World Heritage: Borobudur

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Cultural Resource Management Study: Borobudur Temple Compounds

Cultural Resource Management Study: Borobudur Temple Compounds

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  • 1. Seminar in Tangible Cultural Resource Studies II Wednesday, October 23rd 2013 Maharani Dian Permanasari Graduate School of Cultural Resource Management Program world’s cultural heritage: borobudur temple compounds © Maharani Dian Permanasari. 2010.
  • 2. List of World Heritage Sites in Indonesia 4 cultural heritage: Borobudur Temple Compounds Prambanan Temple Compounds Sangiran Early Man Site Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: The Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:World_Heritage_Sites_in_Indonesia, edited by Maharani 4 natural heritage: Komodo National Park Lorentz National Park Ujung Kulon National Park Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatera (endangered)
  • 3. Borobudur temple compounds Borobudur Temple is not only known as a Buddhist shrine, but also for a pilgrimage. Archaeologists and historians estimated that it was built during the Syailendra dynasty in the 8th century. Borobudur is one of several temples located in Central Java built during this era. image source: http://travel.kompas.com/read/2013/01/01/12241365/Wisatawan.Saksikan.Matahari.Terbit.dari.Punthuk.Setumbu
  • 4. Borobudur location
  • 5. 750-­‐850  (8th  century)   •  Borobudur  built  by  Syailendra  Dynasty   •  Possibility:  three  phases  in  its  construc>on  process   1006  (11th  century)   •  Mahapralaya  (huge  volcanic  erup>on)    15th  century  (abandonment)   •  Conflict   between   Syailendra   and   Sanjaya   Dynasty,   shiUing  the  central  ruling  to  East  Java    16th  century   •  Incoming  of  Islam   1814  (18th  century)   •  Raffles   sent   Cornellius   to   inves>gate   “the   temple   ruins”   1817   •  Raffles   introduce   “Borobudur”   in   his   book,   “The   History  of  Java”   1873   •  The  1st  monograph  of  Borobodur  was  published   •  •  •  meant   to   be   built   as   a   structured   pyramid,   but   finally   changed   to   be   CONSTRUCTION   structure  on  soil/hill   founda>on   widened,   added   with   two   square   levels   and   one   circle   level   with   main  stupa   top   circle   steps   were   demolished,   replaced  by  three  circle  levels.  Stupas   were   built  ABANDONMENT   one   big   in   this   area,   with   stupa  in  the  center   Historical Timeline of Borobudur REDISCOVERY   “Borobudur”   by   Van   Kinsbergen,   1873.   Retrieved   from   hbp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur     1900   •  VOC   conducted   the   commibee   for   Borobudur   excava>on  and  restora>on     1907-­‐1911   •  The   1st   excava>on   &   restora>on   led   by   Theodoor   van  Erp   1926-­‐1940   •  The   2nd   excava>on   &   restora>on,   stopped   because   of  the  World  War  2   EARLY  RESTORATION   1956   •  Indonesian   government   consulted   the   UNESCO   about  deteriora>on  in  Borobudur   1963   •  Indonesian  government  issued  the  Restora>on  Act   of  Borobudur,  got  cancelled  by  G-­‐30-­‐S   1968   •  UNESCO  decided  to  give  aid  to  save  Borobudur  in   the  15th  Conference  in  France   1971   •  Indonesian   Government   made   a   team   for   restora>on  of  Borobudur   PREPARATION  FOR     2ND  PHASE  OF  RESTORATION   Early  restora>on.  Retrieved  from   hbp://www.borobudurpark.com/temple/aboutBorobudur  
  • 6. 1971   •  Interna>onal   Consulta>ve   Commibee   consists   of   several  countries  was  established.  This  commibee   got   sponsored   by   UNESCO   and   fund   most   80%   of   Borobudur  restora>on   1973   •  President   Soeharto     inaugurated   the   Borobudur   restora>on,  and  it  is  officially  started   1980   •  Government   Organiza>on,   PT   Taman   Wisata   Candi   Borobudur,  was  established   1983/1984   •  Borobudur  restora>on  finished   Historical Timeline of Borobudur RESTORATION   1985   •  Terrorist   abacked   some   stupas   in   the   temple.   Stupas  restored  quickly  by  the  government.   1991-­‐1992   •  Late   former   1st   lady,   Tien   Soeharto,   contributed   a   female  elephant  from  Way  Kambas,  Lampung.  