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by Joshua J.
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After studying this chapter, you should be
1. Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process.
2. Identify the various sources of information used for
3. Compare the value of different types of employment tests.
4. Illustrate the different approaches to conducting an
5. Describe the various decision strategies for selection.
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Figure 6–1Figure 6–1 The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits”The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits”
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Figure 6–2Figure 6–2 Steps in the Selection ProcessSteps in the Selection Process
Completion of applicationCompletion of application
Initial interview in
Initial interview in
Background investigationBackground investigation
Preliminary selection in
Preliminary selection in
Supervisor/team interviewSupervisor/team interview
Medical exam/drug testMedical exam/drug test
Hiring decisionHiring decision
may vary. An
any step in
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Sources of Information about
• Application Forms
• Online Applications
• Biographical Information
• Polygraph Tests
• Integrity and Honesty
• Medical Examinations
• Employment Tests
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• Application date
• Educational background
• Arrests and criminal convictions
• Country of citizenship
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• An Internet-based automated posting,
application, and tracking process helps
firms to more quickly fill positions by:
– Attracting a broader and more diverse
– Collecting and mining resumes with keyword
searches to identify qualified candidates
– Conducting screening tests online
– Reducing recruiting costs significantly
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Biographical Information Blanks
• Sample Questions:
– At what age did you leave home?
– How large was the town/city in which you
lived as a child?
– Did you ever build a model airplane that
– Were sports a big part of your childhood?
– Do you play any musical instruments?
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• Checking References
– Mail and telephone checks
• Specific job-related information
– Letters of reference
– Online computerized databases
– Privacy Act of 1974
• Requires signed requests for reference letters and
signed consent to background checks.
• Applies to both educational and private
– Failure to check references
• Negligent hiring liabilities
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Protection Act (1988)
• Use of “lie detectors” is
• Act requires qualified
• Act requires disclosure of
information where used.
• Encouraged employers’ use
of paper and pencil integrity
and honesty tests.
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Background Investigations (cont’d)
– The use of a sample of an applicant’s handwriting to
make an employment decision.
• Medical Examinations
– Given last as they can be costly.
– Ensure that the health of an applicant is adequate to
meet the job requirements.
– Provides a baseline for subsequent examinations
– ADA requires all exams be job-related and conducted
after an employment offer is made.
– Testing for illegal drugs is allowed.
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• Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988
– Testing for illegal drugs is required applicants
and employees of federal contractors.
• Questions about the efficacy of testing
– Why spend large sums on testing when…
• testing for drugs doesn’t appear to make the
workplace safer or improve employee
• few applicants actually test positive and alcohol
abuse creates more problems in the workplace?
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• Employment Test
– An objective and standardized measure of a
sample of behavior that is used to gauge a
person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and
other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to
– Pre-employment testing
can lead to lawsuits.
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Classification of Employment Tests
• Cognitive Ability Tests
– Aptitude tests
• Measures of a person’s capacity to learn or
– Achievement tests
• Measures of what a person knows or can do right
• Personality and Interest Inventories
– “Big Five” personality factors:
• Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,
neuroticism, openness to experience.
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Figure 6–7Figure 6–7 Is That Your Final Answer?Is That Your Final Answer?
Verbal 1. What is the meaning of the word “surreptitious”?
a. covert c. lively
b. winding d. sweet
2. How is the noun clause used in the following sentence?
“I hope that I can learn this game.”
a. subject c. direct object
b. predicate nominative
d. object of the preposition
Quantitative 3. Divide 50 by 0.5 and add 5. What is the result?
a. 25 c. 95
b. 30 d. 105
4. What is the value of 1442?
a. 12 c. 288
b. 72 d. 20736
Answers: 1a, 2c, 3d, 4d
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Figure 6–7Figure 6–7 Is That Your Final Answer? (cont’d)Is That Your Final Answer? (cont’d)
Reasoning 5. ______ is to boat as snow is to ______.
a. Sail, ski c. Water, ski
b. Water, winter d. Engine, water
6. Two women played 5 games of chess. Each woman
won the same number of games, yet there were no
ties. How can this be?
a. There was a forfeit. c. They played different people.
b. One player cheated. d. One game is still in progress.
