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  •                                              VOL. 2, NO. 12, December 2011 ISSN 2079-8407 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.   http://www.cisjournal.org  Design of Coaxial fed Microstrip Patch Antenna for 2.4GHz BLUETOOTH Applications Govardhani.Immadi 1, M.S.R.S Tejaswi 2, M.Venkata Narayana 3 N.Anil Babu 4, G.Anupama 5, K.Venkata Ravi teja 6 1,3 Assoc. professor, Department of ECE, K L University 2 project studens, Department of ECE, K L University 4, 5 project studens, Department of ECE, K L University 6 M.Tech Thesis student, Department of ECE, K L University Email: govardhanee@gmail.com, tejaswi.ec@gmail.com ABSTRACTIn this paper, a novel design of small sized, low profile coaxial fed patch antenna is proposed for BLUETOOTHapplications at 2.4GHz frequency. The patch shape is similar to and different parameters like return loss, VSWR, gainalong Θ, Ø directions, radiation pattern in 2-D and 3-D, axial ratio, E and H Field Distributions, Current Distributions aresimulated using HFSS 13.0. The measured parameters satisfy required limits hence making the proposed antenna suitablefor BLUETOOTH applications in 2.4GHz band.Keywords: Coaxial fed, Bluetooth, FR4 1. INTRODUCTION solar cells is required to achieve desired shape during fabrication. Monoplole[12], printed monopole[21]-[26], The BLUETOOTH technology provides short range of dipole[11] antennas improve the bandwidth to a greaterwireless connections between electronic devices like extent. But, monopole antennas are of large size andcomputers, mobile phones and many others thereby difficult to build and integrate. Printed monopole antennasexchanging voice, data and video. The rapid increase in also have numerous advantages like low profile, smallcommunication standards has led to great demand for size, easy integration but has disadvantage of low broadantennas with low real estate, low profile and size, low impedence bandwidth and low omnidirectional radiationcost of fabrication and ease of integration with feeding pattern. The dipole antennas have large input impedence.network. Microstrip patch antennas are widely used So, an impedence matching transformer or balun coil atbecause they are of light weight, compact, easy to feed point is required which increases the size of antenna.integrate and cost effective. However, the serious problemof patch antennas is their narrow bandwidth due to surface In this paper, a compact size patch antenna is proposedwave losses and large size of patch for better performance. with dielectric substrate as FR4 with εr=4.4 and dimensions are base on resonant frequency. Various Various techniques like using Frequency Selective attempts are made to adjust the dimensions of the patch toSurface[13]-[14], Employing stacked configuration[6], impove the parameters like return loss, VSWR, gain alongusing thicker profile for folded shorted patch antennas[8], Θ,Ø directions, radiation pattern in 2-D and 3-D, axialuse of thicker substrate[10], slot antennas ike U-slot patch ratio, E and H Field Distributions, Current Distributionsantennas together with shorted patch[4], double U-slot using HFSS 13.0 which is a high performance full wavepatch antenna[5], L-slot patch antenna[8], annular slot EM field simulator for arbitarary 3D volumetric passiveantenna[9], double C patch antenna[3], E-shaped patch device modelling that takes advantage of the familiarantenna[2], and feeding techniques like L-probe feed[7], Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. It integratescircular coaxial probe feed[1], proximity coupled feed are simulation, visualization, solid modelling, and automationused to enhance bandwidth of microstrip patch antenna. in an easy to learn environment where solutions to yourThe size of feeding patch and thickness of dielectric 3D EM problems are quickly and accurate obtained.should be taken care. The techniques to reduce the size of Ansoft HFSS employs the Finite Element Method (FEM),the [patch like use of short circuited element[15]-[16], adaptive meshing, and brilliant graphics to give youhigh dielectric constant material[17], slots[10], and unparalleled performance and insight to all of the 3D EMresistive loading[19] have been proposed. problems. But, the choice of slot antenna[20] introduced the 2. