working in TEAMS
5 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE TEAMS <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Relation...
Questions for Work Teams <ul><li>What will the teams do? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills will be required? </li></ul><ul><li...
PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF TEAM <ul><li>Reduced duplication of effort </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cooperation </li></ul><ul><li...
PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF TEAMS <ul><li>More flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Increased commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Less destruc...
HELPING TEAM EFFECTIVENESS <ul><li>Key issues </li></ul><ul><li>Getting Started </li></ul><ul><li>Orienting Team Players <...
TEAM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS <ul><li>Team Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust/Courtesy ...
EFFECTIVE TEAMS? <ul><li>Measured from the organisation’s point of view ? </li></ul><ul><li>Measured from the team’s point...
TEAM AND INDIVIDUAL GOALS <ul><li>Team goals must be in harmony with those of the organisation - remember this is how you ...
Teams 2008 . . . <ul><li>“ Happy people make happy teams and happy teams get GREAT results for organisations” </li></ul>
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>What make an Effective Team? </li></ul>
WHAT IS AN “EFFECTIVE TEAM” <ul><li>Implies a measurement of  performance </li></ul><ul><li>Need a  ‘base figure’  to meas...
Effective Teams  -  Prentice and Rabey -  “Empowering Supervisors - Leading Winning Teams”  p 82 <ul><li>Clear Work Object...
EFFECTIVE TEAMS  -   Chaousis <ul><li>Leadership - shared </li></ul><ul><li>Goals - team purpose and performance goals </l...
“ T.E.A.M.S.”   - James Lundy <ul><li>Communication, Coordination and Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual trust and u...
“ SUPERVISION IN ACTION”   George and Cole  p192 <ul><li>Clear challenging goals - members committed to their achievement ...
ANANTARAMAN   in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Clear cooperative goals - and commitment to them </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate, eff...
KAZEMAK   in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Goals and objectives understood and agreed </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict dealt with con...
HITT   in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Common agreement on high expectations for team </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to common g...
5 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE TEAMS <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Relation...
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Team Goals? </li></ul>
TEAM GOALS . . ? <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>Page 23 of  Hig...
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Team Roles </li></ul>
COMMON ROLES IN TEAMS <ul><li>Three main categories </li></ul><ul><li>Group Task Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Group Maintenance...
SELF -ORIENTED ROLES <ul><li>Helper - maintainer </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressor </li></ul><ul><li>Blocker </li></ul><ul><li>F...
TEAM MAINTENANCE ROLES <ul><li>Encourager </li></ul><ul><li>Harmoniser </li></ul><ul><li>Gatekeeper </li></ul><ul><li>Stan...
TEAM TASK ROLES <ul><li>Planner </li></ul><ul><li>Instigator </li></ul><ul><li>Quality checker </li></ul><ul><li>Delegater...
TEAMS 2008 <ul><li>Team Processes </li></ul>
TEAM PROCESSES? <ul><li>A series of actions/tasks that produce results </li></ul><ul><li>Processes describe how we will wo...
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>How Teams Form </li></ul>
STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Forming </li></ul><ul><li>Storming </li></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><li>Performi...
FORMING <ul><li>Orientation to task </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency on “Leader” </li></ul><ul><li>Testing out inter-personal ...
Storming <ul><li>Resistance to task demands </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring areas of ...
NORMING <ul><li>Building cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Developing consensus about norms </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying role...
Performing . . . <ul><li>Energy channeled into task </li></ul><ul><li>Roles clear and functional </li></ul><ul><li>Norms s...
Mourning <ul><li>Goals accomplished </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for disengagement </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency on “Leader” <...
TEAMS 2008 <ul><li>Team Relationships </li></ul>
RELATIONSHIPS <ul><li>That which binds the team together: </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li><...
TEAMS 2008  . . . <ul><li>Team Interfaces? </li></ul>
TEAM INTERFACES . . . <ul><li>How a team relates to other teams! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul>
DEVELOPING GOOD TEAMS . . . <ul><li>What skills do we need? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills do we have?  </li></ul><ul><li>W...
TEAMS 2008   <ul><li>What is the culture of the Team? </li></ul>
What type of culture is present? <ul><li>People oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Participative </li...
Organisational Culture? <ul><li>Norms and expectations of how people behave and treat each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Philos...
Organisational Culture? <ul><li>Quality of the relationships that exist between people at work </li></ul><ul><li>Unwritten...
Organisational Culture   - Indicators <ul><li>Style of correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>The informal communication network...
CULTURE AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS <ul><li>Will depend on   </li></ul><ul><li>How much the culture aids in reaching the goals ...
CULTURAL IDEAL - Barham in Stott and Walker p431 <ul><li>Both growth and results oriented but believe work should be fun <...
CULTURAL IDEAL - Barham in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Stress teamwork and ability of each individual to contribute </li></ul...
ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE -  and development   <ul><li>Trust is an important component </li></ul><ul><li>Trust involves risk ...
THE IMPACT OF TRUST - ON PEOPLE   <ul><li>People enjoy working </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and managers feel valued </li></ul>...
THE IMPACT OF TRUST - ON PROCESS <ul><li>Managers don’t use power as a threat </li></ul><ul><li>Managers not threatened by...
CULTURE - AND COMPLEXITY <ul><li>Culture is not simple  - it is overlaid by national cultures and sub cultures. </li></ul>...
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>What Makes People Tick? – Understanding others </li></ul>
Understanding how other people see life is the key to understanding the “people business.”
MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR <ul><li>Relates to personality preferences in the way we acquire information and make decision...
EXTRAVERSION - INTROVERSION <ul><li>Like variety and action </li></ul><ul><li>Act quickly  </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly and ...
SENSING - INTUITION <ul><li>Like practical things </li></ul><ul><li>Start at beginning and work step by step </li></ul><ul...
THINKING - FEELING <ul><li>Put things in logical order </li></ul><ul><li>Predict outcomes logically </li></ul><ul><li>Tend...
JUDGMENT - PERCEPTION <ul><li>Work best with a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Like to get things finished </li></ul><ul><li>Decide...
DES HUNT – “ WHAT MAKES PEOPLE TICK”
THE PEACOCK -  TALKER <ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul><ul><li>Talkative </li></ul><ul><li>Invigorat...
The Dove -  Feeler <ul><li>Calm </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Patient </li></ul><...
The Eagle  -  Doer <ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Determined...
The Owl   - Thinker <ul><li>Calm </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Restrained </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical </...
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Lets have a go! </li></ul>
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Understanding People – and how to handle them! </li></ul>
THE DICTATOR <ul><li>This type bully, cajole and intimidate. They are blunt to the point of being insulting. They are cons...
