Right  Left. English. But 1000
    • Arithmetic. Roots and powers
    • Algorithm = Alkhawarismi
    • The mathematical ZERO
    • Algebra (combining fractions).
    • The Use of (x, y, z) to solve complex arithmetic/geometric problems
    • Trigonometry (Albairuni and Albuzjani), differential and Integral.
    •   = 3.141596535898732.
    • Some known Mathematicians:
    • Abu-bakr Alkhawarismi
    • Thabit Ibn Qarra (9th Century). Calculus.
    • Ibn-elhaytham
    • Albairuni (10th Century)
    • Albuzjani
    • Omar Elkhayam (2° & 3° equations)
    Mathematics
    • Astrology (myth)  Astronomy (science)
    • Movement, path, and location of planets and stars
    • The Asturlab
    • Earth is spherical and rotates along its axis and around the sun.
      • Calculated earth circumference (Albairuni)
      • Calculated the time needed for one rotation around the sun (solar year), with
      • an error of 2’ 22” only (Albattani)
      • Calculated the equinoxes
    • Current names of most constellations, and many stars are from Arabic
    • Some known astronomists:
    • Alkindy (9th Century)
    • Albattani (9th Century)
    • Ibn-elhaytham (11th Century)
    • Thabit Ibn Qarra
    • Almajreeti
    Astronomy
  • Sunni and Shiha
    • Sunni
    • 90% of Muslims
    • Follow the Quran and the Hadeeth as we have them today,
    • and as interpreted by the Sunni scholars
    • Shiha
    • Came to be as a sect after 680 A.D.
    • Believe in the Quran and Hadeeth, like Sunni
    • However, they place Ali very high as a holy figure, and think ‘main stream’
    • Islam discriminated against him
    • Today Shiah is mainly in Iran (90%), Iraq (55%) and Lebanon (~40%)
  • Important Holidays
    • Al-adhaa (the sacrifice)
    • Symbolizes Abraham attempt to sacrifice his son Ishmael by God’s request.
    • Should sacrifice an animal and give the food to the poor.
    • The pilgrimage to Mecca
    • Alfetr
    • Observed at the end of the holy month of Ramadan (the fasting month)
    • The Islamic New Year
    • Yr 1, Islamic calendar = 622 A.D.
    • Alisraa Walmaaraj
    • Symbolizes the ascending, in Jerusalem, of Mohammed's soul to heaven
    • The Birthday of Muhammad
    • Ashuraa day (Shiha only)
  • Islam Today
    • 1.3 Billion worldwide, three continents
      • 0.3 Billion Arabs
      • Indonesia (200 M) > India (180 M) > Pakistan (160 M) > Bangladesh (120 M) >
      • China (80 M) > Egypt (70 M)
    • There are about 20 M Christian Arabs
      • Egypt > Syria > Lebanon > Palestine > Iraq
    • About 7 M Muslims in the USA, 3-4 M are Arabs
      • Roughly half of the Arab Americans are Christians
    • Farouq Elbaz (Egypt), NASA, the moon mission
    • Ahmed H. Zewail (Egypt) Winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry,
    • Cal. Tech.
    • Saleh Wakeel (Iraq), member of the Nat’l Acad. Sci., Biochemistry
    • Qais Elawqati (Iraq), member of the Nat’l Acad. Sci., Microbiology
    • Majdi Yacub, first open heart surgery
    • Michael Debakee (Lebanon), chief cardiologist of the White House
    • Ralph Nader (Lebanon), consumer advocate, Green Party founder,
    • and 2000 presidential candidate
    • John Sununu (Palestine), White House Ex-Chief of Staff
    • John Sununu JR., current state governor
    • Donna E. Shalala (Lebanon), Ex secretary of HHS
    • Helen Thomas, Ex dean of the White House press corps.
    • Edward Attiyeh (Syria), Ex governor of OR
    • Spencer Abraham (Lebanon), Secretary of Energy
    • George Mitchell
    Arab Americans
  • Arab Americans
    • Casey Kasem and Don Bustany (Lebanon) creators of radio's American
    • Top 40
    • Mustapha Elaqqad (Syria), Hollywood movie director
    • (director of the ‘Halloween’ series)
    • Tom Shadyac (Lebanon), Hollywood movie director
    • Salma Hayic (Lebanon), a Hollywood star
    • Yasser Seirawan (Syria), US Chess Champion
    • Jacques Nasser, president and CEO of Ford Motor Co
    • Ray Irani CEO of Occidental Petroleum (Exxon Mobil) Co
    • The Hyatt, Hagar, and Farah enterprises
    • Christina McAuliffe, an astronaut who died aboard the space shuttle
    • Challenger
    • Candy Lightner, founder of MADD
    • “ History of the Arabs”, Philip Hitti
    • “ The Arab People”, Albert Hourany
    • “ Islam, An Empire of Faith”, PBS Video, 2001
    • “ Islam: A Short History”, Karen Armstrong, 2000
    • “ Muhammad”, Karen Armstrong, 1998
    • “ Jihad: A Commitment to Universal Peace” , Marcel A. Boisard, American Trust
    • Publications, 1988
    • “ The Oxford History of Islam”, John L Esposito, ed. 1999
    • “ Islam: The Straight Path”, John L Esposito, ed. 1998
    • “ The Meaning of the Holy Quran”, Abdullah Yusif, Ali, 1997
    • “ Lives of the Prophets”, Leila Azzam, 1995
    • “ From Difference to Equas”, George Kindy, and Philip Saliba, eds., NYAS, 1994
    • Science in Medieval Islam, Howard R Turner, 1997
    • Arab American Encyclopedia, Anan Ameri, and Dawn Ramey, eds., 2000
    Suggested Reading