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THE RISE OF MACEDON: THE END OF THE HELLENIC AGEI. Philip of Macedon (r. 359-336B.C.E.) 1. The youngest son of Amyntas III, the king of Macedon a. As a young man, Philip was a hostage in Thebes at the time when Thebes b. was the leading city-state in Greece under the leadership of Epaminondas Miniature ivory portrait identified as Philip II of Macedon. Royal tomb at Verghina.
While in Thebes, Philip understood the importance of the hoplite phalanx and thehoplite weapons and used this knowledge to reorganize the Macedonian army1) Macedonian phalanx: 16-32 men deep; 8-16 men in each file Macedonian phalanx: 16-32 men deep; 8-16 men in each file Macedonian hoplites had to use both hands to carry and wield the sarissa. The small (24-inches in diameter) shield (pelte) was strapped to the left forearm and could only protect the left shoulder The tight phalanx formation and the exceptional training and discipline of the hoplites were a must.
2. The Macedonian pike: the sarissa 13-21 feet long, weighing over 12 pounds Consisted of two wooden shafts joined by a bronze collar (tube) that were kept separated before battle This facilitated the march of the phalanx and, if broken, allowed the sarissa to be ―divided‖ into two weapons during the battle In the front, the short iron head of the sarissa was shaped like a leaf In the back, a bronze shoe balanced the sarissa and allowed it to be anchored firmly into the ground, creating a ―wall of pikes‖ in front of the army The bronze shoeThe iron head
2. Conflict with Greek city-states a. Philip II organized the kingdom of Macedon into a strong state and moved on to expand its borders b. Athens: Isocrates (436-388B.C.E.) lobbies for Philip vs. Demosthenes (384- 322B.C.E.) lobbies against PhilipBust of the Athenian orator Demosthenes Bust of Isocrates. Plaster cast of the bust(384-322B.C.E.) Roman marble copy of the formerly at Villa Albani, Rome. in Greek bronze statue by Polyeuktos The Pushkin Museum, Moscow. (ca. 280 B.C.E.). The British Museum, London.
The Lion of Chaeronea was erected by the Thebans to commemorate Theban hoplites who were killed at Chaeronea.In the Battle of Chaeronea in Boeotia in 338B.C.E., Philip II of Macedon defeatedGreek city-states lead by Athens and Thebes. This marked the loss ofindependence of Hellenic (Greek)city-states (poleis) and the supremacy ofMacedon
1. After the battle of Chaeronea, Greek city-states formed the Corinthian (Hellenic) league (yellow color on the map)2. Philip II became the hegemon (leader) and the commander in chief of the Corinthian League
Philip II of Macedon was assassinated by a bodyguard in October of 336. The reasons for hisassassination remain unclear.Entrance to the tomb of Philip II of Macedon in Verghina, Greece. The dooris made of marble in the Doric style.
The Vergina SunThe Golden Larnax that contains the remains (bones) from the burial of King Philip IIof Macedon and the royal golden wreath. Formerly located at the ThessalonicaArchaeological Museum, Greece, displayed since 1997 at the underground museumstage of Verghina, inside the Great Tumulus. The larnax was placed in the marblesarcophagus. It was made of 24 carat gold and weighing 24.25 pounds. Inside thegolden larnax were Philip’s bones and a golden wreath of 313 oak leaves and 68acorns, weighing 1.6 pounds.
The golden crown consisting of 313 oak leaves and 68 acorns, weighing 1.6 poundswas found in the tomb of Philip II of Macedon.
In the antechamber of Philip’s tomb, there was another sarcophagus withanother smaller golden larnax containing the bones of a woman wrapped in agolden-purple cloth with a golden diadem decorated with flowers and enamel.Most likely these belonged to Cleopatra, Philip II youngest wife.
Alexander III, ―The Great‖ (r. 336-323B.C.E.) After the assassination of his father Philip II in October of 336B.C.E., Alexander ascended to the throne of Macedon He put down the rebellion of the Greek city-states and destroyed Thebes (335B.C.E.) He defeated king Darius III of Persia (Granicus 334B.C.E.; Issus 333B.C.E.) Egypt surrendered in 332B.C.E. After the visit to the sanctuary of Ammon at Siwah, Alexander announced that he was the "Son of God" Alexander defeated of the Persians at Gaugamela (331B.C.E.) He entered India (327B.C.E.) through the Khyber Pass and reached the Indus plain: defeat of Porus at Hydaspes Alexander died at the age of 32 (323B.C.E.)