HANDLING THE DICTATOR <ul><li>Keep focused on solutions.  Sit quietly until they have  wound down. Then say: “I can see th...
THE KNOW IT ALL <ul><li>These are the experts on everything. They can be very arrogant, and they usually have an opinion o...
HANDLING THE KNOW IT ALL <ul><li>Acknowledge their accomplishments and point out a way the two of you can work together. <...
THE  YES  PEOPLE <ul><li>They will agree with anything, promise any deadline, yet they rarely deliver. While they are alwa...
DEALING WITH THE YES PEOPLE <ul><li>Three ways of ensuring that YES People will keep their word and save yourself STRESS: ...
THE  PASSIVES <ul><li>You can recognise the passive by their deadpan expressions and their weak handshakes. Avoiding confl...
HOW TO WORK WITH PASSIVES <ul><li>Set a clear example of the behaviour you want demonstrated by rewarding all the people w...
The  “NO”  PEOPLE <ul><li>This type can be both negative and pessimistic, they are quick to point out why something won’t ...
DEALING  WITH THE “NO” PEOPLE   <ul><li>Minimise their contact with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Show the advantages for THEM...
THE  COMPLAINERS <ul><li>They are of the opinion that nothing ever goes their way. You have the feeling they would rather ...
DEALLING WITH COMPLAINERS <ul><li>Listen to the complaint. </li></ul><ul><li>Set them straight, DO NOT allow them to reinf...
DEALING WITH  ANGER <ul><li>“ If you are patient in one moment of anger, you will escape a hundred days of sorrow”  -  Old...
DEALING WITH ANGER <ul><li>When faced with an angry person who is VERY likely to cause your stress try the following: </li...
UNDERSTANDING ANGER <ul><li>Anger is normally a defence mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when things are not going a pe...
INTERACTION DURING CONFLICT <ul><li>DEMONSTRATE RESPECT - This is displayed in listening, in body language, in the choice ...
INTERACTION DURING CONFLICT <ul><li>Listen carefully to try and discover what the issue is that has caused the anger. </li...
INTERACTION DURING CONFLICT <ul><li>REMEMBER in emotionally charged situations people can withhold important information. ...
UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>There are a number of clues that can help us to understand the level of conflict we ...
UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>DISCOMFORTS - Nothing is said. It may be difficult to identify what the problem is, ...
UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>MISUNDERSTANDINGS - The parties have begun to have negative images and perceptions o...
UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>CRISIS - Behaviour is affected, normal functioning becomes difficult, extreme gestur...
MANAGING OUR EMOTIONS <ul><ul><li>Four helpful questions to ask yourself when you are angry, hurt or frightened. </li></ul...
9 STEPS TO HANDLING COMPLAINTS SUCCESSFULLY <ul><li>Validate the other person’s point of view and their emotions. </li></u...
WHAT DO  UPSET  PEOPLE WANT? <ul><li>To be taken seriously </li></ul><ul><li>To be treated with respect </li></ul><ul><li>...
WORDS THAT ADD  FU EL  TO THE FIRE <ul><li>You’re crazy </li></ul><ul><li>I know how you feel </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t kn...
USE THE 3 F’s <ul><li>“ I understand how you could  feel  that way. </li></ul><ul><li>Others have  felt  that way too. </l...
AGGRESSION <ul><li>Aggression can be used in three areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational </li>...
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>The Importance and Ways of Developing Teams </li></ul>
TEAM DEVELOPMENT   -  Stott & Walker p84 <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co...
TRAINING NEEDS OF THE TEAM <ul><li>What Training will they receive? </li></ul><ul><li>What topics should be covered? </li>...
TEAM DEVELOPMENT   -  Stott & Walker p84 <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination...
SOME OPTIONS FOR STAFF DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Job or Work Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondment <...
5 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE TEAMS <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Relation...
TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Thanks for attending! </li></ul>
TO INFLUENCE CHANGE YOU MUST <ul><li>Identify a gap in performance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify where you want to be  - goal...
A SIX STEP MODEL FOR CHANGE Identify the  problem or  Innovation Diagnose the  situation and  generate ideas Select the  b...
THE ACTION RESEARCH PROCESS Gathering Data Analysis and  Feedback Action or  Intervention Planning Implementing the action...
Group Decision Making <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>More information and knowledge focused on issue </li></ul><ul><...
Teams <ul><li>Are being used increasingly in organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks they are being asked to manage are more...
Responsibilities of Teams <ul><li>Performing a range of job functions </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving quality (& quantity) of ...
Role of members in a team
Continuous Development <ul><li>Self Directed  - Lifelong Learning </li></ul><ul><li>this requires . . . </li></ul><ul><li>...
Continuous Development <ul><li>Operational plans must take into account the learning implications for employees </li></ul>...
Implications . . . <ul><li>identification and assessing the competencies of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>providing ways f...
Rating Methods <ul><li>Results Oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on performance results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavi...
The Upside and the Downside <ul><li>clearly defined roles </li></ul><ul><li>better understanding </li></ul><ul><li>focuses...
Alternative approaches <ul><li>Education and Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Participation and Involvement </li></ul><ul><...
Changing the internal environment Present Desired 1 2 3 4 5 surface actual  norms Establish new norms (+ve) Identify gaps ...
The Planning Process Mission Goals Plans Goal  Achievement Strategic - top management 3 - 5 years Tactical - mid managemen...
Achieving Performance Gains Other factors - job knowledge and ability feedback task complexity resources Adapted from Bart...
Skills Required <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><...
Some Possible Conflicts
Feedback <ul><li>Needs to come from  all  stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarify roles and direction </li></ul></ul><u...
Types of feedback   George and Cole p 148 - 149 <ul><li>Unconditional Positive Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>just for bei...
Principles of good feedback <ul><li>be specific rather than general </li></ul><ul><li>focus on behaviour - not the person ...
Factors Impacting on Organisational Activities Culture Organisations  Activities Structure Technology Human Resources
Why is an organisation like it is? <ul><li>Natural selection model </li></ul><ul><li>- found a niche which suits it </li><...
Deming on Quality <ul><li>“ Good quality does not necessarily mean high quality.  It means a predictable degree of uniform...
Deming and his 14 points <ul><li>create constancy of purpose towards improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt a philosophy of c...
Deming and his 14 points  (continued) <ul><li>Create a climate of trust and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Break down barrie...
The Challenge <ul><li>How to  develop  and  reward  a continuous improvement culture in an organisation. </li></ul><ul><li...
A process to improve performance <ul><li>Establish goals </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the work </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate roles...
Objectives of Appraisal <ul><li>provide 2 way feedback of performance over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>give managem...