Mechanical 7. If gear A and gear C are both turning counterclockwise,
what is happening to gear B?
a. It is turning counterclockwise.
b. It is turning clockwise.
c. It remains stationary.
d. The whole system will jam.
Answers: 5c, 6c, 7b
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Classification of Employment Tests (cont’d)
• Physical Ability Tests
– Must be related to the essential functions of
the the job.
• Job Knowledge Tests
– An achievement test that measures a
person’s level of understanding about a
• Work Sample Tests
– Require the applicant to perform tasks that
are actually a part of the work required on the
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The Employment Interview
• Why the interview is so popular:
– It is especially practical when there are only
a small number of applicants.
– It serves other purposes, such as public
– Interviewers maintain great faith and
confidence in their judgments.
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• Nondirective Interview
– The applicant determines the course of the
discussion, while the interviewer refrains
from influencing the applicant’s remarks.
• Structured Interview
– An interview in which a set of standardized
questions having an established set of
answers is used.
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Interviewing Methods (cont’d)
• Situational Interview
– An interview in which an applicant is given a
hypothetical incident and asked how he or
she would respond to it.
• Behavioral Description Interview (BDI)
– An interview in which an applicant is asked
questions about what he or she actually did
in a given situation.
• Panel Interview
– An interview in which a board of interviewers
questions and observes a single candidate.
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Interviewing Methods (cont’d)
• Computer Interview
– Using a computer program that requires
candidates to answer a series of questions
tailored to the job.
– Answers are compared either with an ideal
profile or with profiles developed on the basis
of other candidates’ responses.
• Video interviews
– Using video conference technologies to
evaluate job candidates’ technical abilities,
energy level, appearance, and the like before
incurring the costs of a face-to-face meeting.
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Highlights in HRM 2
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Figure 6–9Figure 6–9 Variables in the Employment InterviewVariables in the Employment Interview
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Ground Rules for Employment Interviews
• Establish an interview plan
• Establish and maintain rapport
• Be an active listener
• Pay attention to nonverbal cues
• Provide information freely
• Use questions effectively
• Separate facts from inferences
• Recognize biases and stereotypes
• Control the course of the interview
• Standardize the questions asked
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Diversity Management: Are Your
• No questions are expressly forbidden.
– Questions related to race, color, age,
religion, sex, or national origin can be
– Questions are acceptable if job-related,
asked of everyone, and do not discriminate
against a protected class (e.g., females).
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““Can-Do” and “Will-Do” Factors in Selection DecisionsCan-Do” and “Will-Do” Factors in Selection Decisions
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Reaching a Selection Decision
• Selection Considerations:
– Should individuals to be hired according to their highest
potential or according to the needs of the organization?
– At what grade or wage level to start the individual?
– Should selection be for employee- job match, or should
advancement potential be considered?
– Should those not qualified but qualifiable be considered?
– Should overqualified individuals be considered?
– What effect will a decision have on meeting affirmative action
plans and diversity considerations?
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Selection Decision Strategies
Multiple Cutoff Model - MinimumMultiple Cutoff Model - MinimumMultiple Cutoff Model - MinimumMultiple Cutoff Model - Minimum
Statistical ApproachStatistical ApproachStatistical ApproachStatistical Approach
Compensatory Model - AverageCompensatory Model - AverageCompensatory Model - AverageCompensatory Model - Average
Multiple Hurdle Model- SequentialMultiple Hurdle Model- SequentialMultiple Hurdle Model- SequentialMultiple Hurdle Model- Sequential
Clinical ApproachClinical ApproachClinical ApproachClinical Approach
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Selection Decision Models
• Compensatory Model
– Permits a high score in one area to make
up for a low score in another area.
• Multiple Cutoff Model
– Requires an applicant to achieve a
minimum level of proficiency on all
• Multiple Hurdle Model
– Only applicants with sufficiently high
scores at each selection stage go on to
subsequent stages in the selection
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Selection Process (cont’d)
• Final Decision
– Selection of applicant by departmental or
immediate supervisor to fill vacancy.
– Notification of selection and job offer by the
human resources department.