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSdrawback of narrow bandwidth and poor circular The proposed structure of the antenna is shown in Fig.polarization performance and complex laser cutting of (1). The antenna is simulated on an FR4 substrate with a   686
  •                                              VOL. 2, NO. 12, December 2011 ISSN 2079-8407 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.   http://www.cisjournal.org dielectric constant of 4.4 and a loss tangent of 0.02. The 3. SIMULATION RESULTSthickness of the substrate is 6.7 mm. The size of theantenna is 80* 80 mm2 , which is suitable for most A. Return lossesBluetooth devices. Rectangle shaped patches are cut atmiddle to form shaped patch antenna and width of Ansoft Corporation Name X Y Return loss Patch_Antenna_ADKv1each arm is 25mm. 0.00 m2 2.4121 -20.3133 Curve Info m3 3.0182 -13.9963 dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1)) Setup1 : Sw eep1 -5.00 d B (S t(c o a x _ p in _ T 1 ,c o a x _ p in _ T 1 )) -10.00 m3 -15.00 -20.00 m2 -25.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 Freq [GHz] Fig. 3: Return loss Fig. 1: Geometry of Patch antenna Figure (3) shows the return loss Curve for the proposed antenna at 2.4 GHz. A return loss of 22.90dB is obtained A patch can also be fed with a probe through ground at desired frequencyplane. The probe position can be inset for matching the B. 2D Gain & 3D gain Totalspatch impedance with the input impedance. This insettingminimizes probe radiation. The ease of insetting and low Ansoft Corporation Name X Y 2D Gain Total Patch_Antenna_ADKv1radiations is advantages of probe feeding as compared to 10.00 m1 -40.0000 8.9249 m1 Curve Infomicrostrip line feeding. The dimensions of shaped dB(GainTotal) 5.00 Setup1 : LastAdaptive Phi=0degpatch shown in Fig. (1) are L=80mm, W=20mm,S=16mm, -0.00 dB(GainTotal) Setup1 : LastAdaptiveW1=20mm.these are designed at operating frequency 2.4 Phi=90.0000000000002deg -5.00GHz. d B ( G a i n T o ta l ) -10.00 -15.00 -20.00 -25.00 -30.00 -35.00 -200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 Theta [deg] Fig .4: 2D-Gain Total Fig. 2: Ansoft-HFSS generated antenna model Figure 2 shows the proposed antenna on FR4 Substrateusing Ansoft-HFSS. Fig. 5: 3D-Gain Total Figure (4-5) shows the antenna gain in 2D &3D patterns. The gain of proposed antenna at 2.4GHz is obtained as 8.9367dB. The gain above 6dB is acceptable.   687
  •                                              VOL. 2, NO. 12, December 2011 ISSN 2079-8407 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.   http://www.cisjournal.org C. VSWR degrees would be important. The radiation pattern for proposed microstrip patch antenna for gain-Total, phi and Ansoft Corporation VSWR Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 theta at 0deg and 90deg is presented in figure 6(a), 6(b) Name X Y 45.00 m1 2.4121 1.6809 Curve Info m2 40.00 3.0424 3.4260 dB(VSWRt(coax_pin_T1)) Setup1 : Sw eep1 and 6(c). 35.00 E. Axial Ratio d B (V S W R t(c o a x _ p in _ T 1 ) ) 30.00 Ansoft Corporation Name X Y XY Plot 5 Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 25.00 90.00 m1 -46.0000 67.3461 Curve Info m2 48.0000 33.5651 dB(AxialRatioValue) 20.00 m3 80.00 168.0000 24.0193 Setup1 : LastAdaptive Phi=0deg dB(AxialRatioValue) 15.00 70.00 m1 Setup1 : LastAdaptive Phi=90.0000000000002deg 60.00 10.00 d B (A xia lR a tio V a lu e ) 50.00 5.00 m2 m1 40.00 0.00 m2 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 30.00 Freq [GHz] m3 20.00 Fig.6: VSWR 10.00 0.00 -200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 The VSWR for the proposed antenna is less than the Theta [deg]2dB. The