II. ALEXANDER III ―THE GREAT‖ (r. 336-323B.C.E.) A. Alexander put down the rebellion of the Greeks and destroyed Thebes 335B.C.E. B. Alexander defeated king Darius III of Persia 1. Battle of Granicus 334B.C.E. 2. Battle of Issus 333B.C.E. C. Egypt surrendered 332B.C.E. 1. Alexander visited to the sanctuary of Ammon at Siwah 2. Alexander announced that he was the "Son of God" D. Final defeat of the Persians at Gaugamela 331B.C.E. 1. Entered India through the Khyber Pass 327B.C.E. a. Defeated King Porus at Hydaspes Died at the age of 32 323B.C.E.
III. ALEXANDER’S GOALS A. Basic questions 1. Was Alexander a ―Philosopher‖ king and the ―unifier of mankind‖ (collective wedding at Opis in 324B.C.E. and Alexander’s marriage to Roxanne) as described by the Greek historian Plutarch (46- 120C.E.)? 2. Was Alexander a ruthless conqueror? B. Alexander wanted to create a world state (Cosmopolis) held together by Hellenic culture and ruled as an absolute theocratic monarchy 1. Used Attic dialect Koine as the official language 2. Wanted to rule as an absolute divinely appointed king a. Wore Persian clothing and, demanded proskynesis, and demanded to be addressed as the ―Great King‖ b. Married Persian princess Roxanne c. Executed Macedonians and Greeks (Philotas, Cleitus, and Callisthenes) who objected to the imposition of the customs and ceremonies of the Persian absolute theocratic court
Roman copy (1st –2nd century C.E.) of Lysippus’ Hermes-type bust of Alexander the Great. Theoriginal bore the inscription ―Alexander, Son of Philip, [king of] Macedonia‖. Pentalic marble.Found in Tivoli, east of Rome. Most realistic of all portraits of Alexander.
―Divine Alexander?‖ Egyptian alabaster statuette of Alexander the Great in the Brooklyn Museum.Statue of Alexander the Great at the IstanbulArchaeology Museum.
IV. ALEXANDER’S LEGACY A. Transformation from the POLIS to the COSMOPOLIS 1. Polis (Greek) = city-state + Cosmos (Greek) = ordered universe 2. Cosmopolis (Greek) = world state B. Creation of the oikoumene 1. Oikos (Greek) = household 2. Oikein (Greek) = to inhabit 3. Oikoumenikos (Greek) = belonging to the whole inhabited world 4. Ecumenical = universal C. Fusion of the Hellenic Civilization and the Ancient Near Eastern Civilizations D. Preservation of classical knowledge and education (paideia
Hellenistic Kingdoms1. Corinthian League (338-322B.C.E.): Confederation of Greek city-states created by Philip II of Macedon. Dissolved after its defeat against the Macedonian kingdom (the Lamian War)2. Achaean League (280-146B.C.E.): Confederation of Greek city-states on the Peloponnesus
II. Political system A. Theocratic, autocratic, military monarchies 1. Lost value of citizenship: Citizens vs. subjects B. Administration: Achaemenid model but dominated by Greco- Macedonians 1. All Hellenistic kings (Syria/Egypt, Macedonia) are Greco- Macedonians 2. Ruling class, military leadership, middle and upper classes are Greco Macedonian 3. Official language: KOINE (Attic dialect of Greek) C. Cities ARE NOT independent city-states 1. Cities ARE cultural, social, political, and administrative centers 2. Cities are good examples of great social disparities and social tensions that exist in the Hellenistic world D. Hellenistic Cosmopolis 1. Urban-centered and metropolitan civilization 2. Attempts of forced assimilation (the Maccabean Revolt)
Ptolemy VI Philometer (r.180-145B.C.E.)As Egyptian Pharaoh As Hellenistic king
Hellenistic culture Syncretism (fusion) of Greek (Hellenic) culture and Ancient Near Eastern culture Urban-centered and metropolitan civilization Art, philosophy, architecture: syncretism of Greek and Near Eastern influencesRoyal patronage of arts/culture/science Library and the Museum of Alexandria (500,000 papyri manuscripts) Library of Pergamum (200,000 parchment manuscripts)Hellenistic Art Realistic and emotional Exquisite detail
Laocoön and his sons, also known as the Laocoön Group. Copied from the original (ca.200 BC) by the three Rhodian sculptors Agesander, Athenedoros and Polydorus. MuseoPio-Clementino, Vatican.
