Tabaddor compartmentfirepres

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Tabaddor compartmentfirepres

  1. 1. FIRE MODELING OF DIFFERENT VENTILATION SCENARIOS IN A COMPARTMENT FIRE Mahmood Tabaddor, PhD Majji T. Rao Predictive Modeling and Risk Analysis Corporate Research The Seventh Triennial International Fire & Cabin Safety Research Conference COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC.
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE Assess and advance the use of CFD-based fire modeling tools (such as Fire Dynamics Simulator by NIST) to predict fire growth and spread within a compartment under different ventilation conditions. COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 2
  3. 3. Right Back Left Front EXTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 3
  4. 4. INTERIOR OF BASEMENT View towards back View up the stairwell View towards front View of stair doorway COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 4
  5. 5. I-JOIST BEAM CEILING COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 5
  6. 6. INSTRUMENTATION Thermocouples Velocity Probes COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 6
  7. 7. FUEL LOAD DETAILS Igniter COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 7
  8. 8. MODEL OF FULLY VENTILATED BASEMENT COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 8
  9. 9. EXPERIMENTAL HRR 6000 Experiment 1 Experiment 2 5000 Heat Release Rate (kW) Experiment 3 Average 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Time (s) COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 9
  10. 10. MODELING OF FUEL LOAD 3000 2500 HRR kW 2000 1500 average FDS_HRR 1000 500 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time Sec COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 10
  11. 11. BURNING BEHAVIOR OF PALLETS COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 11
  12. 12. FLAME BEHAVIOR OF FUEL LOAD COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 12
  13. 13. MESH DETAILS • • • • FDS v. 5.5 10 x 10 x 10 cm3 cubic cell 100 x 150 x 60 = 900,000 cells Typical computational time (serial processing) = 2-4 days COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 13
  14. 14. THERMAL PROPERTIES • Non-combustible floor and walls • Combustible wood ceiling o Specific heat o Thermal conductivity : 1.3 kJ/kg °C : 0.2 W/m °C o Density o Ignition temperature : 570 kg/m3 : 250 °C o HRRPUA : 150 kW/m2 Source: Eurocodes (EN:1995-1-2, 2006) COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 14
  15. 15. VENTILATION SCENARIOS • Fully Ventilated Basement (Experimental Data) • Sequentially Ventilated o starting with one open window • Sequentially Ventilated o starting from fully closed basement • Sudden Compartmentalization o starting from fully open basement • Closed Basement COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 15
  16. 16. FULLY VENTILATED BASEMENT COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC.
  17. 17. TEMPERATURE COMPARISON Basement Corner TC_1 Basement Center TC_1 Basement Corner TC_2 Basement Center TC_2 COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 17
  18. 18. VELOCITY AT STAIRWAY DOOR 25 exp-ST Exp-STM Exp-SM 20 Exp-SBM Exp-SB Sim-ST 15 Sim-STM Velocity (m/s) Sim-SM Sim-SBM 10 Sim-SB 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 -5 -10 Time (s) COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 18
  19. 19. HRR Fully Ventilated Scenario 30,000 25,000 FDS_HRR_Open Heat Release Rate ,(kw) FDS_HRR_Pallets 20,000 15,000 Wood Burning (I Joist Beam ) 10,000 5,000 0 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 Time In Seconds,T COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 19
  20. 20. COMPARISON OF FLAMING BEHAVIOR COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 20
  21. 21. FIRE PROPAGATION OVER TIME COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 21
  22. 22. CEILING JET COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 22
  23. 23. CEILING TEMPERATURE CONTOURS COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 23
  24. 24. I-JOIST BURN THROUGH COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 24
  25. 25. GAS TEMPERATURE CONTOUR COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 25
  26. 26. VISUALIZATION OF FLAMES ONLY COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 26
  27. 27. MESH REFINEMENT Top of Basement Door 1000 900 800 Temperature (c) 700 600 500 400 10 cm mesh 5 cm mesh 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 27
  28. 28. VARIABLE VENTILATION MODELS COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC.
  29. 29. MODELING SUDDEN CHANGES IN OPENINGS Initially set to zero velocity and ambient temperature COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 29
  30. 30. SEQUENTIALLY-VENTILATED WITH OPEN WINDOW COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 30
