The male sexual organs consist of the testis (plural: testes) and
The two testes lie outside the abdominal cavity in a special
sacs called the scrotum.
In this position, the testes are maintained at a temperature
about 2 C lower than the body temperature. This favours
Each testis is connected to the epididymis and sperm duct.
The two sperm duct lead to the urethra, which runs through the
penis to the exterior.
The urethra at different times carries either urine or sperms.
The penis contains many blood spaces which during copulation,
become filled with blood. This erects the penis, allowing it to
penetrate the female’s vagine.
The head of the penis, called the glans, is covered by the
foreskin. The foreskin is removed by an operation known as
Three glands open into the sperm ducts-the prostate gland,
Cowper’s glands and seminal vesicle.
Testis Produce sperm
Scrotum Holds the testes outside the body
Protects the testes
Penis Places sperm in the vagina during sexual intercourse
Epididymis Stores sperm
Sperm ducts Carry sperm from the testis to the urethra
Urethra Carries sperm and urine out of the body
Seminal vesicle Secretes fluid that provides nourishment to the sperms
Prostate gland Secretes fluid that neutralizes the acidity of urine and the
Cowper’s gland Secretes a lubricating fluid that aids sperm movement
The role of sperms in reproduction
• The male gametes are the sperms.
• Each sperm consists of a head, a middle piece and a long tail.
• The role of the sperm is to swim towards the female gamete
(ovum) and fuses with it to form a zygote. The zygote will
develop into an adult individual.
Changes in the male during puberty
•Growth of hair on the face, chest in pubic region and armpits.
•Voice box (larynx) enlarges. The voice ‘breaks’ and becomes deeper.
• Body becomes more muscular.
• Chest becomes broader.
• Rapidly growth of long bones to increase height.
• The penis, scrotum and prostate become larger.
• Production of sperm by the testes.
•Certain mental and emotional changes, e.g. greater interest in
The Female Reproductive System
• A female has a pair of ovaries attached to the lower part of the
• The Fallopian tubes( oviducts) are thin, muscular tubes.
• At one end , the fallopian tubes open out as funnel-shaped
structures close to the ovaries. At the opposite, they lead into the
• The pear-shaped uterus has thick, muscular wall.
• The uterus is connected to a muscular tube called the vagina.
• The cervix is a ring of muscles at the lower end of
the uterus where it join the vagina.
• The vagina opens to the outside through the vulva.
Ovary • Produce ovum(egg).
Fallopian tube • Carries ovum from ovary to uterus.
Uterus • Place where the embryo develops.
Cervix • Secrets mucus that enhances sperm
movement into the uterus.
• Prevents large foreign bodies from
Vagina • Place where sperms are deposited.
• Birth canal.
The role of an ovum in reproduction
• The female gamete is the ovum.
• The ovum is larger than the sperm and it is spherical-shaped.
• The female fuses with the sperm to form a zygote during
• The ovum stores some food in its cytoplasm.
The food is used to nourish the embryo which develops from the
Changes in the female during puberty
• Growth of hair in the pubic region and armpits.
• Commencement of menstruation.
• Fat deposits on hips and thighs.
• Growth and development and breast.
Size • Very
• Larger than the
• The human egg is 0.1 mm in
diameter while the sperm has a
width of 0.0025 mm at the widest
region of the sperm head.
Number • very large
• Very few • A healthy male produces about
300 million sperms every day. The
each produce one egg on alternate
Motility • Motile • Non-motile • Whip-like movements of the tail
propels the sperm towards the
The Menstrual cycle
• The menstrual cycle is the repeated cycle of events which occur
every 28 days from puberty(when ovum production begins)to
menopause (when ovum production stops.
The menstrual cycle
•The main function of the menstrual cycle is to provide a
favourable environment in the uterus for the
development of the zygote.
•In most woman, the menstrual cycle varies from 24 to
34 days, averaging 28 days.
•The menstrual cycle starts when the female is about 12
years old and menopause occurs when the female is
about 45 years old.
•Menstruation is the discharge of the uterus lining and
blood through the vagina.
•The start of the menstrual cycle is considered as the
first day of menstruation (day 1) and ends the day
before the next menstruation starts.
Days in the cycle Events in the menstrual cycle
1 - 5 •Menstruation – discharged of
unfertilized egg, uterus lining and
6 - 13 •Rebuilding and thickening of the
14 •Ovulation – release of ovum from
15 - 25 •Continued thickening of the
uterus lining by increasing blood
supply and tissue.
26 - 28 •Uterus lining begins to break
•The fertile period is the period around the time of
ovulation when a woman can become pregnant if she
has an intercourse. It is between day 11 and the day
17 of the cycle.
•The fertile period is calculated on the assumption
that sperms can survive up to three days in the
woman’s body while ovulation can occur any time
between day 13 and day 15 and the ovum lives for
about 36 hours after the ovulation.
Personal hygiene during menstruation
•Sanitary pads (sanitary towels) are worn as lining on the
underwear to absorb the menstrual discharge. This will prevent
the discharge from staining the clothes.
•The sanitary should be change about every four hours to
prevent unpleasant odour.
•Some women prefer to wear tampons which are inserted into
the vagina by means of an applicator.
•Tampons should not be used continually throughout
the menstrual period.
•Tampons should be changed every four hours during
the day and external sanitary pads should be worn at