Bisphenol a.


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احذر المواد البلاستيكية التى تاكل وتشرب فيها

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Bisphenol a.

  1. 1. Hazard of Bisphenol A
  2. 2. What is Bisphenol A (BPA) o - - -Bisphenol A is an organic compound composed of two phenol groups that is produced by condensing acetone with carbolic acid. It is also known as 4,4-dihydroxy-2,2-diphenylpropane.
  3. 3. What is Bisphenol A (BPA) •• Bisphenol A is an industrial chemical used primarily to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins – both of which are used in countless applications that make our lives easier each and every day.
  4. 4. • • •Bisphenol A a group of chemicals for construction gives strength to polycarbonate plastic material and make it:cheap, lightweight, transparent and pure .
  5. 5. What are the fears of Bisphenol A (BPA)? One reason people may be concerned about BPA is because human exposure to BPA is widespread.
  6. 6. • -• The 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found detectable levels of BPA in 93% of 2517 urine samples from subjects six years and older.
  7. 7. •• Another reason for concern, especially for parents, may be because some animal studies report effects in fetuses and newborns exposed to BPA.
  8. 8. What are the fears of Bisphenol A (BPA)? • Suspected of being hazardous to humans since the 1930s, concerns about the use of bisphenol A in products were regularly consumer reported
  9. 9. Health effects • •• Bisphenol A is an endocrine disruptor, which can mimic the bodys own hormones and may lead to negative health effects. Early development appears to be the period of greatest sensitivity to its effects.• Regulatory bodies have determined safety levels for humans, but those safety levels are currently being questioned or under review as a result of new scientific studies.
  10. 10. • In 2009 the Endocrine Society released a scientific statement expressing concern over current human exposure to BPA.
  11. 11. Previous Studies
  12. 12. Studies in 2007• In 2007, a consensus statement by 38 experts on bisphenol A concluded that average levels in people are above those that cause harm to animals in laboratory experiments.
  13. 13. • A panel convened by the U.S. National Institutes of Health determined that there was "some concern" about BPAs effects on fetal and infant brain development and behavior.
  14. 14. Studies in 2008A 2008 report by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) later agreed with the panel, expressing "some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A," and "minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A.
  15. 15. • The NTP had negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring.
  16. 16. Neurological issues NTP• A panel convened by the U.S. National Institutes of Health determined that there was "some concern" about BPAs effects on fetal and infant brain development and behavior.
  17. 17. Obesity• A 2008 study has concluded that obesity may be increased as a function of BPA exposure, which "merits concern among scientists and public health officials".• A 2009 review of available studies has concluded that "perinatal BPA exposure acts to exert persistent effects on body weight and adiposity".
  18. 18. • Another 2009 study has concluded that "Eliminating exposures to (BPA) and improving nutrition during development offer the potential for reducing obesity and associated diseases".
  19. 19. • Other studies have come with similar conclusions.• A later study on rats has suggested that perinatal exposure to drinking water containing 1 mg/L of BPA increased adipogenesis in females at weaning.
  20. 20. Thyroid function• A 2007 study has concluded that bisphenol-A have been shown to bind to thyroid hormone receptor and perhaps have selective effects on its functions.
  21. 21. • •• A 2009 sudyt about environmental chemicals and thyroid function, raised concerns about BPA effects on triiodothyronine and concluded that "available evidence suggests that governing agencies need to regulate the use of thyroid-disrupting chemicals, particularly as such uses relate exposures of pregnant women, neonates and small children to the agents".• A 2009 review summarized BPA adverse effects on thyroid hormone action.
  22. 22. Cancer research• According to the WHOs INFOSAN, "animal studies have not provided convincing evidence of risk of cancer from BPA exposure."• Neither the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency nor the International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated bisphenol A for possible carcinogenic activity.
  23. 23. Breast cancer• A 2008 study has concluded that "perinatal exposure to low doses of BPA, alters breast development and increases breast cancer risk".
  24. 24. • A 2009 in vitro study has concluded that BPA is able to induce neoplastic transformation in human breast epithelial cells.• Another 2009 study concluded that maternal oral exposure to low concentrations of BPA during lactation increases mammary carcinogenesis in a rodent model.
  25. 25. Ways to reduce exposure to a BPA
  26. 26. • If I am concerned, what can I do to prevent exposure to BPA?• Parents and caregivers, can make the personal choice to reduce exposures of their infants and children to BPA:• Don’t microwave polycarbonate plastic food containers. Polycarbonate is strong and durable, but over time it may break down from over use at high temperatures
  27. 27. .   • Polycarbonate containers that contain BPA usually have a #7 on the bottom• Reduce your use of canned foods.• When possible, opt for glass, porcelain or stainless steel containers, particularly for hot food or liquids.• Use baby bottles that are BPA free.