29 indepth interviews were carried out with coaches and young men from the community and 6 FGDs with boys (12-16 years) 3 each from community/school)
workshop with leadership council & implementing org. (4, 2-3 days long) Coaches (12 days training over 4 months & One-one support Mentors (10 days training over 4 months & 2-3 hours of meeting every Sunday)
168 athletes in the intervention schools and 141 in the comparison schools, and 168 athletes from the intervention community teams and 133 from the comparison community teams. 26 coaches and 16 mentors at baseline and follow-up in addition to 6 in-depth interviews and 2 FGDs Interviewed 15 female relatives (wives, mothers, or daughters) of the coaches and mentors
Manhood & Masculinity: A decline in agreement with 5 out of 6 statements
However, there continued to be areas that despite some improvement remained challenging. About a fifth of the school athletes still believed that girls like to be teased by boys and more than 50 percent said the way a girl dresses may be a justification for teasing.
The hypothetical examples were eve teasing, forcing girls to look at pornographic images, pushing/grabbing girls, making sexual jokes, assaulting a girl sexually, yelling at girls and spreading sexual rumors about girls. For each example, participants selected one of six responses: two were negative behaviors: “This is fun, I joined them” and “This is normal, it happens all the time, I did nothing” four were positive behaviors: “I talked to the person afterwards,” “I talked to the person involved about why it’s wrong and brought it up to other people,” “I felt really bad and intervened to stop the act in the moment,” and “I believe this should never happen and will work to stop it whether I see it or not.”
Engaging Coaches and Athletes in Fostering Gender Equity and Reducing violence against girls and womenFindings from the Parivartan Program in Mumbai, India
Why Sports? Why Coaches?Sports Sports is predominantly a ‘masculine’ institution Power, control and entitlement It is critical to confront and question masculinity norms and practices within the sportsCoaches Coaches embody power, hierarchy and inequality and are looked up as role models
What is Parivartan?It means “Transformation” (Change for Better) individual transformation leading to social transformationBased on the US Model “Coaching Boys into Men”Implemented in Mumbai in formal and informal settings with support from Futures Without Violence MSSA, Apnalaya, Breakthrough NIKE FOUNDATION
What did we want to accomplish through Parivartan ?Among the male coaches/mentors and athletes: Raise awareness about abusive and disrespectful behavior Promote gender-equitable, non-violent attitudes Develop skills to speak up and intervene when witnessing harmful and disrespectful behaviors This would contribute to transforming damaging masculine norms that condone abuse against women and girls, thereby improving their dignity and safety.
Formative Research: Setting theField Key Findings from the formative research set the field for the program (29 in-depth/6 FGD): Coaches still believe in the segregated role of girls and boys Coaches don’t feel comfortable going beyond cricket coaching It is something new to them but they are willing and recognize the importance The ideal coach serves as a mirror to reflect back which we fail to see about ourselves; coach is someone who really cares a lot ‐ and can contribute significantly to the quality of life of an athlete.
Program Design Quasi-experimental with two arms, Experiment group (25 schools with 377 athletes & 16 Mentors with 228 athletes) Control group (20 schools with 286 athletes & 15 Mentors with 178 athletes) Public Education Campaign: • 9750 boys and girls at the school & community level. • Community men and women Coaches (45) and mentors (31) Core Coaches Group/Master Trainers (10 members; including intervention partners and coaches)
Intervention Component Mentors/Coaches: Coaching Clinic Workshops and training Gender norms, violence Sessions on Cards Facilitation communication Materials: Card Series; Coaches Handbook; Diary; Banners; Posters; stickers, Comic strips
Intervention component Athletes: Cricket Coaching, usual for school and through coaches clinic for community Weekly Sessions by coaches/mentors using card series respect, Fair-play, Aggression and abusive language, violence including sexual violence and harassment, intention to intervene, and bystander intervention
How did Parivartan work in thefield? Workshops for Coaches & Mentors led by Leadership Council & implementing organizations (12 days/4 months) Build perspectives and self reflection around gender and violence; engage athletes in critical thinking Coaches & Mentors used ‘card series’ to engage athletes, talk to them in the field & use real examples as ‘teachable’ moments (12 cards/6 months)
What changes did we achievethrough this program?
School and community athletes in the program became more supportive of gender equity than non-participants Manhood & Masculinity School Community
School and community athletes in the program becamemore supportive of gender equity than non-participants. Agreement with traditional notions about women and girls also declined: A wife should always obey her husband Violence against girls are perpetrated by strangers If a girls says no, it means yes Boys’ Controlling Behaviors Less improvement especially among school athletes
The community athletes became significantly lesssupportive of the physical abuse of girls. There was a decline in agreement with all seven statements about when girls deserve to be beaten among community athletes But strong agreement continued for “when she doesn’t help with household chores” School athletes did not show a corresponding level of change
School and community athletes report greaterintentions to positively intervene in response tohypothetical scenarios of abuse against girls. School athletes in response to observing sexual joking about a girl or a girl being sexually assaulted. Community athletes in response to sexual joking, assaulting a girl sexually, yelling at girls and spreading sexual rumors about girls.
Despite improvements inintentions to intervene, therewere no significant changes intheir bystanderintervention behaviors.
The athletes report less perpetration of violence.Peer violence shows some decline but still remains high among both the school and community athletes.Among the community athletes, both program and non- program participants report a decline in sexually abusive behaviors. the result shows some change, which should be interpreted as a promising change. These findings point to the need for more in-depth research
What effects did participation in thetraining and the overall program have onthe coaches?
Coaches & mentors became moresupportive of equitable gender rolesand relationships. “The program helped me think how as men and women we are all equal. Earlier I used to think that men are always powerful and they can do anything that they want. But now I think in a different way”. ‘Sharing of powers gives more power’
Coaches and mentors wrestledwith women’s and girls’ mobility.They identified various security and safety considerations for justifying men’s control over their behavior.This is an area that needs greater attention.
The program was well accepted by both the coaches & athletes“With each session, I can vouch there was a change in the cognition of these boys. Once you go in the depths of a discussion—making it light, yet serious at the same time—you will see there is a change in their thinking level. And this you will see has also resulted in a change in their attitude level,”For school athletes, the most common change was stopping the use of abusive language; for the community athletes it was helping with household chores
What changes did the wives, mothers ordaughters of the coaches and mentorsperceive as a result of the men’sparticipation in the program?
The female relatives noted improvements in themen’s gender-related attitudes and behaviors: →Communication with family members →Sharing of household responsibilities →Views about women and girls →Aggressive behavior →Emotional and sexual intimacy
The wife of a mentor described how his approach to sex and intimacy has changed. “…in the beginning when he was in the mood of having sex he never asked me about my willingness…….but now its not like that, he thinks that if I am not in that mood its all right. …….I used to take pills for family planning but he stopped me. He said that, if I take pills it may create problem but if he uses condom he will have no problem”.
Conclusion & Way Forward Sports is an effective platform to engage coaches and boys on issues of gender and violence. Parivartan’s success raises several questions around opportunities and challenges: How can these positive changes be sustained among the coaches/mentors & athletes? How feasible is it to scale this initiative to a larger group? How can this effort be institutionalized at various levels? How can women & girls be more actively engaged?