The Aphrodite of Milos. Marble statue (ca.130-100B.C.E.) by Alexandros ofAntioch. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
Winged Nike (Victory) of Samothrace.Parian marble (ca. 190 B.C.E.) The LouvreMuseum, Paris.
The Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic statue from the late thirdcentury B.C.E. The Capitoline Museum. Rome.
The Thermae Boxer. Boxer at rest. Romancopy (3rd century C.E.) of a Hellenisticstatue (3rd century B.C.E.). Museo delleTerme, Rome.
Hellenistic philosophy: cosmopolitan universalism of the Hellenistic Age Hellenistic philosophers reflect the plight of the ALIENATED INDIVIDUAL in the Cosmopolis Search for the solution of human problems—quest for individual survival Reason (Epicureanism/Stoicism) vs. rejection of reason (Cynicism/Skepticism) Build on Hellenic and Eastern traditions WHAT is the PLACE of the INDIVIDUAL in the Oikoumene (the inhabited world)? Cosmopolitan universalism: prepared ground for political universalism (Rome) and religious universalism (Christianity)Hellenistic philosophies are not accessible to the uneducated, lower classes Epicureanism: gods are indifferent, insensitive, and irrelevant to human plight Stoicism: a deterministic and providential world-view Cynicism: extreme individualism and rejection of social norms Skepticism: complete inability to grasp the meaning of truth
Epicurus (ca. 341-270B.C.E.) Adopted Democritus’ atomism Established the Garden: the Epicurean School Individual happiness = AVOIDANCE OF PAIN Obstacles: fear of death and fear of the gods Epicureanism denies a provident God; affirms values of life and the world; denies immortality; and describes a randomly organized Cosmos Epicureanism is a complete opposite ofEpicurus leaning against his Christianitydisciple Metriodorus of Lampascus Epicureans are NOT Hedonists(the younger). Roman marble copy hedone (Greek) = pleasureof the Greek original (middle of the2nd century C.E.)The LouvreMuseum, Paris.
Epicurean teachings Cosmos consists of matter and void Matter consists of indestructible and indivisible particles in a variety of shapes (atoms) All combinations of atoms are random and finite in duration There are more worlds than this, and this world will eventually disperse Human beings are a combination of particularly fine atoms which form both body and mind in a single entity Death simply means ceasing to exist--the extinction of consciousness -- there is NOTHING to fear The Epicurean Garden: withdraw from the world and engage in intellectual discussion with friends Ataraxia: peaceful contentment--freedom from anxiety, particularly freedom from the fear of death and an afterlife (divine retribution)
Zeno of Citium (ca. 335-263B.C.E.) Builds on the teachings of Heraclitus and Socrates Divine Reason (Logos) is the most important factor in human behavior and in the divinely ordered Cosmos Individual happiness manifests itself in VIRTUOUS LIFE Christians will use Stoic vocabulary to express Christian theology The Word (Logos) = Christ “When all things began, the Word already was. The Word dwelt with God, and what God was, the Word was. The Word, then, was with God at the beginning, and through Him all things came to be; no single thing was created without Him. All that came to be was alive with His life, and that life was the light of men. The light shines on in the dark, and thePortrait of Zeno of darkness has never mastered it.”Citium. Copy of a (John 1:1-9)Greek original. ThePushkin Museum, Founded the tradition of the Natural Law (Rome);Moscow. great influence on Cicero Last major Stoic of the Ancient World: Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180C.E.)
