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Dinosaur extinction
 

Dinosaur extinction

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In line with generally accepted theories of evolution, Dinosaur extinction is currently believed to be due to climate change due to various causes. However this is not correct, being inconsistent ...

In line with generally accepted theories of evolution, Dinosaur extinction is currently believed to be due to climate change due to various causes. However this is not correct, being inconsistent with known facts. There are only two possibilities. Either Dinosaurs evolved to their extinction or evolved to some other phyletic lines or species with which ancestor – descendent relationship can’t be presently demonstrated.

Author: Dr Mahesh C. Jain is a practicing medical doctor and has written the book “Encounter of Science with Philosophy – A synthetic view”. The book begins with first chapter devoted to scientifically valid concept of God and then explains cosmic phenomena right from origin of nature and universe up to origin of life and evolution of man. The book includes several chapters devoted to auxiliary concepts and social sciences as corollaries to the concept of God. This is the only book which deals with origin of nature and universe from null or Zero or nothing. Chapter 30 of the book is about Evolution of Life wherein author has worked out a new theory about evolution of life.
Visit:http:// www.sciencengod.com
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    Dinosaur extinction Dinosaur extinction Document Transcript

    • Can Climate Change Account For Dinosaur Extinction?Summary: In line with generally accepted theories of evolution, Dinosaurextinction is currently believed to be due to climate change due to various causes.However this is not correct, being inconsistent with known facts. There are onlytwo possibilities. Either Dinosaurs evolved to their extinction or evolved to someother phyletic lines or species with which ancestor – descendent relationship can’tbe presently demonstrated.Both, Darwinism and Lamarckism support the currently held belief that pan-globalmass extinction of Dinosaurs was due to environmental change towards the endof Cretaceous era about 65.5 million years back. But the view about specificclimatic change accounting for mass extinction of Dinosaurs has been changingfrom time to time. The earliest view was that ice age caused mass extinction ofDinosaurs. This view was followed by Asteroid attack on earth. Subsequently avolcanic eruption in India was believed to be the cause of pan-global massextinction of Dinosaurs that materialized over a period of about one million years.A later view emerged that egg shell thinning led to Dinosaur extinction. The latestview is that Methane gas emission by Dinosaurs led to global warming. A view hasbeen advanced that this global warming is to account for mass extinction ofDinosaurs (www.foxnews.com/.../dinosaurs-farted-their-way-to-extinction...). So we have moved full circle from ice age to global warming.Dinosaur extinction was accompanied by extinction of Ammonites (Mollusks),Mesosaurs, Plesiosaurs, and many Mammalian groups. No theory of relationshiphas been advanced to explain this association of facts. No theory has beenadvanced to explain as to why not the entire global flora and fauna becameextinct due to alleged climate change but only selected groups of animals. Thereis evidence that birds survived extinction events affecting Dinosaurs. Floweringplants were making their early appearance at the time of Dinosaur extinction.Dinosaurs first appeared about 230 million years back and were dominant lifeforms on earth from 200 million years BC (Jurassic era) to 65.5 million years BC(end of Cretaceous). Therefore Dinosaurs had been dominant life forms on earthfor 135 million years from beginning of Jurassic era to end of Cretaceous.
    • Dinosaurs had been present on each and every continent and occupied allhabitats. 500 genera and 1000 species of Non-avian Dinosaurs are known asextant species on the basis of fossil remains. Non-avian Dinosaurs ranged in sizefrom present day birds (e.g. Pigeon) to the size of Sauropods i.e. 60 meters inlength and several stories high. Anchiomis is the smallest known Dinosaur withskeletal length of 35 cm and weight of 110 gms.Dinosaurs shared several traits with birds such as egg laying, nest building andinhabiting all available habitats.The following excerpt from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur)shows that Dinosaur extinction was not a sudden event lasting only a few hours,days or years. Rather it was spread over a period of at least one million years.Possible Paleocene survivorsMain article: Paleocene dinosaursNon-avian dinosaur remains are occasionally found above the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. In 