this   act   was   followed   by   the   late   minister   of   Tourism   and   Telecommunica>on,   Soesilo   Soedarman,   with   another  2  female  elephants   1991   •  UNESCO   officially   announced   Borobudur   as   World’s  Heritage   1992   •  TWC   officially   inaugurate   the   82   ha   “Borobudur   Archaeological   Park”,   and   also   started   to   manage   Prambanan  and  Ratu  Boko  Temple  Compounds.   1999   •  Former  governor  of  Lampung  Province  contributed   each  male  and  female  elephant  from  Way  Kambas     2006   •  Earthquake   in   Yogyakarta,   badly   damaged   nearby   2010-­‐2011   Prambanan  Temple,  leU  Borobudur  unscathed   •  Borobudur   was   heavily   affected   by   Merapi   erup>on,   and   closed   from   5-­‐9   November   2010   to   clean  up  the  ash-­‐fall.   •  UNESCO   donated   US$3   million   as   a   part   of   rehabilita>on:   restore   the   drainage   system,   replant  trees  &  vegeta>on,  campaign   TOURISM  &  BRANDING     STRATEGY   hbp://www.borobudurpark.com/AppManual/in>/content/ manualimageimage/borobudur_aerial.jpg   REHABILITATION   BOROBUBUR  NOWADAYS  
  • 7. Overview: Borobudur Borobudur is built as a single large stupa, and when viewed from above takes the form of a giant tantric Buddhist mandala, simultaneously representing the Buddhist cosmology and often drawn repeatedly as a meditative mechanism. Working from the exterior to the interior, three zones of consciousness are represented, with the central sphere representing unconsciousness or Nirvana. According to this Buddhist cosmology, the universe is divided in to three major zones. The Borobudur temple represents these zones in its layers. Zone 1 Kamadhatu The phenomenal world, the world inhabited by common people. Zone 2 Rupadhatu The transitional sphere, in which humans are released from worldly matters. Zone 3 Arupadhatu The highest sphere, the abode of the gods. images are recreated from http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur
  • 8. Borobudur Building Structure •  •  •  •  •  The foundation is a square, approximately 118 metres (387 ft) on each side. The one main dome in the centre is the highest point of the monument: 35 metres (115 ft) above ground level. It has nine platforms, of which the lower six are square and the upper three are circular. The upper platform features 72small stupas surrounding one large central stupa. Each stupa is bell-shaped and pierced by numerous decorative openings. Statues of the Buddha sit inside it. image source: http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur
  • 9. Borobudur cross section, building ratio, statues, and relief •  A survey conducted in 1977 revealed frequent findings of a ratio of 4:6:9 around the monument. •  There are Buddha statues inside niches on each wall in Rupadhatu level, and inside each stupa in Arupadhatu level. •  This ratio is also found in the designs of Pawon and Mendut, nearby Buddhist temples. image source: http://www.borobudurpark.com
  • 10. Borobudur Relief Zone 3 Arupadhatu No reliefs. Zone 2 Rupadhatu •  Jataka and Avadana •  Bhadracari •  Lalitavistara •  Gandavyuha 720 panels 72 panels 120 panels 388 panels Zone 1 Kamadhatu •  Karmawibhangga 160 panels image source: http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur
  • 11. Borobudur Statues http://www.borobudurpark.com/temple/aboutBorobudur
  • 12. Zone 2: Rupadhatu •  Jataka and Avadana 720 panels •  Bhadracari 72 panels •  Lalitavistara 120 panels •  Gandavyuha 388 panels Borobudur Reliefs Panels Zone 1: Kamadhatu •  K a r m a w i b h a n g g a 160 panels
  • 13. ICOMOS evaluations of borobudur temple Criterion (i): “to represent a masterpiece of human its (i): Borobudur Temple Compounds with creative genius” stepped, unroofed pyramid consisting of ten compounds superimposing terraces, crowned by a large bell-shaped Criterion harmonious marriage of stupas, temple and dome is a(i): “to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius” mountain that is a masterpiece of Buddhist architecture •  a harmonious marriage of stupas, temple and mountain and monumental arts. that is a masterpiece of Buddhist architecture and monumental arts. Criterion (vi): Laid out in the form of a lotus, the sacred Criterion (vi): “to be directly or tangibly associated flower of Buddha, Borobudur Temple Compounds is an Criterion (ii): “to exhibit blending important interchange with events or living aexhibit with the very with exceptional reflection oftraditions,an of ideas, or central of human indigenous a span time or within a cultural beliefs, with artistic and literary works of the Buddhist