Objectives of Appraisal -  continued <ul><li>provide an inventory of skills, competence, qualifications, and talents </li>...
Benefits of an appraisal system <ul><li>For the Organisation: </li></ul><ul><li>standard information about its employees <...
Benefits of an appraisal system <ul><li>For the Manager: </li></ul><ul><li>objective guidelines for assessing staff </li><...
Benefits of an appraisal system <ul><li>For the individual </li></ul><ul><li>opportunity to discuss work objectively </li>...
Rewards - Individual or Team <ul><li>In the past reward has been to individuals </li></ul><ul><li>With teams, should monet...
Possible Reward Schemes <ul><li>suggestion schemes to allow a creative look at their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Gift certifica...
Possible Reward Schemes  (contd) <ul><li>Company supported learning / training </li></ul><ul><li>Lump Sum Bonuses </li></u...
Team and Individual Goals <ul><li>Goals or targets should be : </li></ul><ul><li>realistic </li></ul><ul><li>specific </li...
A conflict <ul><li>Manager must often play the roles of </li></ul><ul><li>Leader  - assign work, establish standards of pe...
The SWOT Analysis <ul><ul><li>S - Strengths   (Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W - Weaknesses  (Internal) </li></ul><...
STRENGTHS <ul><li>Internal characteristic of firm that has the potential for improving the firm’s competitive situation </...
WEAKNESSES <ul><li>Internal characteristic that leaves the firm potentially vulnerable  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no strategic...
OPPORTUNITIES <ul><li>An environmental condition that offers potential for improving the organisation’s situation  </li></...
THREATS <ul><li>An environmental condition that has the potential to undermine the organisation’s competitive situation </...
What Options are there for change? <ul><li>Adapt to suit the existing environmental elements </li></ul><ul><li>attempt to ...
TEAM TASK ROLES <ul><li>Initiator - Contributor </li></ul><ul><li>Information Seeker </li></ul><ul><li>Information Giver <...
EFFECTIVE TEAMS . . . <ul><li>Need goals clearly defined in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide guidance </li></ul><ul><li...
DEVELOPING GOOD TEAMS . . . <ul><li>Who are we? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are we know? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we want to...
SADIE  MODEL -  Magerison and McCann <ul><li>Sharing information </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing information </li></ul><ul><li...
ANALYSIS FROM ELEMENTS <ul><li>Symbolism  - language, or acts which convey meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Myths  - past events...
DECODING THE CULTURE from “Fad Surfing in the Boardroom”  Eileen Shapiro <ul><li>Observation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Every org...
ANALYSIS FROM THEMES <ul><li>Autonomy  - is it provided or is there close monitoring? </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity  - is...
DECODING THE CULTURE from “Fad Surfing in the Boardroom”  Eileen Shapiro <ul><li>Observation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The rules...
DECODING THE CULTURE from “Fad Surfing in the Boardroom”  Eileen Shapiro <ul><li>Observation 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Those who...
THREE AREAS OF AGGRESSION <ul><li>  EMOTIONAL  -  Something happens to make a person angry. </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATIONAL...
THREE AREAS OF AGGRESSION <ul><li>“ The person was angry  (emotional)  because the payment was late again, so he worked ou...
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Working In Teams (Tafe) Powerpoint Slides Revised

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  • Working In Teams (Tafe) Powerpoint Slides Revised

    1. 1. working in TEAMS
    2. 2. 5 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE TEAMS <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul>
    3. 3. Questions for Work Teams <ul><li>What will the teams do? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills will be required? </li></ul><ul><li>What training will be required? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of reward system? </li></ul><ul><li>What support will the team receive? </li></ul>
    4. 4. PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF TEAM <ul><li>Reduced duplication of effort </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Better decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated staff </li></ul><ul><li>Improved product and quality service </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul>
    5. 5. PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF TEAMS <ul><li>More flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Increased commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Less destructive conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Better interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Higher standards of performance </li></ul>
    6. 6. HELPING TEAM EFFECTIVENESS <ul><li>Key issues </li></ul><ul><li>Getting Started </li></ul><ul><li>Orienting Team Players </li></ul><ul><li>Training for Team Success </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Team Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarding Team Performance </li></ul>
    7. 7. TEAM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS <ul><li>Team Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust/Courtesy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. EFFECTIVE TEAMS? <ul><li>Measured from the organisation’s point of view ? </li></ul><ul><li>Measured from the team’s point of view? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the two points of view the same - should they be? </li></ul>
    9. 9. TEAM AND INDIVIDUAL GOALS <ul><li>Team goals must be in harmony with those of the organisation - remember this is how you will be judged. </li></ul><ul><li>If the team succeeds the individual succeeds - this means individual work goals must satisfy both the individual and the team. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Teams 2008 . . . <ul><li>“ Happy people make happy teams and happy teams get GREAT results for organisations” </li></ul>
    11. 11. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>What make an Effective Team? </li></ul>
    12. 12. WHAT IS AN “EFFECTIVE TEAM” <ul><li>Implies a measurement of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Need a ‘base figure’ to measure from </li></ul><ul><li>Need to know the purpose of the team to ensure an appropriate measurement (performance indicator) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Effective Teams - Prentice and Rabey - “Empowering Supervisors - Leading Winning Teams” p 82 <ul><li>Clear Work Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Good communication - up and down </li></ul><ul><li>Work together harmoniously </li></ul><ul><li>Keen to achieve results </li></ul><ul><li>Grievances discussed fully and frankly </li></ul><ul><li>Change is discussed prior to it happening </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted to do a job on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Group exercises its own discipline </li></ul>
    14. 14. EFFECTIVE TEAMS - Chaousis <ul><li>Leadership - shared </li></ul><ul><li>Goals - team purpose and performance goals </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making - participative / consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Regular review of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage with other teams in organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships - trust </li></ul>
    15. 15. “ T.E.A.M.S.” - James Lundy <ul><li>Communication, Coordination and Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual trust and understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agreed upon expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>awareness of potential benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commitments to make them work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open feedback regarding feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anticipation of ways to resolve any potential differences </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. “ SUPERVISION IN ACTION” George and Cole p192 <ul><li>Clear challenging goals - members committed to their achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Self directed - don’t wait to be told </li></ul><ul><li>Honest, open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement and enjoyment - cohesive </li></ul><ul><li>Group norms in line with the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is seen as positive - involved and dealt with constructively </li></ul><ul><li>Multi skilled </li></ul>
    17. 17. ANANTARAMAN in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Clear cooperative goals - and commitment to them </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate, effective communication of ideas and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed participation and leadership </li></ul><ul><li>High level of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate decision making and problem solving procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Productive controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance and support among team </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive </li></ul><ul><li>Manage power and conflict constructively </li></ul>
    18. 18. KAZEMAK in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Goals and objectives understood and agreed </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict dealt with constructively </li></ul><ul><li>shared leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities are used </li></ul><ul><li>open and participatory communication </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Support for team’s controls and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Established problem solving and decision making approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate functions and processes regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Understand roles, responsibilities and limits of authority </li></ul>
