 History (introduction). Comparison b/w Film-Based and Digital  Radiography. Types of Digital Radiographs (two  classif...
Majd Hasanin
   Digital or electronic imaging has been    available for more than a decade. The first    direct digital imaging system...
   Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film    has been the primary medium for    capturing, displaying, and storing  ...
 Digital radiography is the latest  advancement in dental imaging. It is slowly being adopted by the dental  profession....
Majd Hasanin
   Film-based imaging consists of X-ray    interaction with electrons in the film    emulsion.   Through chemical proces...
   Digital imaging is the result of X-ray    interaction with electrons in electronic    sensor pixels (picture elements)...
Majd Hasanin
Majd Hasanin
Majd Hasanin
   There are two main types of Digital    Radiography:    1- Direct Digital Imaging.    2- Indirect Digital Imaging.     ...
   Direct Digital Imaging is subdivided into    two:1- Direct Digital Imaging.  2- Semi-direct Image Plate Systems.      ...
   DirectImaging:    › Produces the image immediatelyon the     monitor post-exposure.   Semi-direct imaging:    › It ha...
   A digital image can be produced by    scanning conventional radiographsusing    a flatbed scanner and a transparency  ...
Figure showing Wired and Wireless Intra-oral Sensors                                  Majd Hasanin
 According to the films:A- Extra-oral:  1- Cephalometric.  2- Panorama.  3- Tomographic;(to view available bone in a faci...
Majd Hasanin
1- Proper infection control of the intraoral  sensor2- Placement of the sensor in the  patient’s/client’s mouth on a  conv...
4- Digitalized conversion of the analog  image into the computer5- Display of the digital image on the  computer monitor f...
Majd Hasanin
1- Enhancement of Images:       Superior gray-scale resolution of 256 colors ofgray in comparison with 16 to 25 shades of ...
Majd Hasanin
2- 3-D Reconstruction:   This application can be theoretically usedto   reconstruct intra- and extra-oral images. The uses...
4- Storage:   CD ROM can hold over 30,000 images. Thismeans   that images can be stored cheaply and indefinitely5- Time:  ...
6- Environmentally Friendly:   No processing chemicals are used or disposed .7- Teleradiology:   The digital image file ca...
8- Darkroom is no longer needed :   So it is economically convenient, now this space   can be used for other more useful p...
10- Patient Education:  Taking a digital radiograph and immediately  explaining the findings as the patient views the  con...
Majd Hasanin
1- Cost.2- Medicolegal:   The ability to manipulate the images for fraudulent   purposes.3- Cross-infection control:   the...
Majd Hasanin
   Used in almost all dental specialties;    › Detection of tumors.    › Detection of metastatic hard tissue lesions.    ...
Majd Hasanin
Majd Hasanin
Majd Hasanin
Majd Hasanin
   This is one of the newest and most    expensive types of digital radiography    available, yet is quickly becoming one...
An enhanced cone beam                         The CB radiograph is used for(CB) radiograph with nerve                    i...
Majd Hasanin
Digital Radiography
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Digital Radiography

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Digital Radiography

  1. 1.  History (introduction). Comparison b/w Film-Based and Digital Radiography. Types of Digital Radiographs (two classifications). Procedural Steps. Advantages and Disadvantages. Indications and Uses. Majd Hasanin
  2. 2. Majd Hasanin
  3. 3.  Digital or electronic imaging has been available for more than a decade. The first direct digital imaging system, RadioVisioGraphy (RVG), was invented by Dr. Frances Mouyensand manufactured by Trophy Radiologie(Vincennes, France) in 1984. Described in the U. S. dental literature in 1989. Majd Hasanin
  4. 4.  Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Majd Hasanin
  5. 5.  Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging. It is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Majd Hasanin
  6. 6. Majd Hasanin
  7. 7.  Film-based imaging consists of X-ray interaction with electrons in the film emulsion. Through chemical processing we transform the latent image into a visible one. Film is a relatively inefficient radiation detector and, thus, requires relatively high radiation exposure. Majd Hasanin
  8. 8.  Digital imaging is the result of X-ray interaction with electrons in electronic sensor pixels (picture elements). Conversion of analog data to digital data, computer processing, and display of the visible image on a computer screen. Majd Hasanin
  9. 9. Majd Hasanin
  10. 10. Majd Hasanin
