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It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
It in business  lect 2
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It in business lect 2

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Transcript

  • 1. IT in Business Essentials of Computing Lecture – 02
  • 2. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Definition
    • Computer: An electronic system that can be instructed to accept, process, store, and present data and information.
    • Computer System: A computer and all the hardware interconnected with it.
      • Hardware
      • Programs
      • Information
      • People
      • Procedures
  • 3. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Definition (Continued)
  • 4. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Hardware
    • Hardware (computer hardware or devices): The computer and its associated equipment.
      • Input devices
      • Processors
      • Output devices
      • Secondary storage devices
  • 5. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Hardware (Continued)
  • 6. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Hardware (Continued)
  • 7. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Input Devices
    • Input: The data or information entered into a computer or the process of entering data or information into the computer for processing,
    • storage and retrieval, or transmission.
      • Keyboards
      • Point-of-sale terminals
      • Mouse
      • Image scanners
      • Bar code scanners and wands
      • Microphones
  • 8. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication The Processor
    • Processor/Central Processing Unit (CPU): A set of electronic circuits that perform the computer’s processing actions.
    • Microprocessor: The smallest type of processor, with all of the processing capabilities of the control unit and ALU located on a single chip.
    • Chip: A collection of electronic components in a very small, self-contained package.
  • 9. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication The Processor (Continued)
    • System Board (Mother Board): The system unit in a microcomputer, located on a board mounted on the bottom of a computer base.
    • Primary Storage (Main Memory): Storage within the computer itself. Primary memory holds data only temporarily, as the computer executes instructions.
  • 10. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Output Devices
    • Output: The results of inputting and processing data and information returned by the computer, either directly to the person using the system or to secondary storage.
      • Printer
      • Direct a display
      • Control another device
      • Generate sounds
      • Initiate transmission of information
  • 11. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Secondary Storage Devices
    • Secondary Storage (Auxiliary Storage): A storage medium that is external to the computer, but that can be read by the computer; a way of storing data and information outside the computer itself.
      • Diskettes
      • Zip Disks
      • Hard Disks
      • Optical Disks
      • Magnetic Tape
  • 12. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Secondary Storage Devices (Continued)
    • Magnetic Disks: A general term referring to two types of storage disk: the flexible/floppy disk and the hard disk.
    • Zip Disks: Similar to diskettes, but housed in a hard plastic case. These disks can store 70 to 175 times more and can store and retrieve data more quickly than diskettes.
    • Read Only: A type of disk that information can be read from but not written onto.
  • 13. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Secondary Storage Devices (Continued)
    • CD-ROM disk: Short for “compact disk – read only memory,” an optical storage medium that permits storage of large amounts of information. CD-ROM disks can only be written to and cannot be erased.
    • Drive: The device containing a secondary storage medium’s read/write unit.
  • 14. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Peripheral Equipments
    • Peripheral Equipment: A general term used for any device that is attached to a computer system.
  • 15. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Definition
    • Software: The general term for a set of instructions that controls a computer or a communications network.
    • Program: A set of instructions that directs a computer to perform certain tasks and produce certain results.
    • Communication Program: A program that manages the interaction between a computer system and a communications network and the transmission of data, programs, and information over the network.
  • 16. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Definition (Continued)
    • Operating System: A combination of programs that coordinates the actions of a computer, including its peripheral devices and memory. For example, DOS (Disk Operating System), and Windows.
    • Graphic User Interface (GUI): A link to an operating system that allows users to use icons rather than command words to start processing.
    • Interface: The means by which a person interacts with a computer.
  • 17. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Software Package
    • Software Package: An application that focuses on a particular subject, such as word processing, and is sold to businesses and the general public.
    • Documentation: An instruction manual that accompanies software. Also, a technical, detailed written description of the specific facts of a program.
  • 18. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Software Package (Continued)
    • Spreadsheet: A table of columns and rows used by people responsible for tracking revenues, expenses, profits, and losses.
    • Word-processing (WP) Program: A program that allows the user to enter, change (edit), move, store, and print text information.
    • Desktop Publishing (DTP) Program: A program that combines text and image-handling features with document-design capabilities.
  • 19. Information: Reason for using IT Definition
    • Information: An organized, meaningful, and useful interpretation of data.
      • Data
      • Text
      • Sound
      • Images
    • Data: Raw facts, figures, and details.
    • Spoken Information: Information that is conveyed by sound.
  • 20. Information: Reason for using IT Definition (Continued)
  • 21. People: User & Creators of IT Application User
    • User (End User): The people who uses IT in their jobs or personal lives.
      • Hands-on users
      • Indirect end users
      • User managers
      • Senior managers
  • 22. People: User & Creators of IT Application Information Technology Professionals
    • Information Technology Professional: A person who is responsible for acquiring, developing, maintaining, or operating the hardware associated with computers and communications networks.
      • Programmers
      • Systems Analysts
      • System Designers
      • Web Designers
      • Project Managers
      • Network Specialists
      • Trainers
      • Computer Operators
  • 23. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures
    • Procedure: A step-by-step process or a set of instructions for accomplishing specific results.
      • Operations
      • Backup and Recovery
      • Security
      • Development
  • 24. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures (Continued)
  • 25. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures (Continued)
    • Operations Procedure: A procedure that describes how a computer system or application is used, how often it can be used, who is authorized to use it, and where the results of processing should go.
    • Backup Procedure: A procedure that describes how and when to make extra copies of information or software to protect against losses.
    • Recovery Procedure: An action taken when information or software must be restored.
  • 26. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures (Continued)
    • Security Procedure: A procedure designed to safeguard data centers, communications networks, computers, and other IT components from accidental intrusion or intentional damage.
    • Security Software: Software that is designed to protect systems and data.
    • Development Procedure: A procedure that explains how IT professionals should describe user needs and develop applications to meet those needs.
  • 27. An Introduction to Systems Definition
    • System: A set of components that interact to accomplish a purpose.
    • Single-User System (Personal Computer): An IT system used by only one person. A system that stands alone and is not interconnected with other companies or shared by other people.
  • 28. An Introduction to Systems Definition (Continued)
    • Multi-user System: A communication system in which more than one user share hardware, programs, information, people, and procedures.
      • To share a computer
      • To share hardware
      • To share software
      • To share information
      • To share communications
  • 29. Information Processing Information Processing Activities Associated with Information-handling Functions
    • Capture
      • Input
      • Upload/Download
        • Uploading: The process by which information is sent from a PC to a mainframe.
        • Downloading: The transfer of information from a central system to a desktop computer.
  • 30. Information Processing Information Processing Activities Associated with Information-handling Functions (Continued)
    • Processing
      • Compute
      • Update
        • Batch Processing: The grouping and processing of all transactions at one time.
        • Real-time Processing: The processing of each transaction as it occurs.
      • Classify
      • Sort
      • Summarize
  • 31. Information Processing Information Processing Activities Associated with Information-handling Functions
    • Generate
      • Output
      • Issue
    • Storage and Retrieval
      • Inquire
      • Store
      • Retrieve
    • Transmit
  • 32. The End Thank You 

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