    19. 19. HITT in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Common agreement on high expectations for team </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to common goals </li></ul><ul><li>Honest and open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed responsibility for work to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Common access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Climate of trust </li></ul><ul><li>support for decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Win-Win approach </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on process as well as results </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling that you can influence what happens </li></ul>
    20. 20. 5 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE TEAMS <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul>
    21. 21. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Team Goals? </li></ul>
    22. 22. TEAM GOALS . . ? <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>Page 23 of High Energy Teams Manual </li></ul>
    23. 23. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Team Roles </li></ul>
    24. 24. COMMON ROLES IN TEAMS <ul><li>Three main categories </li></ul><ul><li>Group Task Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Group Maintenance Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Self - Oriented Roles </li></ul>
    25. 25. SELF -ORIENTED ROLES <ul><li>Helper - maintainer </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressor </li></ul><ul><li>Blocker </li></ul><ul><li>Fact finder - reporter </li></ul><ul><li>Linker – socializer – others? </li></ul>
    26. 26. TEAM MAINTENANCE ROLES <ul><li>Encourager </li></ul><ul><li>Harmoniser </li></ul><ul><li>Gatekeeper </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Setter </li></ul><ul><li>Observer </li></ul>
    27. 27. TEAM TASK ROLES <ul><li>Planner </li></ul><ul><li>Instigator </li></ul><ul><li>Quality checker </li></ul><ul><li>Delegater </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul>
    28. 28. TEAMS 2008 <ul><li>Team Processes </li></ul>
    29. 29. TEAM PROCESSES? <ul><li>A series of actions/tasks that produce results </li></ul><ul><li>Processes describe how we will work together to reach our goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvements/others? </li></ul>
    30. 30. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>How Teams Form </li></ul>
    31. 31. STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Forming </li></ul><ul><li>Storming </li></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><li>Performing </li></ul><ul><li>Departing/Reforming </li></ul>
    32. 32. FORMING <ul><li>Orientation to task </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency on “Leader” </li></ul><ul><li>Testing out inter-personal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering the ground rules </li></ul>
    33. 33. Storming <ul><li>Resistance to task demands </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring areas of disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle for group leadership </li></ul>
    34. 34. NORMING <ul><li>Building cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Developing consensus about norms </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying roles </li></ul><ul><li>Informal leader may emerge </li></ul>
    35. 35. Performing . . . <ul><li>Energy channeled into task </li></ul><ul><li>Roles clear and functional </li></ul><ul><li>Norms support teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions begin to emerge for the previous problems </li></ul>
    36. 36. Mourning <ul><li>Goals accomplished </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for disengagement </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency on “Leader” </li></ul><ul><li>Some regret at the disbanding </li></ul><ul><li>Termination of the group </li></ul>
    37. 37. TEAMS 2008 <ul><li>Team Relationships </li></ul>
    38. 38. RELATIONSHIPS <ul><li>That which binds the team together: </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
    39. 39. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Team Interfaces? </li></ul>
    40. 40. TEAM INTERFACES . . . <ul><li>How a team relates to other teams! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul>
    41. 41. DEVELOPING GOOD TEAMS . . . <ul><li>What skills do we need? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills do we have? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we want to be? </li></ul><ul><li>How will we get these skills? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we work together/treat each other? </li></ul><ul><li>What recognition do we get? </li></ul><ul><li>How do/will we celebrate our successes? </li></ul>
    42. 42. TEAMS 2008 <ul><li>What is the culture of the Team? </li></ul>
    43. 43. What type of culture is present? <ul><li>People oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Participative </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralised </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Acting </li></ul><ul><li>Situational </li></ul><ul><li>Task oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Centralised </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective </li></ul><ul><li>“ By the book” </li></ul>
    44. 44. Organisational Culture? <ul><li>Norms and expectations of how people behave and treat each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy, spirit or drive of the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Values beliefs and ways of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>To constitute a culture it must be shared by members and taught to new members. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Organisational Culture? <ul><li>Quality of the relationships that exist between people at work </li></ul><ul><li>Unwritten rules which govern behaviour - the feeling part of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>A reflection of leadership style </li></ul>
    46. 46. Organisational Culture - Indicators <ul><li>Style of correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>The informal communication network - the grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the power and how they use it </li></ul><ul><li>What gets rewarded / frowned on </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of steps necessary to initiate action or get approval </li></ul><ul><li>How conflict is handled </li></ul>
    47. 47. CULTURE AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS <ul><li>Will depend on </li></ul><ul><li>How much the culture aids in reaching the goals of the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>How evenly spread and wide spread the culture is. </li></ul><ul><li>How strongly held the values are. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture can enhance team effectiveness or drain team energy </li></ul>
    48. 48. CULTURAL IDEAL - Barham in Stott and Walker p431 <ul><li>Both growth and results oriented but believe work should be fun </li></ul><ul><li>Promote confidence in organisations ability to handle the future </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome change as an opportunity - not a threat </li></ul><ul><li>Foster customer awareness - aim for high levels of quality and service </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in providing a challenging and supportive environment to encourage initiative and responsibility at all levels </li></ul>
    49. 49. CULTURAL IDEAL - Barham in Stott and Walker <ul><li>Stress teamwork and ability of each individual to contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize results rather than process </li></ul><ul><li>Very open - little emphasis on status </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emphasis on high quality communication, consultation and listening </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in integrity and fair dealing </li></ul><ul><li>Are more tolerant of “unconventional” people and encourage creative ways of doing things </li></ul>
    50. 50. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE - and development <ul><li>Trust is an important component </li></ul><ul><li>Trust involves risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Takes time to develop </li></ul>
    51. 51. THE IMPACT OF TRUST - ON PEOPLE <ul><li>People enjoy working </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and managers feel valued </li></ul><ul><li>Extra work taken on willingly - no exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Two way respect and common courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes handled supportively - seen as a learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas shared freely - all good ideas considered </li></ul>
    52. 52. THE IMPACT OF TRUST - ON PROCESS <ul><li>Managers don’t use power as a threat </li></ul><ul><li>Managers not threatened by staff using devolved authority </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal forms and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Few sacred cows </li></ul><ul><li>Team rewards predominate - no rewards for “yes” person </li></ul>
    53. 53. CULTURE - AND COMPLEXITY <ul><li>Culture is not simple - it is overlaid by national cultures and sub cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>National cultures - often a greater influence </li></ul><ul><li>Must understand the impact - authority </li></ul><ul><li>Subcultures - for specialised problems or situations </li></ul>
    54. 54. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>What Makes People Tick? – Understanding others </li></ul>
    55. 55. Understanding how other people see life is the key to understanding the “people business.”
