1. Main Points
Objectives of quantitative and
Main features in quantitative and
Limitations in quantitative and
Concept of using combined research
2. What is meant by
It is the whole design
including; assumptions, the
process of inquiry, the type of
data collected and the measuring
3. • The quantitative approach
views human phenomena as
being able to be measured.
It has its roots in positivism
4. Quantitative research and
traditional scientific methods
Quantitative research is similar to
traditional scientific methods.
Quantitative Research states in
advance the hypothesis and research
Determine the methods of data
collection and analysis.
The findings are presented in
5. Quantitative approach to research involves
data collection methods such as survey-
structured questionnaire, interviews and
observations together with other tools.
On the other hand, in depth interviews and
unstructured observations are associated with
Researchers have to choose methods which
are appropriate for answering the research
6. Quantitative research
quantitative research deals with
quantities and numbers while
qualitative research deals with quality
and description and exploration.
The purpose of quantitative research
is to measure concepts or variables
that are predetermined objectively and
to examine the relationship between
them numerically and statistically.
7. Measurement in Quantitative
The following criteria should be
- Objectivity (reliability)
8. Objective Measurement in
Objectivity means that the
researchers stand outside the
phenomena they study. Data
collected are free from bias.
Objectivity is ensured by many
ways e.g. structured questions,
representative sampling and
9. Objective Measurement in
Objective measures are more valid and
reliable than subjective measures, the
later depend on self reports.
10. Types of Quantitative
Data are used to classify and
Examples; numbers, amounts,
Variables can be classified as
physical (wt.& Ht.), physiological
(attitude, anxiety), social……etc.
11. Quantitative research
Quantitative research studies the
relationship between concepts and
variables e.g. the relation between
family size and quality of life.
But its hard to avoid the presence
of intervening factors. some times
qualitative research methods could
be useful in this regard.
12. Quantitative research
quantitative research can provide
data to describe the distribution of a
characteristic or attributes in
population, explore the relationships
between them and determine cause
and effect relationship.
13. Quantitative approach as
Quantitative research is a Deductive
approach as it begins from theory.
It moves from population to sample.
Some quantitative studies are
Inductive as they lead to formation of
new questions ( generate new
14. Quantitative research
Quantitative research is described
as producing generalisable findings
through randomization and
However, the study is no less
quantitative if a random
representative sample is not used.
15. Data Collection in
All the methods should be pre-
determined, structured and
16. Limitations of
It is difficult to understand human
phenomena e.g. when studying human
behavior, it is possible only to study what
is observable. So the phenomena is
Some researches claim that many
influences affect people’s response to
questions i.e. it is not purely objective.
Some standardized scales may be
17. What is qualitative
To care for people and promote
change in behavior, it is
required to understand in-depth
concepts such as attitude,
motivations and intentions.
So, listening and observing may
give more information than
18. What is qualitative
Qualitative research is an
approach which seeks to
understand , by means of
exploration, human experience,
intentions and behavior.
It is interactive, inductive,
flexible, and reflexive method of
data collection and analysis.
19. Main features of Qualitative
2- Inductive approach
3- Interactive and Reflective
20. 1-Exploration is the essential feature
of qualitative approach in order to
understand the perceptions and
actions of participants.
Exploration is to discover new
people, customs, and to learn from
Exploration is a difficult task that
requires training and experience.
It should be inductive, interactive,
reflexive and holistic.
21. 2- Inductive approach:
The purpose of qualitative
approach is to develop concepts
and generates hypothesis. The
researcher is open to ideas which
emerge from listening or observing
The inductive approach is useful
when little is known about the
22. 3- Interactive and Reflexive process
To avoid bias in quantitative approach,
the researchers try to study phenomena
in a detached way.
In qualitative studies, researchers use
interaction between them and
participants to get closer to the topic
under study. The researcher becomes an
instrument of data collection. The
researchers probe, facilitate, and note
tone, hesitations and repetition in
23. 3- Interactive and Reflexive process
There should be trust between
participants and researchers.
The qualitative research should be
reflexive i.e. examining not only what
people say and do, but also why they
say and do so.
24. 4- Holistic exploration
In quantitative research, the
researcher is constrained by a
number of variables to be studied.
In qualitative research, participants
are allowed to put their responses
25. Main features of Qualitative
( cont. )
5- Flexible methods
Qualitative research relies on personal,
intimate and private world of participants. So
flexible, imaginative, creative and varied
strategies are used to facilitate this process.
Data collection methods include; interviews,
observations, group discussion, analysis of
video recording, letters, diaries and other
In quantitative research, data collection
methods are constructed in advance.
26. Combining Quantitative
An old debate between quantitative and
qualitative methods can be traced back
to the two opposed Greek philosophical
visions of human science that emphasize
number (Pythagoras) and meaning
(Socrates) as the essence of mind.
Qualitative research has been described
as noble, good and empowering by some
By others it is; story telling, touchy,
feely, biased, subjective, lacking
reliability validity and generalisabilty.
27. Types and purposes of
1- To develop and enhance the validity of scales,
questionnaire and tools.
2- To develop, implement and evaluate
3- To further explore or test the findings of one
4- To study different aspects of the same topics.
5- To explore complex phenomena from different
6- To confirm or cross-validate data.