obtained value is 1.5089 from Fig 6. Fig.8: Axial Ratio Axial ratio which is the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis of the polarization ellipse where the resulting pattern is an oscillating pattern is obtained as in Fig 8D.Radiation Patterns Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 1 Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 0 Curve Info -30 0.00 30 dB(rETotal) Setup1 : LastAdaptive Phi=0deg F. Field Distrubutions dB(rETotal) -10.00 Setup1 : LastAdaptive -60 60 Phi=90.0000000000002deg -20.00 -30.00 -90 90 -120 120 -150 150 -180 Fig. 7a. Gain in Total Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 2 Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 0 Curve Info dB(rEPhi) -30 30 Setup1 : LastAdaptive -20.00 Phi=0deg dB(rEPhi) -30.00 Setup1 : LastAdaptive -60 60 Phi=90.0000000000002deg -40.00 -50.00 -90 90 Fig.9a: E-field Distribution -120 120 The effect produced by an electric charge that exerts a -150 150 force on charged objects is the E-Field and its distribution -180 in the patch is as shown in Fig 9a. Fig. 7b. Gain along Phi Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 3 Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 0 Curve Info dB(rETheta) -30 30 Setup1 : LastAdaptive -2.00 Phi=0deg dB(rETheta) -14.00 Setup1 : LastAdaptive -60 60 Phi=90.0000000000002deg -26.00 -38.00 -90 90 -120 120 -150 150 -180 Fig. 7c: Gain along Theta Since a Micro strip patch antenna radiates normal to itspatch surface, the elevation pattern for φ = 0 and φ = 90 Fig.9b: H-field Distribution   688
  •                                              VOL. 2, NO. 12, December 2011 ISSN 2079-8407 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.   http://www.cisjournal.org  The measured intensity of a magnetic field in the patch the proposed antenna works well at the required 2.4GHzis shown in Fig 9b. BLUETOOTH frequency band.G. Current Distrubution ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors like to express their thanks to the department of ECE and the management of K L University for their support and encouragement during this work. REFERENCES [1] M A Matin, M.P Saha, H. M. Hasan “Design of Broadband Patch Antenna for WiMAX and WLAN” ICMMT 2010 Proceedings, pp. 1-3 [2] F. Yang, X. X. Zhang, X. Ye, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Wide-band Eshaped patch antennas for wireless communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 49, Fig.10: Mess Pattern no. 7, pp. 1094–1100, Jul. 2001. [3] M. Sanad, “Double C-patch antennas having different The triangles show the current distribution.Here the aperture shapes,” in Proc. IEEE AP-S Symp., Newportnumber of triangles inside the patch are more than those Beach, CA, Jun. 1995, pp. 2116–2119.on the substrate ie.. the current distribution in the patch ismore when compared to that inside the substrate in Fig10. [4] Shackelford, A.K., Lee, K.F., and Luk, K.M.: ‘Design of small-size widebandwidth microstrip-patch antennas’, IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., 2003, AP-45, (1), pp. 75–83 [5] H. F. AbuTarboush, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and R.H. Field Vectors: Nilavalan, “Triple band double U-slots patch antenna for WiMAx mobile applications,” in Proc. Of APCC, Tokyo, Feb. 2008, pp. 1-3. [6] Waterhouse, R.B.: ‘Broadband stacked shorted patch’, Electron. Lett. 1999, 35, (2), pp. 98–100 [7] Guo, Y.X., Luk, K.M., and Lee, K.F.: ‘L-probe proximity-fed shortcircuited patch antennas’, Electron. Lett., 1999, 35, (24), pp. 2069–2070 [8]K.L. Lau and K.M. Luk ” Wideband folded L-slot shorted-patch Antenna” ELECTRONICS LETTERS 29th Fig 11a: E-Field Vector September 2005 Vol. 41 No. 20 [9]Madhur Deo Upadhayay1, A.Basu2, S.K.Koul3 and Mahesh P. Abegaonkar4,”Dual Port ASA for Frequency Switchable Active Antenna” 978-1-4244-2802- 1/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE, pp.2722-2725 [10] R.Chair, K.F. Lee,K.M.Luk “Bandwidth and cross- polarisation characteristics of quarter wave