    56. 56. MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR <ul><li>Relates to personality preferences in the way we acquire information and make decisions: </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion - Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing - Intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking - Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment - Perception </li></ul>
    57. 57. EXTRAVERSION - INTROVERSION <ul><li>Like variety and action </li></ul><ul><li>Act quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly and easy to know </li></ul><ul><li>Seek out others to talk things through </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shallow” </li></ul><ul><li>Like quiet for concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Think before acting </li></ul><ul><li>Reserved hard to know </li></ul><ul><li>Seek time alone to think things through </li></ul><ul><li>“ Withdrawn” </li></ul>
    58. 58. SENSING - INTUITION <ul><li>Like practical things </li></ul><ul><li>Start at beginning and work step by step </li></ul><ul><li>Careful about details </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom make errors of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Not inspired </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Jump in anywhere - make inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore details </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps make errors of fact </li></ul><ul><li>May follow inspiration whether good or bad </li></ul>
    59. 59. THINKING - FEELING <ul><li>Put things in logical order </li></ul><ul><li>Predict outcomes logically </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be firm - tough minded </li></ul><ul><li>May hurt feelings </li></ul><ul><li>“ Arrogant” </li></ul><ul><li>Like harmony and make it happen </li></ul><ul><li>Consider effects of decisions on people </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike telling people unpleasant things </li></ul><ul><li>“ Woolly-Minded” </li></ul>
    60. 60. JUDGMENT - PERCEPTION <ul><li>Work best with a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Like to get things finished </li></ul><ul><li>Decide too quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Want only the essentials to start a task </li></ul><ul><li>“ Demanding” “rigid” </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy flexibility in work </li></ul><ul><li>Curious </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt well to changing conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Last minute operators </li></ul><ul><li>Procrastinators </li></ul><ul><li>“ disorganised” </li></ul>
    61. 61. DES HUNT – “ WHAT MAKES PEOPLE TICK”
    62. 62. THE PEACOCK - TALKER <ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul><ul><li>Talkative </li></ul><ul><li>Invigorating </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic </li></ul><ul><li>Optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Carefree </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-taker </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Animated </li></ul><ul><li>Likes the spotlight </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Paced </li></ul><ul><li>Talks before listening </li></ul><ul><li>People before tasks </li></ul>
    63. 63. The Dove - Feeler <ul><li>Calm </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Patient </li></ul><ul><li>Serene </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Stable </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Likes being friends </li></ul><ul><li>Calmer Paced </li></ul><ul><li>Listens before talks </li></ul><ul><li>People before tasks </li></ul>
    64. 64. The Eagle - Doer <ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Determined </li></ul><ul><li>Productive </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Forceful </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Likes being the boss </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Paced </li></ul><ul><li>Talks before listening </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks before people </li></ul>
    65. 65. The Owl - Thinker <ul><li>Calm </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Restrained </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionist </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable </li></ul><ul><li>Diligent </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul><ul><li>Likes to be right </li></ul><ul><li>Calmer paced </li></ul><ul><li>Listens before talks </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks before people </li></ul>
    66. 66. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Lets have a go! </li></ul>
    67. 67. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Understanding People – and how to handle them! </li></ul>
    68. 68. THE DICTATOR <ul><li>This type bully, cajole and intimidate. They are blunt to the point of being insulting. They are constantly demanding and brutally critical. These folk can cause ulcers! </li></ul>
    69. 69. HANDLING THE DICTATOR <ul><li>Keep focused on solutions. Sit quietly until they have wound down. Then say: “I can see this is a big problem for you. Let’s see what we can do to solve it!” </li></ul><ul><li>Ask them to leave. Say: “I can’t listen to you when you are using that tone of voice”. </li></ul><ul><li>Say their name loudly if you think they might become violent! It will help. </li></ul>
    70. 70. THE KNOW IT ALL <ul><li>These are the experts on everything. They can be very arrogant, and they usually have an opinion on every issue. Yet when they’re wrong they tend to pass the buck or become very defensive! </li></ul>
    71. 71. HANDLING THE KNOW IT ALL <ul><li>Acknowledge their accomplishments and point out a way the two of you can work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “Your idea is very good and it sounds like that coupled with my systems and expertise, we could make a difference!” </li></ul><ul><li>Let them know that great minds think alike! </li></ul>
    72. 72. THE YES PEOPLE <ul><li>They will agree with anything, promise any deadline, yet they rarely deliver. While they are always sorry (and can be charming), you cannot trust them to do what they say! </li></ul>
    73. 73. DEALING WITH THE YES PEOPLE <ul><li>Three ways of ensuring that YES People will keep their word and save yourself STRESS: </li></ul><ul><li>Tie their promise to a sense of personal integrity: “Do I have your word on this?” </li></ul><ul><li>Recap the agreement’s main points. </li></ul><ul><li>Get even the informal in writing! </li></ul>
    74. 74. THE PASSIVES <ul><li>You can recognise the passive by their deadpan expressions and their weak handshakes. Avoiding conflict and controversy at all costs, these people never offer ideas or opinions, and never let you know where you stand! </li></ul>
    75. 75. HOW TO WORK WITH PASSIVES <ul><li>Set a clear example of the behaviour you want demonstrated by rewarding all the people who voice their opinions and take the initiative. The more passive types will observe this and normally take action. </li></ul><ul><li>Some times the passive type will share their opinions and comments in a private setting! </li></ul>
    76. 76. The “NO” PEOPLE <ul><li>This type can be both negative and pessimistic, they are quick to point out why something won’t work. They are inflexible and do not like change. They can put stress on you by throwing a wet blanket over the whole of your initiatives. </li></ul>
    77. 77. DEALING WITH THE “NO” PEOPLE <ul><li>Minimise their contact with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Show the advantages for THEM! </li></ul><ul><li>Do change management in small pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Never use negative communication back to them - keep it positive! </li></ul>
    78. 78. THE COMPLAINERS <ul><li>They are of the opinion that nothing ever goes their way. You have the feeling they would rather complain about things than change them. Even if they are sometimes right in what they say, their negativity and nit-picking can turn people off and cause you great amounts of stress! And because the squeaky wheel gets the oil, others often miss out! </li></ul>
    79. 79. DEALLING WITH COMPLAINERS <ul><li>Listen to the complaint. </li></ul><ul><li>Set them straight, DO NOT allow them to reinforce their beliefs about a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Get them to focus off positions (who’s right and who’s wrong). Have them examine the others person’s behaviour and motivations to understand their position! </li></ul>
    80. 80. DEALING WITH ANGER <ul><li>“ If you are patient in one moment of anger, you will escape a hundred days of sorrow” - Old Chinese proverb </li></ul>
    81. 81. DEALING WITH ANGER <ul><li>When faced with an angry person who is VERY likely to cause your stress try the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Stay focussed on the situation and the outcome you want. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get distracted by the other person’s anger. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t take insults personally. </li></ul>
    82. 82. UNDERSTANDING ANGER <ul><li>Anger is normally a defence mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when things are not going a person’s way. </li></ul><ul><li>Has in it a sense of RIGHT - a belief that one’s personal rights are being violated. </li></ul><ul><li>Results in a narrowing of focus and priorities - angry people cannot see the big picture. </li></ul>
