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道德经 For mbs workshop
 

道德经 For mbs workshop

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  • Confucius; Confucianism
  • 本来就是难以理解的经典书;给了极大的空间去发展各种的理解;翻译版本众多;只从自身看 – Map Reading ->Testing ->Making
  • 上善和水有很多相近之处。水善于驭使万物而不和万物相争,总是处在大家不喜欢居处的地方,这和道很相似。善于选择居处的地方,善于保有深远沉静的心态,善于用仁义的方式给予,善于使言辞有信用,善于选择治理之法,善于选用能人行事,善于选择时机行动,只有这样不与万物相争,才能没有忧患。
  • 五色让人视觉被蒙蔽,五音让人听觉被蒙蔽,五味让人味觉被蒙蔽,驰骋田猎让人心智迷乱,难得的财物让人行为受到妨害。所以圣人求温饱而不求赏心悦目,放弃那些得到这个。
  • 大道被废弃才有仁义产生,有智慧的人出现了才有了大的欺诈,六亲不和睦孝慈才被推崇,国家昏乱了才有所谓的忠臣产生。
  • 有一种东西浑然一体而成,在天地之先就生成了。傲然独立而不改变, 循环往复而不止息。是天地生息的本原。我不知道她叫什么,勉强把它命名为道,说它很大。大就是一直消逝而去,这种消逝就会很遥远,遥远到在我们身边却观察不到的地方。所以道大,天大,地大,社会亦大。世界上有四大而社会是其中之一。社会取法于地,大地取法于天,天取法于道,道取法于自然。
  • 凭借天道辅佐王者的人不会凭借军力称雄于天下。他所作的都是具有长远眼光的事情。军队所到的地方就会荆棘遍地,大的战争之后就会有大的灾害。恰到好处是达到了目的就可以了,而不是逞强好胜。达到目的不要沾沾自喜,不要炫耀,不要骄傲,达到目的也是不得已这么做。达到目的而不要再趋于强大。事物强大了就会衰败,这叫做于天道相违背,这就会过早灭亡。
  • 战争相关的东西都是不祥的事物,万物都恶弃它,所以有道的人不使用。君子安居以柔弱为贵,用兵则以坚强为贵。战争是不祥的,不是与君子所当持有的,不得已的时候才使用它,恬淡才是君子之行。胜利没有什么值得炫耀的,炫耀的人是喜好杀戮的人。喜欢杀戮的人,便不能于天下得志。吉祥的事情以左为尊,凶险的事情以右为尊。所以偏将军居左,上将军居右,是说以丧礼的形式对待战争。杀害了别人要悲伤哀泣,所以战争了也要以丧礼的形式对待。
  • 不出屋子就可以了解天下;不用看过窗户都可以了解天道。出去的越远,智慧越少。所以圣人不用去做就可以了解,不用看见就能够明了,不用作为就可以成就。
  • 治理大国和烹小鱼一样。用道治理天下,它之中隐蔽的东西不会发挥不可思议的效力,并不是它不发挥这样的效力,而是它的效力不会损伤人;也不是他的效力不伤人,是圣人都不伤人。这样两方面都不相互妨害,所以他们的德行相合归同于天德。
  • 江海之所以能够成为百川归流之地是因为它善于处在百川地势之下,所以百川归往。所以想要在民之上,一定要在言辞上为其下;要想做人民的表率,一定要将自身利益放在大家之后。所以圣人虽然处在人民之上,人民却不觉得重压,作为人民的表率而人民不会感到有妨碍。这样天下的人都喜欢推举而不厌弃它。凭借它的不与民争,所以天下没有谁能与它争夺。
  • Reproach: 责备 ; Altar: 圣坛 ; Woe: 悲哀 . 领导的责任;为王之道:就是从“垢”和“不祥”而来, 天下没有比水更柔弱的了,但是用来战胜强硬没有比它更好的。因为强硬无法改变他。弱胜强,柔胜刚,天下都知道,没有人能实行。所以圣人说,能够为国承担祸患的才是社稷的主宰啊。正确的言辞象反话一样。
  • 均和大怨,必然有余怨不能销解。这怎么算是善呢?所以圣人持有把柄而不向人发难,有德的人才能掌管这种借据啊,无德的人总是拿著称盘斤斤计较。天道没有什么亲疏,只是看上去更偏爱善于利用的人罢了。

道德经 For mbs workshop 道德经 For mbs workshop Presentation Transcript

  • 道德经 The Tao Te Ching 老子 Lao Zi
  • The Author • Lao Zi, ~BC 600, • Philosopher of ancient China, Founder of Taoism 2
  • The Book • 2 Parts - 81 brief Chapters; ~ 5,000 Chinese characters • Tao 道 – Way : The Universe and Liife • Application into leadership: Skills, Methods, Strategies, Processes • Te –德 Virtue: The society and Politics • => Personal character, Traits, Major: A Great Book of General Leadership - The Ways & The Virtues • An ineffable classic book with transmitted versions & commentaries dating back 2 millennia; • I look at it from my own view with references to some translations, to form my “Map Reading ->Testing ->Making” route 3 Extracts Translated by James Legge
  • 8 不争无尤 / Flexible & Peaceful • 上善若水。水善利万物而不争,处众人之所恶,故几于道。居善地,心善 渊,与善仁,言善信,正善治,事善能,动善时。夫唯不争,故无尤。 • The highest excellence is like (that of) water. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things, and in its occupying, without striving (to the contrary), the low place which all men dislike. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao. • The excellence of a residence is in (the suitability of) the place; that of the mind is in abysmal stillness; that of associations is in their being with the virtuous; that of government is in its securing good order; that of (the conduct of) affairs is in its ability; and that of (the initiation of) any movement is in its timeliness. • And when (one with the highest excellence) does not wrangle (about his low position), no one finds fault with him. 4 Major: Water is flexible, can be everywhere, can be any form, can be soft / hard / invisible, just like leadership is an art! Water is a must-to-have, the same in business
  • 12 圣人为腹 / Substance over form • 五色令人目盲; 五音令人耳聋; 五味令人口爽; 驰骋 X 猎令人心发狂 ; 难得之货令人行妨。 是以圣人为腹不为目。 故去彼取此。 • Color‘s five hues from the eyes their sight will take; Music‘s five notes the ears as deaf can make; The flavors five deprive the mouth of taste; • The chariot course, and the wild hunting waste make mad the mind; and objects rare and strange, Sought for, men‘s conduct will to evil change. • Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy (the craving of) the belly, and not the (insatiable longing of the) eyes. He puts from him the latter, and prefers to seek the former. 5 Major Leaders seek the substance, not the form; Leaders remain clam in front of temptations & ambiguities or dilemmas
  • 18 大忠大义 / Loyalty & Righteousness 大道废,有仁义,智慧出,有大伪;六亲不合,有孝慈;国家混乱,有 忠臣。 • When the Great Tao (Way or Method) ceased to be observed, benevolence and righteousness came into vogue. (Then) appeared wisdom and shrewdness, and there ensued great hypocrisy. • When harmony no longer prevailed throughout the six kinships, filial sons found their manifestation; • when the states and clans fell into disorder, loyal ministers appeared. 6 Major Greater leaders save the organizations from danger; People are loyal to loyal leaders
  • 25 道法自然 / Know Nature, Know People 有物混生,先天地生。寂兮寥兮,独立而不改,周行而不殆,可以为天地母。吾不知 其名,字之曰道。强为之名曰大,大曰逝,逝曰远,远曰反。故道大,天大,地 大,人亦大。域中有四大,而人居其一焉。人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然 。 • There was something undefined and complete, coming into existence before Heaven and Earth. How still it was and formless, standing alone, and undergoing no change, reaching everywhere and in no danger (of being exhausted)! It may be regarded as the Mother of all things. • I do not know its name, and I give it the designation of the Tao (the Way or Course). Making an effort (further) to give it a name I call it The Great. Great, it passes on (in constant flow). Passing on, it becomes remote. Having become remote, it returns. • Therefore the Tao is great; Heaven is great; Earth is great; and the (sage) king is also great. In the universe there are four that are great, and the (sage) king is one of them. • Man takes his law from the Earth; the Earth takes its law from Heaven; Heaven takes its law from the Tao. The law of the Tao is its being what it is. 7 Major Leaders know people, respect the nature and understand its rules