idea of values, over ancestorofworship and outstanding area of the world, attaining Nirvana. The ten mounting or technology, universal on developments in architecture terraces concept ofsignificance” monumental structure correspond to the design” of the entirearts, town-planning or landscapesuccessive •  an outstanding example of achieve before stages that the Bodhisattva has toIndonesia’s art and architecture from between the early 8th and late 9th attaining to Buddhahood. centuries that exerted considerable influence on an architectural revival between the mid-13th and early 16th centuries. Criterion (ii): “to exhibit Temple Compounds is of Criterion (ii): Borobudur an important interchange an human values, over a span of time or within a cultural outstanding example of Indonesia’s art and architecture area of the the early 8th and late in centuries that from between world, on developments9tharchitecture or technology, monumental arts, tangiblyarchitectural exerted considerable influence orontown-planning or an associated Criterion (vi): “to be directly landscape design”mid-13th and early ideas, or with revival events or living traditions, with16th centuries. with between the beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance” •  an exceptional reflection of a blending of the very central idea of indigenous ancestor worship (lotus) and the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana (ten mounting terraces).
  • 14. UNESCO Statements Integrity: The boundaries contain three temples (Borobudur Temple, Mendut Temple, and Pawon Temple) including imaginary axis between them.   developments in tourism or anything that could compromise the extraordinary relationship between the main monument and its wider setting could be a threat towards the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. The map of Borobudur Archaeological Park and its surrounding, showing that Mendut, Pawon, and Borobudur forming a straight line. Self made, redrawed by Gunawan Kartapranata, 2011. r
  • 15. Protection and Policy Law concerning with the site •  Indonesian Law No. 11/2010 concerning Cultural Heritage and its surrounding cultural landscape. •  The legal and institutional framework for the effective management of the property is regulated by a Presidential Decree Number 1 Year 1992. •  a New Presidential Regulation is still being formulated by a Coordinating Board (14 Ministries and local authorities as well as representatives of local communities) •  Monitoring programs has been effectively executed to monitor the growing rate of deterioration of building stone and also damage by unsupervised visitors. •  The Borobudur Heritage Conservation Office has conducted community development programs targeting especially at the youth to raise their awareness. UNESCO Jakarta Annual Report 2011
  • 16. Contemporary Borobudur ----Borobudur nowadays---- images source: http://www.kompastravel.com
  • 17. Borobudur in present days •  Rehabilitation (towards natural disasters) images source: http://www.portal.unesco.org
  • 18. Borobudur in present days •  Mitigation (towards ash fall caused by volcanic eruption) images source: http://www.antarafoto.net
  • 19. Borobudur in present days •  Maintenance images source: http://www.antarafoto.net
  • 20. Borobudur in present days •  Contemporary Events: International Festival images source: http://www.borobudurpark.co.id
  • 21. borobudur in present days •  Contemporary Events: Pilgrimage; Holy Ceremony •  Vesak/Waisak: to celebrate the bir th, enlightenment and death of Buddha Siddharta Gautama. images source: http://www.travel.kompas.com
  • 22. Borobudur in present days •  Tourism & Management: Visitors of Borobudur images source: http://www.travel.kompas.com; http://www.antara.org; http://www.bumn.go.id
  • 23. Borobudur in present days Tourism & Management: Museums (Karmawibhangga & Samudraraksa) •  Karmawibhangga Museum/Borobudur Museum, is an archaeology museum located just several hundred meters north of 8th century Borobudur Buddhist monument, within Borobudur Archaeological Park. •  The museum featuring: •  pictures of Karmawibhangga bas reliefs carved on the hidden foot of Borobudur •  disassembled Borobudur stones, archaeological artifacts founds around Borobudur and Central Java •  The Borobudur architecture and structure •  The documentation of restoration project conducted between 1975 and 1982 under UNESCO guidance •  The museum was built in traditional Javanese architecture; the joglo house with pendopo pavilion. •  The museum is integrated within Borobudur Archaeological Park inaugurated in 1983. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karmawibhangga_Museum