  31. 31. HEAT RELEASE RATE 30,000 Front window Opened at 230 Sec 25,000 FDS_HRR_Sequence FDS_HRR_Pallets Heat Release Rate ,(kw) 20,000 Top door opened at 150Sec 15,000 Back Window Opened at 210 Sec 10,000 Front door opened at 180 Sec 5,000 0 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 Time In Seconds,T 200.00 250.00 COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 300.00 31
  32. 32. FIRE PROPAGATION OVER TIME COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 32
  33. 33. GAS TEMPERATURE CONTOUR COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 33
  34. 34. TEMPERATURES Corner Temperature_TC_1 Corner Temperature_TC_4 900 900 150 sec 180 sec Temperature In deg Celsius 800 ThermoCouple_ Corner_01 700 600 500 400 300 200 230 sec 100 0 800 700 ThermoCouple_ Corner_04 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time In Second 210 sec 250 300 0 50 Center Temperature_TC_1 150 200 Time In Second 250 300 250 300 Center Temperature_TC_4 900 1,000 800 900 Temperature In deg Celsius Temperature In deg Celsius 100 700 ThermoCouple_ Center_01 600 500 400 300 200 100 800 ThermoCouple_ Center_04 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time In Second 250 300 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time In Second COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 34
  35. 35. SEQUENCE OF EVENTS COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 35
  36. 36. MODEL OF SEQUENTIALLY-VENTILATION IN INITIALLY CLOSED BASEMENT COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 36
  37. 37. HEAT RELEASE RATE 25,000 20,000 FDS_HRR_Sequence HRR,(kw/m2) FDS_HRR_Pallets 15,000 Right Window Opened at 160 Sec. Top Door Opened at 90 Sec. 10,000 Back Window Opened at 60Sec. Front Door Opened at 120 Sec. 5,000 0 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 Time In Seconds,T COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 37
  38. 38. FIRE PROPAGATION OVER TIME COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 38
  39. 39. SEQUENCE OF EVENTS COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 39
  40. 40. SEQUENTIALLY-VENTILATED IN CLOSED BASEMENT COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 40
  41. 41. SUDDEN COMPARTMENTALIZATION COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 41
  42. 42. HEAT RELEASE RATE All Doors and Windows are Closed at 150-160sec. 16,000 14,000 12,000 Heat Release Rate in kw FDS_HRR_Compartment FDS_HRR_Pallets 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 Time In Seconds,T COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 42
  43. 43. OXYGEN CONCENTRATION 0.25 0.20 Oxygen Concentration in mol/mol X_O2_Conc_Cent_Top X_O2_Conc_Cent_Middle X_O2_Conc_Cent_Bottom 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0 50 100 150 Time In Second, Sec 200 250 COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 300 43
  44. 44. FIRE PROPAGATION COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 44
  45. 45. SEQUENCE OF EVENTS COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 45
  46. 46. MODEL OF CLOSED BASEMENT COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 46
  47. 47. HEAT RELEASE RATE 10,000 9,000 8,000 FDS_HRR_Compartment 7,000 FDS_HRR_Pallets HRR,(kw/m2) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 0.00 -1,000 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 Time In Seconds,T COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 47
  48. 48. FIRE PROPAGATION OVER TIME COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 48
  49. 49. OXYGEN CONCENTRATION 0.25 0.20 Oxygen Concentration in mol/mol X_O2_Conc_Cent_Top X_O2_Conc_Cent_Middle X_O2_Conc_Cent_Bottom 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0 50 100 150 Time In Second, Sec 200 250 COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 300 49
  50. 50. HRR FOR VENTILATION SCENARIOS 30,000 Fully_Ventilated_Basement Sequentially_Ventilated_Open Window 25,000 Sequentially_Ventilated_Fully_Closed_Basement Sudden Compartmentalisation HRR,(kw/m2) 20,000 Closed_Compartmentalisation 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 Time In Seconds,T COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 50
  51. 51. REMARKS • Modeling of changing ventilation conditions o Do not place openings/closings on the boundary of computational domain o Simplified model in FDS is very good start o Stability issues when configuration changes too much at once • It is very important that fire tests consider the needs of model validation when selecting an instrumentation scheme. • Modeling tools are the key to advancing fire safety research and engineering o Data rich o Efficient and economic COPYRIGHT © 2013 UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISTRIBUTED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 51
  52. 52. THANK YOU Reports available at www.ul.com/fireresearch

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