shorted patch antenna” microwave and op.technol.Latt,vol-22 no 2,pp.101-103,1999 [11] N. Zhang, P. Li, B. Liu, X.W. Shi and Y.J. Wang “Dual-band and low cross-polarisation printed dipole antenna with L-slot and tapered structure for WLAN Fig 11b: H-Field Vector applications” ELECTRONICS LETTERS 17th March 2011 Vol. 47 No. 6 The E-Field Vector and H-Field vectors of proposed [12] Xue-jie Liaa, Hang-chun Yang and Na Han “ANpatch antenna are obtained as shown in Fig 11a and 11b. IMPROVED DUAL BAND-NOTCHED UWB ANTENNA WITH A PARASITIC STRIP AND A 4. CONCLUSIONS DEFECTED GROUND PLANE” 2010 International Finally, the optimum dimension of circular polarized Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing andpatch antenna on FR4 substrate for BLUETOOTH Communication Systems (lSPACS 2010) December 6-applications has been investigated. The performance 8,2010, 978-1-4244-7371-7/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEEproperties are analyzed for the optimized dimensions and   689
  •                                              VOL. 2, NO. 12, December 2011 ISSN 2079-8407 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.   http://www.cisjournal.org [13] Hsing-Yi Chen and Yu Tao “Performance [21] Ke-Ren Chen, Chow-Yen-Desmond Sim, Member,Improvement of a U-Slot Patch Antenna Using a Dual- IEEE, and Jeen-Sheen Row “A Compact MonopoleBand Frequency Selective Surface With Modified Antenna for Super Wideband Applications” IEEEJerusalem Cross Elements” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATIONANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO. 9, LETTERS, VOL. 10, 2011, pp. 488-491SEPTEMBER 2011,pp 3482-3486 [22] N.D. Trang, D.H. Lee and H.C. Park “ Compact[14] Hsing-Yi Chen and Yu Tao “Antenna Gain and printed CPW-fed monopole ultra-wideband antenna withBandwidth Enhancement Using Frequency Selective triple subband notched characteristics “ELECTRONICSSurface with Double Rectangular Ring Elements” 978-1- LETTERS 19th August 2010 Vol. 46 No. 174244-6908-6/10/201 0 IEEE, pp. 271-274 [23] L. Y. Cai, G. Zeng, H. C. Yang“Compact Triple band [15] S. Pinhas and S. Shtrikman, “Comparison between Antenna for Bluetooth/WiMAX/WLAN Applications”computed and measured bandwidth of quarter-wave Proceedings of International Symposium on Signals,microstrip radiators,” IEEE Trans.Antennas Propag., vol. Systems and Electronics (ISSSE2010)36, no. 11, pp. 1615–1616, 1988. [24] Zhi-Qiang Li, Chang-Li Ruan “a small integrated[16] R. Waterhouse, “Small microstrip patch antenna,” Bluetooth and UWB antennas with WLAN band notchedElectron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 604–605, 1995. characteristics”, proceedings of ISSSE 2010.[17] J. R. Games, A. J. Schuler, and R. F. Binham, [25] Mohamed H. Al Sharkawy “MINIATURIZED“Reduction of antenna dimensions by dielectric loading,” WIDEBAND SLOTTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA FORElectron. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 263–265, 1974. WLAN APPLICATIONS” (c) 2010-IEEE APS, Middle East Conference on Antennas and Propagation[18] K. L. Wong and K. P. Yang, “Compact dual-frequency microstrip antenna with a pair of bent slots,” (MECAP),Cairo, Egypt, 20.10.2010Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 225–226, 1998. [26] L.Y. Cai, Y. Li, G. Zeng and H.C. Yang “Compact[19] K. L. Wong and Y. F. Lin, “Small broadband wideband antenna with double-fed structure having band- notched characteristics” ELECTRONICS LETTERS 11threctangular microstrip antenna with chip-resistor loading,”Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 19, pp. 1593–1594, 1997. November 2010 Vol. 46 No. 23[20] Shynu S.V. #, Maria J. Roo Ons#, Max J. Ammann#, [27] Comparative Analysis of Exponentially Shaped Microstrip-Fed Planar Monopole Antenna With andSarah McCormack*, Brian Norton*” Dual Band a-Si:HSolar-Slot Antenna for 2.4/5.2GHz WLAN Without Notch M. Venkata Narayana1, I.Govadhani2,Applications”pp.408-410 K.P.Sai Kumar, K. Pushpa Rupavathi.   690