    83. 83. INTERACTION DURING CONFLICT <ul><li>DEMONSTRATE RESPECT - This is displayed in listening, in body language, in the choice of your words. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is not always accurate during conflict and anger. Sometimes people are talking about two different things without realising it - people can be in basic agreement with out realising it - CHECK!! </li></ul>
    84. 84. INTERACTION DURING CONFLICT <ul><li>Listen carefully to try and discover what the issue is that has caused the anger. </li></ul><ul><li>State your views, once you have made sure you have correctly understood these and reflected back the other person’s feelings about the situation. RESIST the temptation to strike back. If you can reflect the person’s anger in an empathetic way you will be surprised how much it will defuse the situation. </li></ul>
    85. 85. INTERACTION DURING CONFLICT <ul><li>REMEMBER in emotionally charged situations people can withhold important information. Try not to forget or to side-step major issues and encourage the other person to do likewise. </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER exaggeration is also a problem during angry situations! </li></ul>
    86. 86. UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>There are a number of clues that can help us to understand the level of conflict we are in and what to do about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention can often avoid a really difficult situation developing and can prevent you a great deal of stress! </li></ul>
    87. 87. UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>DISCOMFORTS - Nothing is said. It may be difficult to identify what the problem is, but things just don’t feel right. </li></ul><ul><li>INCIDENTS - This takes the form of a minor outward clash, no real significant internal reactions take place. </li></ul>
    88. 88. UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>MISUNDERSTANDINGS - The parties have begun to have negative images and perceptions of each other. It is still relatively easy to fix the problem at this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>TENSIONS - Negative attitudes and stances are added to negative images and perceptions. Tend to become fixed over time and hard to resolve. </li></ul>
    89. 89. UNDERSTANDING CONFLICT LEVELS <ul><li>CRISIS - Behaviour is affected, normal functioning becomes difficult, extreme gestures are contemplated, if not executed. </li></ul><ul><li>This is when personal and social conflicts become really serious. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Social Ecology Associates. </li></ul>
    90. 90. MANAGING OUR EMOTIONS <ul><ul><li>Four helpful questions to ask yourself when you are angry, hurt or frightened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Why am I feeling like this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. What do I want to change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. What do I need in order to get over this feeling? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Whose problem is it? </li></ul></ul>
    91. 91. 9 STEPS TO HANDLING COMPLAINTS SUCCESSFULLY <ul><li>Validate the other person’s point of view and their emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully without interruptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain positive and project a desire to help. </li></ul><ul><li>Display empathy, don’t argue. </li></ul><ul><li>Probe the problems using open questions - get the facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Use assertive communications skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm that you understand the issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore alternatives for resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach agreement with the other party. </li></ul>
    92. 92. WHAT DO UPSET PEOPLE WANT? <ul><li>To be taken seriously </li></ul><ul><li>To be treated with respect </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate action </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation/restitution </li></ul><ul><li>Someone to be reprimanded </li></ul><ul><li>To see that the problem never occurs again </li></ul><ul><li>To be listened to </li></ul>
    93. 93. WORDS THAT ADD FU EL TO THE FIRE <ul><li>You’re crazy </li></ul><ul><li>I know how you feel </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know why you are so upset </li></ul><ul><li>You’re way off base </li></ul><ul><li>You are not making any sense </li></ul><ul><li>That’s definitely wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Did you really say? </li></ul>
    94. 94. USE THE 3 F’s <ul><li>“ I understand how you could feel that way. </li></ul><ul><li>Others have felt that way too. </li></ul><ul><li>And they have found, after an explanation, that this policy protected them, so it made sense!” </li></ul>
    95. 95. AGGRESSION <ul><li>Aggression can be used in three areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural </li></ul>
    96. 96. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>The Importance and Ways of Developing Teams </li></ul>
    97. 97. TEAM DEVELOPMENT - Stott & Walker p84 <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul>
    98. 98. TRAINING NEEDS OF THE TEAM <ul><li>What Training will they receive? </li></ul><ul><li>What topics should be covered? </li></ul><ul><li>Should it be required or requested? </li></ul><ul><li>Should it be structured or ad hoc? </li></ul><ul><li>Will they be trained as a team or individually? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the courses be formal, and accredited or informal and prepared by the company </li></ul><ul><li>Who will do the training?consultants? company trainers? team members? </li></ul><ul><li>What about payment for training? Will it be done in company time? outside work hours? at what rate? </li></ul>
    99. 99. TEAM DEVELOPMENT - Stott & Walker p84 <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms, Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul></ul>
    100. 100. SOME OPTIONS FOR STAFF DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Job or Work Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondment </li></ul><ul><li>Special Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Work Shadowing </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul>
    101. 101. 5 ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE TEAMS <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul>
    102. 102. TEAMS 2008 . . . <ul><li>Thanks for attending! </li></ul>
    103. 103. TO INFLUENCE CHANGE YOU MUST <ul><li>Identify a gap in performance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify where you want to be - goal </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the need for change </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose the problem/s </li></ul><ul><li>Develop alternative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Select the most appropriate one </li></ul><ul><li>Implement it </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate it against the desired outcome </li></ul>
    104. 104. A SIX STEP MODEL FOR CHANGE Identify the problem or Innovation Diagnose the situation and generate ideas Select the best option Plan to overcome resistance Implement the change Monitor and evaluate results Adapted from Bartol p 238
    105. 105. THE ACTION RESEARCH PROCESS Gathering Data Analysis and Feedback Action or Intervention Planning Implementing the action or intervention Evaluation
    106. 106. Group Decision Making <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>More information and knowledge focused on issue </li></ul><ul><li>More alternatives developed </li></ul><ul><li>Greater understanding and acceptance of decision </li></ul><ul><li>Develops greater skills for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Usually more time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement may delay decision and cause ill feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion may be dominated by a few members </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for Groupthink </li></ul>Adapted from Bartol p 277
    107. 107. Teams <ul><li>Are being used increasingly in organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks they are being asked to manage are more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Change will be needed in a number of areas within an organisation, and it will require careful planning </li></ul>
    108. 108. Responsibilities of Teams <ul><li>Performing a range of job functions </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving quality (& quantity) of products and/or services </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring cost </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>General housekeeping / Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Training other team members </li></ul>
    109. 109. Role of members in a team