  • 24. Borobudur in present days Tourism & Management: Museums (Karmawibhangga & Samudraraksa) •  Also located within Borobudur archaeological complex, right on west side of Karmawibhangga Museum is Samudra Raksa Museum displaying Borobudur Ship. The museum featuring: •  the ancient maritime Indian Ocean trade links between ancient Indonesia, Madagascar, and East Africa popularly dubbed as "the cinnamon route". •  The centerpiece of museum is the full scale reconstruction of Borobudur ship that have took the journey across Indian Ocean from Jakarta, Indonesia, to Accra, Ghana in 2003—2004. •  The Ship Museum Samudra Raksa was opened by Coordinating Minister for Welfare Prof.Dr. Alwi Shihab of the Republic of Indonesia on 31 August 2005. A fitting tribute to the crew and all who worked with and supported the Borobudur Ship Expedition. •  The entry to both museums are included within the entrance ticket of Borobudur Archaeological Park. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samudra_Raksa_Museum
  • 25. Borobudur in present days •  Tourism & Management: Souvenirs and Environments
  • 26. Borobudur in present days •  Tourism & Management: Infrastructures & Facilities (Package Tour) •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Borobudur Sunrise / Sunset Borobudur Museum Mahakarya Borobudur Elephant Safari Village Tour Yogyakarta Tour Prambanan Temple Compounds http://manoharaborobudur.com/package/
  • 27. Borobudur in present days •  Tourism & Management: Infrastructures & Facilities
  • 28. Borobudur in present days •  Tourism & Management: Infrastructures & Facilities
  • 29. Borobudur in present days Entrance fees: •  US$20/Rp 190,000 for adult non-Indonesians. (as of Jun. 2013) •  US$10/Rp 95,000 for non-Indonesian registered students (proof, e.g. ISIC, is required). •  Rp 30,000 for Indonesian adults or foreign holders of an Indonesian work permit (as of Aug. 2012). “The people who ran Borobodur were fervent exploiters of tourists (Prambanan was marginally less bad), charging foreigners 10 times what locals paid. It isn't that bad to go on the overpriced tours (at about 100,000 Rp - which don't include admission), unless you want to take your time.” -a tourist’s review on TripAdvisor- http://www.borobudurpark.com/temple/borobudurTemple at 2011
  • 30. Borobudur in present days Visitors of Borobudur in 2012 reached 3.020.526 or exceed the target of Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur (TWCB) which is 2.700.000 visitors. Head-Chief Operational I of TWCB, Suryono, Magelang, Thursday (3/1/2013), said, the successful fulfillment of the target visitors can not be separated from several contributing factors, such as the access road to the temple is back to normal, promotion to schools, as well as improving the quality of services and facilities. (http://travel.kompas.com/read/2013/01/04/09083369/ Pengunjung.Borobudur.Melebihi.Target)
  • 31. problems in the maintenance and utilization of borobudur Factors, or variables that can be affected or controlled: • •  natural disasters (earthquake, volcanic eruption, etc.) the number of visitors • •  vandalism on reliefs and statues. the types of activity • •  there is no system to limit the number of visitors per day. visitors’ behavior • •  thereenvironment’sto introduce mandatory guided tours only. the is no system physical • •  uncivilized behaviour ofand resilience. holy ceremony. and social resistance visitors during (whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-113-2.pdf‎) images source: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/06/04/a-tranquil-waisak-borobudur-despite-hiccups.html Tourism Management
  • 32. strategies to tourism management problems in borobudur temple compounds management actions direct regulations raising the entrance fees for certain groups, certain days, or threatened areas make borders to avoid vandalism indirect restricting activities restricting opening hours and adding security guards one-wayroad system to avoid walking traffic in temple education information persuasion teaching respect and protection issues designing promotion/ campaign to influence the use of one area over another by providing or not providing facilities in certain areas
  • 33. thank you for your attention © Maharani Dian Permanasari.