Blood Diseases


Published on

Short brief trying to summarize blood diseases in general, including the definition, types, symptoms and treatment options.

Published in: Healthcare
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Blood Diseases

  1. 1. By: Majd Hasanin 1
  2. 2. Introduction: BloodBlood is the life-maintaining fluidthat circulates through thebodys heart, arteries, veins, andcapillaries. It carries away wastematter and carbon dioxide, andbrings nourishment, electrolytes,hormones, vitamins, antibodies,heat, and oxygen to the tissues. 2
  3. 3. Introduction: BloodBecause the functions of blood are manyand complex, there are many disorders thatrequire clinical care by a physician or otherhealthcare professional. These conditionsinclude benign (non-cancerous) disorders,as well as cancers that occur in blood… 3
  4. 4. Blood DiseasesTypes of Blood Diseases:I. AnemiaII. Bleeding DisordersIII. HemochromatosisIV. Hodgkins DiseaseV. LeukemiaVI. Non-Hodgkins LymphomaVII. Thrombocythemia 4
  5. 5. AnemiaAnemia is a common blood disorder, which iscaused when there is a drop in hemoglobin orhematocrit in the blood.Hemoglobin - the part of blood that distributesoxygen from the lungs to tissues in the body.hematocrit - the measurement of the percentageof red blood cells found in a specific volume ofblood. 5
  6. 6. Symptoms of Anemia• Tachycardia• Dyspnea• Fatigue• Dizziness, or vertigo, especially when standing,headache. 6
  7. 7. Symptoms of Anemia con’t• Absent or delayed menstruation(amenorrhea).• Glossitis.• Jaundice, or yellowing of skin, eyes, andmouth.• Impaired wound and tissue healing. 7
  8. 8. Causes of Anemia1. Infections.2. Certain diseases.3. Certain medications.4. Poor nutrition.5. Blood loss. 8
  9. 9. Types of AnemiaI. Iron-deficiency anemiaII. Megaloblastic (pernicious) anemiaIII. Anemia of folate deficiencyIV. Hemolytic anemia.V. Sickle cell anemia.VI. Cooleys anemia (beta thalassemia).VII. Aplastic anemia.VIII. Chronic anemia. 9
  10. 10. Types of Anemia (cont) 10
  11. 11. Sickle cell anemia. Normal blood cell. 11
  12. 12. Treatment of Anemia Treatment of the causative disease. Vitamin and mineral supplements. Change in diet. Medication. Blood transfusion. Bone marrow transplant. Surgery (to remove the spleen, if related tohemolytic anemia). Antibiotics (if an infection is the causative agent). 12
  13. 13. 2. Blood DisordersTypes of Blood Disorders:A. Hemophilia..B. Thrombocytopenia.. 13
  14. 14. A. HemophiliaHemophilia is an inherited bleeding, orcoagulation, disorder. Persons withhemophilia lack the ability to stop bleedingbecause of the low levels, or completeabsence, of specific proteins, called "factors,"in their blood that are necessary for clotting.Proper clotting of blood helps preventexcessive bleeding. 14
  15. 15. Hemophilia (cont)There are several types of hemophilia, but the mostcommon and well known include the following:hemophilia A - lack of factor VIIIhemophilia B - lack of factor IXIn the US, there are about 20,000 persons who havehemophilia, and each year approximately 400 babiesare born with the disease. 15
  16. 16. Causes of HemophiliaHemophilia types A and B are inherited diseasespassed on from a gene located on the Xchromosome. Females have two Xchromosomes, while males have one X and oneY chromosome.. 16
  17. 17. Causes of Hemophilia (cont)A female carrier of hemophilia has thehemophilia gene on one of her Xchromosomes, and there is a 50 percentchance that she may pass the defective geneto her male offspring. 17
  18. 18. Causes of Hemophilia (cont)Males who inherit the defective gene will develophemophilia. Males with hemophilia do not pass the gene totheir sons; however, they do pass the gene to theirdaughters.Females who inherit the defective gene will becomecarriers who may, in turn, have a 50 percent chance ofpassing it on to their children. 18
  19. 19. Causes of Hemophilia (cont)Although females who inherit the gene generallyhave no active problems related to hemophilia,some may have other problems associated withbleeding, such as excessive menstrual bleeding,frequent or severe nosebleeds, or bleeding afterdental procedures or surgery. 19