    110. 110. Continuous Development <ul><li>Self Directed - Lifelong Learning </li></ul><ul><li>this requires . . . </li></ul><ul><li>rapid communication of priority </li></ul><ul><li>availability of learning facilities and resources as part of working life </li></ul><ul><li>recognition by the employee that they share ownership of organisations learning plan </li></ul><ul><li>recognition that the employee is able to create a personal development plan </li></ul>
    111. 111. Continuous Development <ul><li>Operational plans must take into account the learning implications for employees </li></ul><ul><li>Clear understanding by everyone of their responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>You have a responsibility for your own self development and the training and development of those you manage </li></ul>
    112. 112. Implications . . . <ul><li>identification and assessing the competencies of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>providing ways for people to learn and develop skills </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing staff development needs and career aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>establishing and reviewing objectives and performance measures </li></ul>
    113. 113. Rating Methods <ul><li>Results Oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on performance results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behaviour Oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on employee behaviour that represents gradations of performance that can be used as reference points on various job dimensions </li></ul></ul>
    114. 114. The Upside and the Downside <ul><li>clearly defined roles </li></ul><ul><li>better understanding </li></ul><ul><li>focuses attention on important issues </li></ul><ul><li>ownership of the process </li></ul><ul><li>better motivation </li></ul><ul><li>time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>setting measurable targets can be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>may lead to inflexibility </li></ul><ul><li>tendency to focus on items easily measured </li></ul>
    115. 115. Alternative approaches <ul><li>Education and Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Participation and Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation and Support </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation and Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation and Co-optation </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit / Implicit Coercion </li></ul>
    116. 116. Changing the internal environment Present Desired 1 2 3 4 5 surface actual norms Establish new norms (+ve) Identify gaps in culture Close the gaps Reward systems success depends on strength, pervasiveness and direction of current culture articulate new direction
    117. 117. The Planning Process Mission Goals Plans Goal Achievement Strategic - top management 3 - 5 years Tactical - mid management 1 - 3 years Operational - first line / work unit <1 year }
    118. 118. Achieving Performance Gains Other factors - job knowledge and ability feedback task complexity resources Adapted from Bartol p 162 Goals Commitment Work behaviour Performance <ul><li>Challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Attainable </li></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Time Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor authority </li></ul><ul><li>Peer /group pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Public commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation of success </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives / rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>direction </li></ul><ul><li>effort </li></ul><ul><li>persistence </li></ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul>
    119. 119. Skills Required <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Service </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Self and Team assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Change </li></ul><ul><li>Team Development </li></ul><ul><li>Group Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul>
    120. 120. Some Possible Conflicts
    121. 121. Feedback <ul><li>Needs to come from all stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarify roles and direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is an appropriate mechanism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>questionnaire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appraisal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    122. 122. Types of feedback George and Cole p 148 - 149 <ul><li>Unconditional Positive Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>just for being themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good for motivation and working relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditional Positive Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps ensure performance standards are met </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrective Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative feedback for a specific action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use sparingly </li></ul></ul>
    123. 123. Principles of good feedback <ul><li>be specific rather than general </li></ul><ul><li>focus on behaviour - not the person </li></ul><ul><li>base it on facts </li></ul><ul><li>be about why something happened (ie the behaviour and its effects) </li></ul><ul><li>focus on what can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>help rather than hurt </li></ul><ul><li>be relevant to performance objectives of person </li></ul>
    124. 124. Factors Impacting on Organisational Activities Culture Organisations Activities Structure Technology Human Resources
    125. 125. Why is an organisation like it is? <ul><li>Natural selection model </li></ul><ul><li>- found a niche which suits it </li></ul><ul><li>- determined by the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Dependency model </li></ul><ul><li>- adapted to make the environment more suitable </li></ul><ul><li>- to reduce dependency </li></ul>
    126. 126. Deming on Quality <ul><li>“ Good quality does not necessarily mean high quality. It means a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost, with a quality suited to the market.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is good management to reduce the variation in quality characteristics ...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ 90 - 94% of the waste is built into the system and can only be eliminated through fundamental changes initiated by management” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I never said it would be easy: I only said that it would work” </li></ul>
    127. 127. Deming and his 14 points <ul><li>create constancy of purpose towards improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt a philosophy of customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Cease mass inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from price to quality as a measure </li></ul><ul><li>Improve systems of production and service constantly -(Kaizen) </li></ul><ul><li>Training is vital and should include philosophy of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Managers should become leaders </li></ul>
    128. 128. Deming and his 14 points (continued) <ul><li>Create a climate of trust and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Break down barriers between departments </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate numerical goals - focus on success in improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate MBO and quotas-need leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Stress quality not numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Education and self improvement are essential for all </li></ul><ul><li>The transformation is everybody’s responsibility -take action </li></ul>
    129. 129. The Challenge <ul><li>How to develop and reward a continuous improvement culture in an organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers / Clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shareholders / Owners </li></ul></ul>
    130. 130. A process to improve performance <ul><li>Establish goals </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the work </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate roles </li></ul><ul><li>Establish performance criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for feedback </li></ul>
    131. 131. Objectives of Appraisal <ul><li>provide 2 way feedback of performance over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>give management information on performance of individual or team </li></ul><ul><li>tell individuals what their strengths and weaknesses are </li></ul><ul><li>provide information for reviewing training and development needs </li></ul>
    132. 132. Objectives of Appraisal - continued <ul><li>provide an inventory of skills, competence, qualifications, and talents </li></ul><ul><li>provide relevant information for reviewing salary, promotion or other rewards </li></ul><ul><li>provide input for human resource planning, career planning and succession planning </li></ul>
    133. 133. Benefits of an appraisal system <ul><li>For the Organisation: </li></ul><ul><li>standard information about its employees </li></ul><ul><li>facility to develop individuals based on this information </li></ul><ul><li>ability to plan its human resource needs more accurately </li></ul><ul><li>adapted from “Managing People” - Rosemary Thomson p 103 </li></ul>