Stoic teachings Stoa poikile (Greek) = painted porch Divine Logos orders everything and is omnipresent and conceived as fiery air At certain intervals the whole world is destroyed and reborn in a great fire before it repeats its predetermined history The only way to be happy is to live in harmony with the Logos To be free means to submit to the order of the Logos Manifestations of the Logos: fate/necessity and divine providence All contradiction in the Cosmos are ultimately resolved by the Logos The most important element of happiness is the virtuous state of the spirit, NOT material circumstances External events are irrelevant: duty, self-control, and discipline are the most important virtues Acceptance and endurance: human destiny is a link in an unbroken chain A Stoic is absolutely brave (pain and death are not evils); absolutely self- restrained (pleasure is not a good); absolutely just (not influenced by injustice or prejudice)All human beings share in the Divine Logos and are members of the universalhuman community (Oikoumene) that is a brotherhood of mankind and constitutes theWorld City (Cosmopolis). Each individual must participate actively in the affairs ofthe Cosmopolis and in doing so fulfill his duty. A slave (e.g. Epictetus) can be asvirtuous as a free man.
Antisthenes (fl. early 2nd century B.C.E.) Student of Socrates Major attack on ―civilized values‖ of the Ancient World Devotion to ―natural life‖ Cynics were considered to be misanthropes like the early Christians anthropos (Greek) = man; human being misanathropos (Greek) = one hating humanity Cynics were dedicated moralists not nihilists nihil (Latin) = nothing; nihilism = total rejection ofMarble portrait bust existing laws and institutionsof Antisthenes. mores (Latin) = customs; morality =adhering to theRoman copy of a principles of right conduct rather than legality or customslost Greek originalfrom around 300 Diogenes of Synope (ca. 400-323B.C.E.)B.C.E. The British Diogenes to Alexander the Great: “Get out of my light!”Museum, London. Diogenes to a slave buyer: “Sell me to him: he needs a master!” Searched in the daylight with a lantern for a truly ―just‖ man
Cynic teachings Happiness is based on VIRTUE VIRTUE is the ONLY good: the essence of virtue is self-control Giving in to any external influences is beneath the dignity of human beings Virtue is TAUGHT through the investigation of the MEANING OF WORDS; a person who UNDERSTANDS the meaning of words UNDERSTANDS the MEANING OF VIRTUE Whoever knows virtue must act virtuously; whoever attains the knowledge of virtue never loses it Attachment to things in this world is the source of unhappiness kyion (Greek) = dog; kynikos (Greek) = dog-like One must renounce all material possessions, society, and pleasure One must reject conventions One must cultivate self-sufficiency: the ―natural life‖ Taught against class inequalities, greed, and hatred and defied conventions
“I am not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of the world…” “I threw my cup away when I saw a child drinking from his hands at the trough…” “The mob is the mother of tyrants…” “The great thieves lead away the little thief…” “Time is the most valuable thing a man can spend…”Statue of Diogenes. Sinop, Turkey
Pyrrhon of Elis (ca. 360-272B.C.E.) skopein (Greek) = to look at; to examine skepticos (Greek) = a person who examines; a doubtful person Skeptics employ LOGIC to show the futility of the pursuit of metaphysical truth When trying to determine the truth, one must ask the following questions: 1. What is THIS, and what does IT consist of? 2. How am I RELATED TO IT? 3. What kind of ATTITUDE should I have TOWARD IT?Skeptic teachings No truths can be known for certain One can only know how things appear, not what they actually are A happy person remains in the state of constant suspended judgment A happy person neither affirms nor denies the possibility of knowledge A happy person lives in the state of open-minded indifference and waits to see what might emerge The process of ―truth finding‖ is indefinite: any conflict between the two apparent ―truths‖ is settled by appeal to some other ―truth‖ which, in turn, must be validated by another ―truth‖ Akatalepsia: every statement of absolute truth contains its own contradiction NOTHING is certain; not even THAT!
