• I find social situations confusing.
• I find it hard to make small talk.
• I did not enjoy imaginative story-writing at school.
• I am good at picking up details and facts.
• I find it hard to work out what other people are thinking
• I can focus on certain things for very long periods.
• People often say I was rude even when this was not
• I have unusually strong, narrow interests.
• I do certain things in an inflexible, repetitive way.
• I have always had difficulty making friends.
WHAT IS AUTISM
• a developmental
disorder that appears
in the first 3 years of
• affects the brain's
of social and
• a physical condition
linked to abnormal
biology and chemistry
in the brain.
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD)
• is a range of complex neurodevelopment
disorders, characterized by social impairments,
communication difficulties, and restricted,
repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of
• Autistic disorder,
autism or classical
ASD, is the most
severe form of ASD
• Males are four
times more likely
to have an ASD
PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
• Asperger syndrome
– like autism, but with normal language development
• Rett syndrome
– very different from autism, and almost always occurs in
• Childhood disintegrative disorder
– rare condition where a child learns skills, then loses
them by age 10
• Pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise
– also called atypical autism
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS
• The exact causes of these abnormalities
• Genetic factors
– Chromosomal abnormalities
– Other nervous system (neurological)
• Suspected causes
– Digestive tract changes
– Mercury poisoning
– The body's inability to properly use vitamins
– Vaccine sensitivity
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE “ON THE SPECTRUM”?
• have exceptional abilities in visual skills, music
and academic skills.
• About 40 percent have average to above
average intellectual abilities.
• Most parents of autistic children suspect that
something is wrong by the time the child is 18 months
old and seek help by the time the child is age 2.
Children with autism typically have difficulties in:
– Pretend play
– Social interactions
– Verbal and nonverbal communication
• The hallmark feature of ASD is impaired social
• if a child fails to meet any of the following language
– Babbling by 12 months
– Gesturing (pointing, waving bye-bye) by 12
– Saying single words by 16 months
– Saying two-word spontaneous phrases by 24
months (not just echoing)
– Losing any language or social skills at any age
– excessive lining up of toys or objects
A TEAM OF DIFFERENT SPECIALISTS MIGHT
• Motor skills
• Success at school
• Thinking abilities
What do those words mean?
• Spectrum Disorder: there is a wide degree of
variation in the way it affects people.
• Autism Spectrum Disorder: a brain development
disorder commonly diagnosed before age 3, with
impairments primarily in social interaction,
communication and restrictive & repetitive behavior
• DSM-IV: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders (4th
edition) lists the different
categories of mental disorders and the criteria for
• Common names for Asperger’s Syndrome: AS,
Asperger Syndrome, Asperger’s
Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) is a
disability that is defined by impairments in
social relationships, verbal and nonverbal
communication, and by restrictive,
repetitive patterns of behaviors,
interests, and activities.
• Identified in 1944 by Hans Asperger.
• Brought to the attention of the English-
speaking world in 1980 by Dr. Lorna Wing.
• Was not added to the Diagnostic and
Statistics Manual of the American
Psychiatric Association until 1994.
• “Autism’s Shadow”
Unique Characteristics of AS
• They considered that early language and
cognitive skills are not delayed significantly in
children with Asperger's syndrome.
• There is also no clinically significant delay in age-
appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior and
curiosity about the environment in childhood.
• also less likely to include motor mannerisms and
preoccupation with parts of objects as occurs in
• in Asperger's syndrome there can be a motivation
to socialize but this is achieved in a highly
eccentric, one-sided, verbose and insensitive
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders: DSM IV TR
• Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as
manifested by at least two of the following:
– 1) marked impairment in the use of multiple
nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial
expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate
– 2) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to
– 3) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment,
interests or achievements with other people (eg: by a
lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of
interest to other people);
– 4) lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
• Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns
of behavior, interests, and activities, as
manifested by at least one of the following:
– 1) encompassing preoccupation with one or more
stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is
abnormal either in intensity or focus;
– 2) apparently inflexible adherence to specific,
nonfunctional routines or rituals;
– 3) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (eg:
hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-
– 4) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
• The disturbance causes clinically significant
impairment in social, occupational, or other
important areas of functioning.
• There is no clinically significant general delay
in language (eg: single words used by age 2
years, communicative phrases used by age 3
• There is no clinically significant delay in
cognitive development or in the development
of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive
behavior (other than social interaction), and
curiosity about the environment in childhood.
• Not interested in playing with other children
• Preoccupation with things that seem beyond their
• Walk up and down stairs always leading with the
• Unafraid of things they should fear.
• Rigidity to where objects should be.
• Attracted to shows like Jeopardy and Wheel of
• Watch same movie over and over again.
• Little or no eye contact
• Fascinated with numbers and letters
What does Asperger Syndrome look
What does Asperger Syndrome sound
• Talks in a flat affect
– Voice and tone modulation – failure to make voice
interesting to listener because they lack the concept
of the listener as interested
• Doesn’t understand why other people’s voices go
up and down.
• Yelling means nothing to them and only frustrates
• Echolaic speech
Center for Disease Control
• Went from 1 in 2500 to 1 in 1000 to 1
in 100 over the past decade.
• 5 boys to every girl
• Identical Twins
• Family Hx- 1 in 20
• AS is usually diagnosed between the
ages of 5 and 9
Statistic in Philippines
• Statistics show that in the Philippines at least
600,000 families are estimated to be affected with
autism. Likewise, there was a recent report from
the Center for Disease Control of the United
States that one (1) out of 110 individuals is
affected of some forms of autism. It is also the
fastest rising developmental disability that will be
diagnosed more than diabetes, cancer and AIDS
combined in the coming years.
What are some interesting facts
about Asperger's Syndrome?
• 1. Autistic People Rarely Lie
2. People on the Autism Spectrum Live in the
3. People with Autism Rarely Judge Others
4. Autistic People are Passionate
5. People with Autism Are Not Tied to Social
6. People with Autism Have Terrific Memories
• 7. Autistic People Are Less Materialistic
8. Autistic People Play Fewer Head Games
9. Autistic People Have Fewer Hidden Agendas
10. For them Rules are very important
Chairman of Microsoft
William Henry Gates III KBE
English physicist, mathematician,
astronomer, theologian, natural
philosopher, and alchemist
Sir Isaac Newton FRS
E = mc2
commonly known as Michelangelo,
was an Italian Renaissance painter,
sculptor, architect, poet and enginee
Ludwig Van Beethoven
was a German composer and virtuoso pianist
American inventor and businessman
And a lot more….
• Charles Robert Darwin
• Satoshi Tajiri
• Thomas Jefferson
• Wolfgang Mozart
• Michael Jackson
• Mark Twain
• Henry Ford
And many more people who have made a great
impact on our world , on our lives…
Here's a bit of fun with fictional
people who show some signs of
• Basil Fawlty (played by John Cleese in Faulty
• Mr Bean (played by Rowan Atkinson)
• Mr Spock (played by Leonard Nimoy in Star Trek)
• Data (played by Brett Spiner in Star Trek the Next
• Reginald Barclay (played by Dwight Schultz in
Star Trek the Next Generation)
• Andrew Martin (the Robot played by Robin
Williams in Bicentennial Man)
• Sherlock Holmes
Where can I find more information?