  11. 11. Majd Hasanin
  12. 12.  There are two main types of Digital Radiography: 1- Direct Digital Imaging. 2- Indirect Digital Imaging. Majd Hasanin
  13. 13.  Direct Digital Imaging is subdivided into two:1- Direct Digital Imaging. 2- Semi-direct Image Plate Systems. Majd Hasanin
  14. 14.  DirectImaging: › Produces the image immediatelyon the monitor post-exposure. Semi-direct imaging: › It has an intermediate phase, whereby the image is produced on the monitor following scanning by laser. Majd Hasanin
  15. 15.  A digital image can be produced by scanning conventional radiographsusing a flatbed scanner and a transparency adaptor, or by usinga charged coupled device camera instead of the flatbed scanner. This image can then be manipulated using software packages orbe passed on to a second party via a modem. Majd Hasanin
  16. 16. Figure showing Wired and Wireless Intra-oral Sensors Majd Hasanin
  17. 17.  According to the films:A- Extra-oral: 1- Cephalometric. 2- Panorama. 3- Tomographic;(to view available bone in a facial-lingual view for implant planning).B- Intra-oral: 1- Periapicals. 2- Bitewings. Majd Hasanin
  18. 18. Majd Hasanin
  19. 19. 1- Proper infection control of the intraoral sensor2- Placement of the sensor in the patient’s/client’s mouth on a conventional film holder. Paralleling technique is the preferred exposure method.3- Radiation exposure of the sensor with conventional radiographic unit. Majd Hasanin
  20. 20. 4- Digitalized conversion of the analog image into the computer5- Display of the digital image on the computer monitor for diagnostic purposes of the current procedure. Majd Hasanin
  21. 21. Majd Hasanin
  22. 22. 1- Enhancement of Images: Superior gray-scale resolution of 256 colors ofgray in comparison with 16 to 25 shades of gray on aconventional film. Enhancement Options Include: - coloring of image areas- magnification based on density,- contrast - sharpness- brightness/darkness - image orientation and pseudocolour alteration. Majd Hasanin
  23. 23. Majd Hasanin
  24. 24. 2- 3-D Reconstruction: This application can be theoretically usedto reconstruct intra- and extra-oral images. The uses rangefrom profiling root canals to visualizing facial fractures inall three dimensions.3- Filtration: The addition of filters to the airspace around theface can clarify the soft tissue profile if the original softtissue image was poor Majd Hasanin
  25. 25. 4- Storage: CD ROM can hold over 30,000 images. Thismeans that images can be stored cheaply and indefinitely5- Time: theimage is displayed at the chairside immediately post exposure. Majd Hasanin
  26. 26. 6- Environmentally Friendly: No processing chemicals are used or disposed .7- Teleradiology: The digital image file can be further sent to colleaguesfor review (e.g: via email). Majd Hasanin
  27. 27. 8- Darkroom is no longer needed : So it is economically convenient, now this space can be used for other more useful purposes in the dental office.9- Dose Reduction: Based on the type of radiograph being taken, radiation can be reduced by as much as 3 to 4 or more times as conventional. Majd Hasanin
  28. 28. 10- Patient Education: Taking a digital radiograph and immediately explaining the findings as the patient views the condition on an operatory monitor is extremely useful and practical, and it improves acceptance of treatment options and plans. Majd Hasanin
  29. 29. Majd Hasanin
  30. 30. 1- Cost.2- Medicolegal: The ability to manipulate the images for fraudulent purposes.3- Cross-infection control: the intraoral sensor CANNOT be sterilized4- Sensor dimensions: the sensor is bulky in size. Majd Hasanin
  31. 31. Majd Hasanin
  32. 32.  Used in almost all dental specialties; › Detection of tumors. › Detection of metastatic hard tissue lesions. › As a follow up upon trauma or surgery. › Healing of the periapical lesions after endo tx. › During instrumentation. › For implant analysis. › Detection of caries and periodontal diseases. › Detection of any perforation to the surrounding soft tissue (eg: Maxillary Sinus)… and many other uses. Majd Hasanin
  33. 33. Majd Hasanin
  34. 34. Majd Hasanin
  35. 35. Majd Hasanin
  36. 36. Majd Hasanin
  37. 37.  This is one of the newest and most expensive types of digital radiography available, yet is quickly becoming one of the most useful. A scan in the area of interest is taken, and the resulting image is displayed as image slices and/or 3-dimensional (3-D) images of the area. Majd Hasanin
  38. 38. An enhanced cone beam The CB radiograph is used for(CB) radiograph with nerve implant planning and removal ofidentification for implant planning. third molars. Majd Hasanin
  39. 39. Majd Hasanin
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