  20. 20. Causes of Hemophilia (cont)In about one-third of hemophilia cases, thereis no family history of the disease. Thesecases are due to a new or spontaneousdevelopment of the defective gene in thefemale. 20
  21. 21. Symptoms of Hemophilia Bruising. Bleeds easily. Bleeding into a joint. Bleeding into the muscles. Bleeding from injury or bleeding in the brain. Other sources of bleeding.*Blood found in the urine or stool may also be asymptom of hemophilia. 21
  22. 22. Diagnosis of HemophiliaIn addition to a complete medical history andphysical examination, your physician mayperform numerous blood tests including clottingfactor levels, a complete blood count (CBC),assessment of bleeding times, and/or DNAtesting. 22
  23. 23. The Effects of HemophiliaThe most common cause of disability fromhemophilia is chronic joint disease, orarthropathy, which is caused by uncontrolledbleeding into the joints.Hemorrhage, which is a severe internal orexternal discharge of blood, is a continuingproblem. 23
  24. 24. Treatment of Hemophilia  Blood transfusions.  Prophylactic (preventive) treatment with infused clotting factors. 24
  25. 25. B. ThrombocytopeniaImmune thrombocytopenic purpura is a blooddisorder characterized by an abnormal decreasein the number of blood platelets, which results ininternal bleeding. 25
  26. 26. There are two forms of immune thrombocytopenic purpura:I. Acute thrombocytopenic purpura.II. Chronic thrombocytopenic purpura. 26
  27. 27. Acute thrombocytopenic purpuraMost commonly seen in young children, thesymptoms may follow a virus infection. Thesymptoms usually disappear within a year,and the disorder usually does not recur. 27
  28. 28. Chronic thrombocytopenic purpuraThe onset of the disorder can happen at anyage, and symptoms can last six months orlonger. Adults have this form more often thanchildren, and females have it two to threetimes more often than males. 28
  29. 29. Causes of Immune Thrombocytopenic purpura1. Medications - including over-the-counter medications2. Infection3. Pregnancy4. Immune disorders *However, about half of all cases are classified as idiopathic, which means there is no known cause. 29
  30. 30. Symptoms of ImmuneThrombocytopenic purpura1- Internal bleeding, which may cause:•ecchymosis - bruising .•petechiae - tiny red dots on skin or mucousmembranes .2- Occasionally, bleeding from the nose, gums,digestive tract, urinary tract .3- Rarely, bleeding within the brain . 30
  31. 31. Diagnosis of Immune thrombocytopenic purpuraIn addition to a complete medical history andphysical examination, diagnostic procedures forimmune thrombocytopenic purpura mayinclude:•additional blood and urine tests•other evaluation procedures•careful review of patients medications•bone marrow examination 31
  32. 32. Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenic• Treatment of the causative disease• Discontinuation of causative drugs• Treatment with corticosteroids• Lifestyle changes, such as: • Use of protective gear. • Avoidance of certain activities. 32
  33. 33. 3. HemochromatosisIt is a metabolic disorder that causes increasedabsorption of iron, which is deposited in thebody tissues and organs. The iron accumulatesin the body where it may become toxic andcause damage. 33
  34. 34. Causes of Hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis is a genetic disease, often mostprevalent among people of northern Europeandescent.. Once parents have had a child withhemochromatosis, there is a one in four, chance witheach future pregnancy for another child to be bornwith it. 34
  35. 35. Causes ofHemochromatosis (cont)The age of onset is also earlier in males thanfemales these differences are due to iron lossthrough menses in females. 35
  36. 36. Symptoms of Hemochromatosis Lethargy and weakness. Irritability. Depression and loss of body hair. Joint pain. Bronze or yellowish skin color. Impotence in men. Amenorrhea in women. 36
  37. 37. Diagnosis Hemochromatosis Transferrin saturation test (TS) - blood testthat measures the percentage of transferringand other mobile, iron-binding proteinssaturated with iron. Liver biopsy. 37
  38. 38. Treatment of Hemochromatosis Periodic phlebotomy - a procedure thatinvolves removing blood from the body. Diet modification . Treatment of the resulting diseases orconditions . 38