  • 30 以道佐主 / Lead w/ Tao • 以道佐人主者,不以兵强天下,其事好还。师之所处,荆棘生焉;大军 之后,必有凶年。善有果而已,不敢以取强。果而勿矜,果而勿伐,果 而勿骄,果而不得已,果而勿强。物壮则老,是谓不道,不道早已。 • He who would assist a lord of men in harmony with the Tao will not assert his mastery in the kingdom by force of arms. Such a course is sure to meet with its proper return. • Wherever a host is stationed, briars and thorns spring up. In the sequence of great armies there are sure to be bad years. • A skilful (commander) strikes a decisive blow, and stops. He does not dare (by continuing his operations) to assert and complete his mastery. He will strike the blow, but will be on his guard against being vain or boastful or arrogant in consequence of it. He strikes it as a matter of necessity; he strikes it, but not from a wish for mastery. • When things have attained their strong maturity they become old. This may be said to be not in accordance with the Tao: and what is not in accordance with it soon comes to an end. 8 Major Leaders rules w/o force; Leaders know the rules of the nature, including people (life cycles)
  • 31 有道不处 / Weapon • 夫佳兵者,不祥之器。物或恶之,故有道者不处。君子居则贵左,用兵则贵右。 兵者,不祥之器,非君子之器。不得已而用之,恬淡为上,胜而不美。而美之者 ,是乐杀人。夫乐杀人者,则不可以得志于天下矣。吉事尚左,凶事尚右。偏将 军居左,上将军居右,言以丧礼处之。杀人之众,以哀悲泣之。战胜,以丧礼处 之。• Now arms, however beautiful, are instruments of evil omen, hateful, it may be said, to all creatures. Therefore they who have the Tao do not like to employ them. • The superior man ordinarily considers the left hand the most honourable place, but in time of war the right hand. • Those sharp weapons are instruments of evil omen, and not the instruments of the superior man;—he uses them only on the compulsion of necessity. • Calm and repose are what he prizes; victory (by force of arms) is to him undesirable. To consider this desirable would be to delight in the slaughter of men; and he who delights in the slaughter of men cannot get his will in the kingdom. • On occasions of festivity to be on the left hand is the prized position; on occasions of mourning, the right hand. • The second in command of the army has his place on the left; the general commanding in chief has his on the right;—his place, that is, is assigned to him as in the rites of mourning. He who has killed multitudes of men should weep for them with the bitterest grief; and the victor in battle has his place (rightly) according to those rites. 9 Major Leaders don’t abuse their powers;
  • 47 不行而知 / Know w/o much travel • 不出户,知天下。不窥 X ,见天道。其出弥远,其知弥少。是以圣人不行 而知,不见而名,不为而成。 • Without going outside his door, one understands (all that takes place) under the sky; without looking out from his window, one sees the Tao of Heaven. • The farther that one goes out (from himself), the less he knows. • Therefore the sages got their knowledge w/o travelling; gave their (right) names to things w/o seeing them; and accomplished their ends w/o any purpose of doing so. 10 Major •Leaders do reflections; •Leaders know the inner world as much as the external; •Leaders won’t be confused by the colorful outside world. •MBS HK students can have global perspectives w/o travelling around the world, THINKING matters!