    134. 134. Benefits of an appraisal system <ul><li>For the Manager: </li></ul><ul><li>objective guidelines for assessing staff </li></ul><ul><li>gains a better understanding of staff needs </li></ul><ul><li>improved relations with staff </li></ul><ul><li>adapted from “Managing People” - Rosemary Thomson p 103 </li></ul>
    135. 135. Benefits of an appraisal system <ul><li>For the individual </li></ul><ul><li>opportunity to discuss work objectively </li></ul><ul><li>ability to evaluate performance </li></ul><ul><li>ability to consider future training and development needs </li></ul><ul><li>improved relations with manager </li></ul><ul><li>adapted from “Managing People” - Rosemary Thomson p 103 </li></ul>
    136. 136. Rewards - Individual or Team <ul><li>In the past reward has been to individuals </li></ul><ul><li>With teams, should monetary reward be individual or team based? </li></ul><ul><li>Should rewards be based on specific work groups or the organisation as a whole? </li></ul><ul><li>As a general rule it is important to find ways of rewarding team achievement rather than individual </li></ul>
    137. 137. Possible Reward Schemes <ul><li>suggestion schemes to allow a creative look at their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Gift certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Award points to be converted to cash payments </li></ul><ul><li>Time / room for meetings </li></ul>
    138. 138. Possible Reward Schemes (contd) <ul><li>Company supported learning / training </li></ul><ul><li>Lump Sum Bonuses </li></ul><ul><li>Profit Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Gain sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Payment for Skills / Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Risk - Reward Systems </li></ul>
    139. 139. Team and Individual Goals <ul><li>Goals or targets should be : </li></ul><ul><li>realistic </li></ul><ul><li>specific </li></ul><ul><li>relate to a time frame </li></ul><ul><li>measurable - quantity, quality , cost </li></ul><ul><li>related to the organisations goals </li></ul><ul><li>The team should be accountable </li></ul>
    140. 140. A conflict <ul><li>Manager must often play the roles of </li></ul><ul><li>Leader - assign work, establish standards of performance and provide resources </li></ul><ul><li>Coach - provide support and encouragement to reach desired level of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Judge - evaluate objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Are these compatible? Trust and Openness </li></ul>
    141. 141. The SWOT Analysis <ul><ul><li>S - Strengths (Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W - Weaknesses (Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O - Opportunities (External) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T - Threats (External) </li></ul></ul>
    142. 142. STRENGTHS <ul><li>Internal characteristic of firm that has the potential for improving the firm’s competitive situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better technological skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good competitive skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reputation </li></ul></ul>
    143. 143. WEAKNESSES <ul><li>Internal characteristic that leaves the firm potentially vulnerable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no strategic direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obsolete facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor distribution network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>missing key skills or competence </li></ul></ul>
    144. 144. OPPORTUNITIES <ul><li>An environmental condition that offers potential for improving the organisation’s situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced trade barriers in export markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market opportunities in related products (diversification) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complacency of industry rivals </li></ul></ul>
    145. 145. THREATS <ul><li>An environmental condition that has the potential to undermine the organisation’s competitive situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low cost competitors entering the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sales of substitute products increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new legislation which will incur greater cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change in buyer tastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adverse demographic changes </li></ul></ul>
    146. 146. What Options are there for change? <ul><li>Adapt to suit the existing environmental elements </li></ul><ul><li>attempt to influence the environment favorably </li></ul><ul><li>shift away from the threatening environment - a change in direction </li></ul>
    147. 147. TEAM TASK ROLES <ul><li>Initiator - Contributor </li></ul><ul><li>Information Seeker </li></ul><ul><li>Information Giver </li></ul><ul><li>Co-coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Orientor (Direction Keeper) </li></ul><ul><li>Energiser </li></ul>
    148. 148. EFFECTIVE TEAMS . . . <ul><li>Need goals clearly defined in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Help members clarify what is to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure ownership </li></ul><ul><li>If this is not done task related </li></ul><ul><li>problems will occur. </li></ul>
    149. 149. DEVELOPING GOOD TEAMS . . . <ul><li>Who are we? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are we know? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we want to be? </li></ul><ul><li>How will we get there? </li></ul><ul><li>What is expected of us? </li></ul><ul><li>What helps do we need? </li></ul><ul><li>How effective are we? </li></ul>
    150. 150. SADIE MODEL - Magerison and McCann <ul><li>Sharing information </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing information </li></ul><ul><li>Developing options and selecting </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul>
    151. 151. ANALYSIS FROM ELEMENTS <ul><li>Symbolism - language, or acts which convey meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Myths - past events often embellished </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals - planned sets of activities - what beliefs or values are being reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>Heroes and Sinners - ie managerial practice in regard to treatment of subordinates and promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Physical layout - what does it suggest about the organisation? </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Cows </li></ul>
    152. 152. DECODING THE CULTURE from “Fad Surfing in the Boardroom” Eileen Shapiro <ul><li>Observation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Every organisation has an internal game that sets the rules for how to survive and excel within the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to change the culture, part of your plan must include changing the internal game. </li></ul>
    153. 153. ANALYSIS FROM THEMES <ul><li>Autonomy - is it provided or is there close monitoring? </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity - is this encouraged or are there informal restrictions? </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict - is it acknowledged or suppressed? </li></ul><ul><li>Information -is it widely shared or hoarded? </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism - is it welcomed or discouraged? </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork - is collaboration encouraged or are people protective of their territory </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation - rewarded or is it better to play safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy - played down or re-inforced? </li></ul>
    154. 154. DECODING THE CULTURE from “Fad Surfing in the Boardroom” Eileen Shapiro <ul><li>Observation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The rules people use for navigating the internal game seldom look anything like the rules in the policy books. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to change the internal game, you first need to uncover the real rules. </li></ul>
    155. 155. DECODING THE CULTURE from “Fad Surfing in the Boardroom” Eileen Shapiro <ul><li>Observation 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Those who excel at the internal game are not always those who contribute to performance. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to fine-tune the game, you need to find ways to assess the true contributions of the participants and reward the worthy. </li></ul>
    156. 156. THREE AREAS OF AGGRESSION <ul><li> EMOTIONAL - Something happens to make a person angry. </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATIONAL - There is an intention to hurt another person. </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOURAL - It is a response to something/someone of a threat. </li></ul>
    157. 157. THREE AREAS OF AGGRESSION <ul><li>“ The person was angry (emotional) because the payment was late again, so he worked out a plan (motivational) to get back at the organisation in some way. First thing in the morning he went down to the office and threw (behavioural) a chair through the window” </li></ul>
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