  39. 39. 4. Hodgkins DiseaseHodgkins disease is a type of lymphoma, acancer in the lymphatic system. It is a raredisease, accounting for less than 1 percent of allcases of cancer in the US, and occurs most oftenin people between the ages of 15 and 34, and inpeople over age 55. 39
  40. 40. Symptoms of Hodgkins disease• Painless swelling of lymph nodes inneck, underarm, and groin.• Fever.• Night sweats.• Fatigue.• weight loss.• Itching of the skin. 40
  41. 41. Diagnosis of Hodgkins Disease• Additional blood tests .• X-rays of the chest, bones, liver, andspleen.• Biopsy of the lymph nodes . 41
  42. 42. Effect of Hodgkins DiseaseHodgkins disease causes the cells in thelymphatic system to abnormally reproduce,eventually making the body less able to fightinfection. Hodgkins disease cells can alsospread to other organs. 42
  43. 43. Treatment of Hodgkins Disease I. Radiation therapy. II. Chemotherapy. 43
  44. 44. 5. LeukemiaLeukemia is cancer of the blood cells,usually the white blood cells. Leukemic cellslook different than normal cells and do notfunction properly. 44
  45. 45. Types of LeukemiaI. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).II. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).III. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).IV. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). 45
  46. 46. Symptoms of Leukemia• Infections.• Anemia.•Bleeding, fever ,bruising , sweating• Loss of appetite and weight.• Swollen or tender lymph nodes, liver, orspleen.• Petechiae.• Swollen or bleeding gums.• Bone or joint pain. 46
  47. 47. Diagnosis of Leukemia• Physician examination for swelling in the: • liver • spleen • lymph nodes under the arms, in the groin, and in the neck• Blood tests to examine the blast (immature)blood cells.• Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. 47
  48. 48. Diagnosis of Leukemia (cont)• Lymph node biopsy.• Spinal tap.• Imaging procedures, such as x-ray,ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). 48
  49. 49. Treatment of Leukemia• Chemotherapy & radiation therapy .• Bone marrow stem cell transplantation .• Biological therapy. 49
  50. 50. Treatment of Leukemia (cont)• Platelet transfusion.• Red blood cell transfusion .• Medications to prevent or treat damage toother systems of the body caused by leukemiatreatment . 50
  51. 51. 6. Non-Hodgkins DiseaseNon-Hodgkins disease is a type of lymphoma,which is a cancer in the lymphatic system. 51
  52. 52. Effect of Non-Hodgkins DiseaseNon-Hodgkins disease causes the cells in thelymphatic system to abnormally reproduceeventually causing tumors to grow. Non-Hodgkins disease cells can also spread to otherorgans. 52
  53. 53. Symptoms of Non-HodgkinsDisease• Painless swelling of lymph nodes in neck,underarm, and groin.• Fever and night sweats.• Fatigue and weight loss.• Itching of the skin.• Recurring infections. 53
  54. 54. Causes of Non-Hodgkins lymphomaNo specific cause has been identified. 54
  55. 55. Diagnosis Non- Hodgkins lymphoma Blood tests . X-rays of the chest, bones, liver, and spleen. Biopsy of the lymph nodes, bone marrow. Lymph angiograms - x-rays of the lymphaticsystem. CT scan. Ultrasonography scan . 55
  56. 56. Treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphomaI. Radiation therapyII. Chemotherapy 56
  57. 57. 7. ThrombocythemiaThrombocythemia is a myeloproliferativeblood disorder. It is characterized by theproduction of too many platelets in the bonemarrow. Too many platelets make normalclotting of blood difficult. 57
  58. 58. Causes ofThrombocythemia Unknown 58
  59. 59. Symptoms of Thrombocythemia Increased blood clots in arteries and veins Bleeding from the nose, gums,gastrointestinal tract . Bloody stools . Hemorrhaging after injury or surgery. Weakness . Enlarged lymph nodes 59
  60. 60. Diagnosis of Thrombocythemia Blood tests to measure blood counts andelevated platelet levels. Bone-marrow biopsy may also be part of thediagnostic protocol. 60
  61. 61. Treatment of Thrombocythemia• Chemotherapy• Plateletpheresis - a procedure to remove extraplatelets from the blood 61
  62. 62. REFERENCE… 62
  63. 63. Thank you for listening… 63