Popular beliefs and religious cults of the Hellenistic AgeMystery religions: salvation and eternal blessings mysterion (Greek) = a secret thing religio (Latin) = consciousness; piety religare (Latin) = to bind together Mostly (but not exclusively) relevant to the lower classes Emotional and religious needs of the majority of the population are met by mystery religions Syncretism: combination of Greek, Egyptian, Near-eastern religious beliefs Otherworldly: offer possibility of immortality and ―salvation‖ from the imprisonment of THIS world Mostly relevant for the lower classes Sense of helplessness reflect the socio-political changes—the old commitment to the polis no longer exists Individuals are looking for their place in the Cosmopolis Prepared the ground for Christianity
Cybele and Attis Cybele was originally an Anatolian mother goddess She became associated with the Greek Goddess Demeter and with the Roman Magna Mater (―Great Mother‖) According to myth, Cybele fell in love with a beautiful shepherd, Attis (her son?) When she heard that he was about to marry a princess (or fell in love with a nymph?), enraged Cybele made him insane In a fit of madness, Attis castrated himself at the foot of a pine tree The drops of his blood were transformed into violets that sprang out of the earth Cybele who could not get over Attis’ death, used her powers to restore him to life, and they were reunitedMarble statue of Cybele Cybele then founded a cult with Attis as a main priest(ca.60B.C.E.) found in in which the pine tree became a sacred treeFormia, Campania. Some ancient sources state that the priests of Cybele and the most devoted followers of her cult castrated themselves
Eleusinian mysteries: the legend of Demeter and Persephone Demeter was the Earth goddess of the seasons and the harvest Her daughter, Persephone, was abducted by Hades, god of the Underworld Hades made Persephone his queen and the goddess of the Underworld As Demeter searched for her lost daughter, life on earth stopped In order to save the dying earth, Zeus sent Hermes to bring Persephone back Hades agreed to let her go provided that she had not eaten any food while in the underworld However, Persephone had eaten some pomegranateDemeter, seated on her seeds after her abduction, and she had to return toThrone, greets her daughter Hades for a period of the year which corresponds toPersephone. autumn and winter months She returns every spring, the period of new life and renewal on earth
Dionysus and his thiasus (ecstatic retinue). Upper tier of an Attic black-figure krater-psykter/wine cooling vessel (ca. 525–500B.C.E.). The LouvreMuseum, Paris.
Dionysian mysteries: the ―irrational‖ side of life and the possibility of―rebirth‖ Zeus fell in love with Semele, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and she conceived Dionysus Zeus promised Semele that he would give her anything she wanted Jealous Hera tricked Semele into asking Zeus to appear to her as a god Love-stricken Zeus could not refuse, and he came to Semele in a chariot of thunder and lightening He directed a thunderbolt at Semele who died out of fright Zeus then took the six-month old Dionysus, placed him in his thigh, and, in due time, ―gave birth‖ to him Dionysus was a god of wine, intoxication, ecstasy, and theatre, perceived as man and animal, young and old, male and effeminate Festivals of Dionysus were often characterized by reversal of social roles, cross-dressing by boys and men, drinking, and phallus-bearing processions The practitioners of ―ritual madness,‖ the maenads, were women who went to the mountains (e.g., Mt. Parnassus at Delphi) every other year to participate in Dionysian rites Some of the rites involved sacrificing of a bull or a goat as manifestations of Dionysus, mixing the animal blood with wine, and drinking it An alternative custom was tearing the body of the animal apart and ingesting morsels of its flesh Dionysus is associated with life, death, and ―rebirth"
Tyche (Fortune) of Antioch. Marble statue,Roman copy of a Greek bronze statue bythe Hellenistic sculptor Eutychides (3rdcentury B.C.E.). Vatican Museum, Rome.
Imperial Cult: Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus: ―Victorious general, Divinely Favored Caesar, the Son of God‖The Gemma Augustea (1st century C.E.) is a low-relief cameo gem cut from a double-layered Arabian onyx stone, commemorating Octavian’s rule. Octavian is representedas Jupiter.
The cult of Good Fortune: Tyche Tyche is perceived as a goddessRuler cults Antigonus and Demetrius (ca. 307) in Athens Ruler cult of the Seleucids (Seleucid kingdom) Ruler cult of the Ptolemies (Ptolemaic Egypt) Ruler cult of the Attalids (Pergamum)Sense of helplessness reflects socio-political changes Worship of deified rulers: political expression of loyalty to theocratic states The commitment to the Hellenic polis no longer exists: citizens vs. subjects Rome will control all Hellenistic kingdoms except Egypt by 146B.C.E. Octavian’s victory over Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII at Actium (31B.C.E.) marks the end of the Hellenistic Age: Ptolemaic Egypt will become a Roman Imperial province