  • 60 徳交归焉 / Be Big & Drive Small • 治大国若烹小鲜。以道莅天下,其鬼不神;非其鬼不神,其神不 伤人;非其神不伤人,圣人亦不伤人。夫两不相伤,故德交归焉 。 • Governing a great state is like cooking small fish. • Let the kingdom be governed according to the Tao, and the manes of the departed will not manifest their spiritual energy. It is not that those manes have not that spiritual energy, but it will not be employed to hurt men. It is not that it could not hurt men, but neither does the ruling sage hurt them. • When these two do not injuriously affect each other, their good influences converge in the virtue (of the Tao). 11 Manes: 阴魂 Major •Leaders simplify complicated things with great wisdom, instead of making them even more complicated, as they know the rules. •China new leader quoted this: •Be big and Drive Small
  • 66 莫能与争 / Be Big but Position Low • 江海所以能为百谷王者,以其善其下,故能为百谷王。是以欲上民 ,必以言之下;欲先民,必以身后之。是以圣人处上而民不重,处 前而民不害,是以天下乐推而不厌。以其不争,故天下莫能与之争 。• That whereby the rivers and seas are able to receive the homage and tribute of all the valley streams, is their skill in being lower than they;— it is thus that they are the kings of them all. • So it is that the sage (ruler), wishing to be above men, puts himself by his words below them, and, wishing to be before them, places his person behind them. • In this way though he has his place above them, men do not feel his weight, nor though he has his place before them, do they feel it an injury to them. • Therefore all in the world delight to exalt him and do not weary of him. Because he does not strive, no one finds it possible to strive with him. 12 Major •Leaders are broadminded, to accommodate things, just like the sea receives all rivers; •Leaders provide platforms to all talents; •Great leaders don’t mind be low-profiled; •Leaders don’t fight for small things with people, as they aim at BIG
  • 78 柔之胜刚 / Soft vs. Hard • 天下莫柔弱于水,而攻坚强者莫之能胜,其无以易之。弱之胜强, 柔之胜刚,天下莫不知,莫能行。圣人云:受国之垢,是谓社稷主 ;受国之不祥,是为天下王。正言若反。 • There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water, and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it;— for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed. • Every one in the world knows that the soft overcomes the hard, and the weak the strong, but no one is able to carry it out in practice. • Therefore a sage has said, ‘He who accepts his state‘s reproach, is hailed , therefore its altars’ lord; To him who bears men‘s direful woes. they all the name of King accord.ʹ • Words that are strictly true seem to be paradoxical. 13 Major •Leaders are resilient; •Leaders take all responsibilities; •Leadership comes along with reproach and woes.
  • 79 报怨以德 / Keep in mind the overall situation • 和大怨, 必有余怨,安可以为善?是以圣人执左契而不责 于人。有德司契,无德司彻。无道无亲,常与善人。 • When a reconciliation is effected (between two parties) after a great animosity, there is sure to be a grudge remaining (in the mind of the one who was wrong). And how can this be beneficial (to the other)? • Therefore (to guard against this), the sage keeps the left-hand portion of the record of the engagement, and does not insist on the (speedy) fulfilment of it by the other party. • (So), he who has the attributes (of the Tao) regards (only) the conditions of the engagement, while he who has not those attributes regards only the conditions favouable to himself. • In the Way of Heaven, there is no partiality of love; it is always on the side of the good man. 14 Major •Leaders have great virtues; They don’t care small things but always keep in mind the overall situation
  • 15 • Leadership is more like an art instead of science which can never be explained clearly with certain theories. The ability of dealing with ambiguities & dilemmas are the essence of leadership, esp. in the time of turbulence. • As an art, leadership is well explained in this book. For example, the Water Traits - The highest excellence is like (that of) water. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things, and in its occupying, without striving (to the contrary) ..." Thus water can be the leader. • After working in big multi-national companies for over 16 years, I realized that real leaders should be a good thinker, who know people, know the big rules (of the universe) very well, instead of being a technical expert good at computers, or accounting, or even communication (to win the oral fights). • This book made me think more about leadership wisdom. It is a great book, for • Its long history (>2000 years) with brief chapters (~5000 Chinese Characters) • Being a classic book of China most famous thinker / philosopher • Its China Style Thinking, Critical Thinking • Linking many leadership theories: Traits, Behavior, Skills, Contingency, Reflective, etc.