2001,paleontologists Zielinski and Budahn reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur leg-bone fossil in theSan Juan Basin, New Mexico, and described it as evidence of Paleocene dinosaurs. The formation inwhich the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch, approximately 64.5 millionyears ago. If the bone was not re-deposited into that stratum by weathering action, it would provideevidence that some dinosaur populations may have survived at least a half million years into the [135]Cenozoic Era. Other evidence includes the finding of dinosaur remains in the Hell Creek Formation upto 1.3 meters (51 in) above (40000 years later than) the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Similar reports [136]have come from other parts of the world, including China. Many scientists, however, dismissed thesupposed Paleocene dinosaurs as re-worked, that is, washed out of their original locations and then re- [137][138]buried in much later sediments. However, direct dating of the bones themselves has supported the [139]later date, with U–Pb dating methods resulting in a precise age of 64.8 ± 0.9 million years ago. Ifcorrect, the presence of a handful of dinosaurs in the early Paleocene would not change the underlying [137]facts of the extinction.Any climate change causing pan-global mass extinction of Dinosaurs along with afew other animal groups namely, Ammonites, Mesosaurs, Plesiosaurs and a fewMammalian groups over a period of one million years should have, rationallyspeaking, resulted in near extinction of the entire flora and fauna on earth. But tothe contrary there is evidence that birds survived extinction event. Floweringplants (Angiosperms) made their early appearance during this period.
    • There are known other mass extinction events affecting other groups oforganisms, for example planktonic forms Globigerinidae suffered mass extinctionat the end of Eocene only to reappear later (Cifelli 1969: Radiation of Cenozoicforaminifera, System. Zool., 18, 154 – 168).Similarly Lazarus taxons are well known which suffered extinction at some pointin time only to reappear later. One such taxon is Coelocanthus fish whichreappeared in 1938 after extinction for nearly 65 million years (Wikipedia: searchLazarus taxons) .From the above account, it is self-evident that no theory explaining massextinction of Dinosaurs due to climate change of any kind can ever be consistentwith known facts.Therefore, only two possibilities remain, either Dinosaurs suffered pan-globalmass extinction as biologically timed out group of organisms or they evolved intosome other group of organisms with which no ancestor – descendent relationshipcan be established, presently. Regarding the former possibility, Gryphaeamollusks are known to have evolved to their extinction.The later possibility can’t be dismissed outrightly because saltatory evolution isknown to occur. This has led to Punctuated Equilibrium Hypothesis of Eldredgeand Gould ( Eldredge N. and Gould S.J. 1972, ‘Punctuated Equilibrium anAlternative to Phyletic Gradualism’, in Schopf T.J.M.(ed.), Models in Paleobiology,Freeman , Cooper, San Francisco).Darwin in 1859 in his book Origin of Species by Means of Natural selection page298 observed:- That the periods during which species have been undergoing modification though very long as measured by years, have probably been short in comparison with the periods during which these species remained without undergoing any changeSumming up, pan-global mass extinction of Dinosaurs could not have been due toclimatic change. It was essentially not the question of struggle for survival and
    • survival of the fittest or imperfect forms struggling to perfect themselves.Therefore neither Darwinism nor Lamarckism can explain Dinosaur extinction.There are only two possibilities. Dinosaurs either evolved to other phyletic lines ororganisms, with which no ancestor – descendent relationship can be presentlydemonstrated or Dinosaurs evolved to their extinction, alternative speaking werebiologically timed out. What really happened is a matter of further investigations.Author: Dr Mahesh C. Jain is a practicing medical doctor and has written thebook “Encounter of Science with Philosophy – A synthetic view”. The book beginswith first chapter devoted to scientifically valid concept of God and then explainscosmic phenomena right from origin of nature and universe up to origin of lifeand evolution of man. The book includes several chapters devoted to auxiliaryconcepts and social sciences as corollaries to the concept of God. This is the onlybook which deals with origin of nature and universe from null or Zero or nothing.Chapter 30 of the book is about Evolution of Life wherein author has worked outa new theory about evolution of life.Visit:http:// www.sciencengod.com http://www.sciencengod.com/clipboard.htm