Teachers Talk, Students TalkEducational Psychology Produced by: Maisara MohdMahadi Lim Pei Gen Nithya ManbirKaur
Too much learning from textbookSees no relevance in learning a certain subjectSees teachers as the only source of motivationDifficulty storing information in memoryStruggling to understand Math conceptsTeachers assessment only at the end of lesson
I’m having a hard time I’m 12 years old remembering Science and am going to take concepts PSLE this year My classmates have My teacher is boring better teachers and I am not happy!My teacher asks to memorise I love looking at charts and graphs I want Science experimentsfacts from textbooks and watch videos
Different Styles of LearningFleming and Mills’ (1992) VARK Model of LearningV: Visual – Prefer maps, flow charts, graphs, etcA: Auditory/ Aural – Prefer information that is “heard/ spoken”R: Read/ Write – Prefer information in wordsK: Kinesthetic – Prefer hands-on experience (connected toreality)Learners construct knowledge in the process of developingan understanding of their experiences, rather thanrecording information in their memories in the exact formin which it is presented. Thus it is important to identifystudents’ learning style.
BengKwee’s Learning ProfileBengKwee is a visual and kinesthetic learner.He learns best at finding practical uses for Scienceconcepts and theories.He prefers practical applications and “hands-on” activitiesas opposed to simply listen, observe and learn.
Issue #1Mr Lim gives too much information from the textbook through verbal explanations and the lessons lack hands-on interaction
Solution #1Cognitive Learning TheoriesUse Science 3-D models, science experiments, interactivewebsites, flow charts and illustrative powerpointsWill impact visual and kinesthetic learners like BengKweeAttention is where learning beginsMr. Lim should find ways to attract and retain his attentionby using flow-charts, attractive illustrations and 3-Dmodels as effective attention-getters
Social Constructivist TheoriesEmphasizes the importance of connecting topics to real-world contextAuthentic activitiesLearning is more meaningfulBengKwee will better understand how elements,compounds and mixtures work in real-life context
Social Cognitive TheoriesAlbert BanduraPeople learn by observing others (McLeod, 2011)Mr. Lim should model genuine interest in teaching Science
Issue #2BengKwee does not see the utility value in learning Science concepts
Solution #2 Piaget’s TheoryPiaget: Design learning experiences as developmental bridgesto more advance stages of development.Engaging prior knowledgeGet his students to write down what they know about atopic (K), what they would like to find out (W) and at theend of lesson what they have learned (L).
Piaget’s TheoryPiaget: Provide concrete experiences and helpstudents link the concrete representation to abstractideaMr Lim should have let the students do activeexploration with materials – Science experiments,hands-on activities, visual aidsHelp BengKwee relate to real world context and seeand relevance of learning “Mixtures & Compounds”
Issue #3BengKwee sees his teachers as the only extrinsic source of motivation."If only they were my teachers, then maybe I will do better for my PSLE".
Solution #3Cognitive Evaluation TheoryMr Lim needs to sustain BengKwee’s motivation to learnMake students realise that teachers are not the onlyextrinsic source of motivationReward system: Using rewards to communicate increasedcompetence can increase BengKwee’s motivation to learnand beliefs about his capabilities.
Issue #4 BengKwee has difficulty storing information. He "can’t answer hisquestions most of the time" and he "can’t remember what he said in the first place".
Solution #4 Vygotsky’s TheoryLanguage through questioningSocial interaction: Collaborative work
Model of STMCentral Executive: controls the flow of information to andfrom the other componentsPhonological loop: short-term storage system for wordsand sounds and it retains information throughmaintenance rehearsal - the process of repeatinginformation over and over, either out loud or silently,without altering its form (R. Atkinson &Shiffrin, 1968).Visual-sketchpad: short-term storage system for visualand spatial information
Reduce limitations to STMChunking: grouping information – Mr. Lim should groupinformationDistributed Processing:1) using the phonological loop: repetition and emphasis onkey concepts2) visual-sketchpad to reduce cognitive load - useinteresting visuals like concept maps, organizationalcharts and illustrative powerpoints
Long-Term MemoryDeclarative knowledge: Knowledge of facts, definitions,procedures and rules1) Semantic memory: Memory for concepts, principles andthe relationships among them2) Episodic memory: Memory for personal experiencesProcedural knowledge: Knowledge of how to performtasks. Knowledge is about knowing “how”.Conditional knowledge: Knowledge of “where” and“when” to use declarative and procedural knowledge
Issue #5 Desmond is struggling to grasp Mathematical concepts as his Mathteacher gives formulae and expects the students to solve Math problems.
Solution #5 Vygotsky’s TheoriesCulture: illustrated by concrete examples, e.g. brochuresand advertisements on electronic gadgets to teachpercentagePeer interaction: group work – where less competentstudents get help from better onesScaffolding: step-by-step guidanceMore Knowledgeable Other & Zone of ProximalDevelopment
Issue #6The teacher only assesses Desmond and his classmates at the end of the lesson.
Solution #6Constructivist Learning TheoryJohn DeweyImportance of questioning and feedback – two-wayinteractionAsk appropriate questions at different parts of the lesson:When the teacher asks Desmond at whichever point hethinks important, he will be able to check whether hisunderstanding is incomplete or inaccurate. Then, he canprovide feedback on Desmonds understand thus makinghis learning a more meaningful one.
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