Introduction• An enterprise architecture is a rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, which comprises enterprise components (business entities), the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g. behavior) between them.• EA describes the terminology, the composition of enterprise components, and their relationships with the external environment, and the guiding principles for the requirement (analysis), design, and evolution of an enterprise.
Basic Concepts in Enterprise Architecture What is Architecture?
Architecture Definitions• IEEE: “An architecture is the fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design and evolution.”• TOGAF: “Architecture has two meanings depending upon its contextual usage: (1) A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at component level to guide its implementation; (2) The structure of components, their interrelationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time.”• The Netherlands Architecture Forum(NAF):“a normative restriction of design freedom and operationally as a set of design principles.”
Enterprise Conceptual Model• Enterprise Aspects• Enterprise layers and views
Enterprise Aspects• Information: Information is the Memory of organizations. Forms, Reports, Financial Documents are examples of information.• Business Processes: A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. It often can be visualized with a flowchart as a sequence of activities.• Places: • offices, Warehouses, Factories, Manufacturing units• People: every organization has specific structure which Organizational position , Management ,…. Defined in it.• Events• Goals
Enterprise layers and views• Strategic Layer: refers to a layer which all major decisions of an organisation are taken there. • All topics related to this layer are out of the EA issues and we just use their documentations as entries the of EA Process.• Mission Layer: All processes of the organization • It contains: Supreme Management, Intermediate Management and Operational Management• ICT Layer: This Layer contains all informational and communicational processes which are used to do mission layer tasks.
Effective Factors in Enterprise Changes• Changes in business• Changes in Technology
Changes Driven From New Technologies Competitors can use New Techs are more New Techs are cheaper new Techs against us efficient Expectations of Supporting old tech is customers are rising too expensive
Interaction Changes On The Organizational LayersImpacts resulting from Strategic LayerImpacts resulting from Mission LayerImpacts resulting from Information Technology Layer
Enterprise Architecture Definitions EA is an approach to describe all EA also contains a plan calledaspects and layers of an organization “Transition plan” that specifies howwhich can describe present Situation to achieve to the future situation and future Situation by presenting from present Situation . some standards.
Enterprise Architecture BenefitsProviding Flexibility For Environmental ChangesMatching Mission & IT Layer RequirementsReducing The Risk Of The IT projectProviding Effective Control Of The Organization
Enterprise Architecture Applications Coordinating Organizational Change Management Between IT & Mission Layer Planning For Upgrading Replacing hereditary Information Systems Systems
Common EA Frameworks TEAF FEAF DODAF Zachman TOGAF
The EA Frameworks• Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF): • Department of Defense released the latest version of it’s framework, C4ISR, as DODAF. • This Framework is based on three views: • Operating • Systemic • Technical Standards• Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF): • Most of US ministries use this Framework for their Enterprise Architecture. • It contains three enterprise aspect.
The EA Frameworks (cont.)• Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework (TEAF): • The first version, was introduced in 2000. • This Framework is a customized version of FEAF and is used for financial systems.• The Open Group Architecture Framework(TOGAF): • The Open Group institute introduced this Framework in 1995. • Is based on older version named TAFIM. • This framework is the oldest framework which is presented by an independent company.
The EA Frameworks (cont.)• Zachman Architecture: • Introduced in 1987 by Mr. Zachman. • In theoretical point of view it is the most complete framework. • It contains all six aspects and all views related to information system of an organization. • Principles and Concepts of this framework is affected other frameworks. • Zifa institute which is established by Zachman is supporting this framework.
The EA Frameworks Comparison Quality of Customizability Collectivity technical docs Having having a Simplicity of Technical successful Learning knowledge experience Tools Technical supporting Support
The Situation Of Enterprise Architecture In The World• Active Courtiers • USA • Netherland • United kingdom• Important Usage of EA: • Coordinating Between IT & Mission Layer. • Organizational Change Management.
Active Companies In EA• Dow Jones• Toyota Motors• T-Mobile• Verizon• Motorola• …..
Common Frameworks FEAF ZachmanNote That: TEAF is not used now
Enterprise Architecture In Iran• Iran was 8th active country on Enterprise Architecture in the world in 2004.• Iranian active companies: • Ministry of culture. • Ministry of Agriculture. • The Presidential Administration. • Iranian Railways. • Iranian Armed Forces.