During the standing portion of the exam, the lymph nodes in each armpit and surrounding areas under the arm should be carefully examined. Lymph nodes are normally about the size of kidney beans. Sometimes the lymph nodes may be enlarged by a non-cancerous infection. Occasionally, lymph node enlargement may be caused by a cancerous process. As with any breast or nipple changes, women should report any lymph node changes or enlargement to their doctor and nurse.
Transcript of "Breast examination wellness program"
“KNOWING YOUR BREASTS MEANS NO
BREAST CANCER” WELLNESS
Nursing Staff Hospital M Learning Center
Presenter: Mahalia Alexander
• Define wellness
• Be able to organize and conduct a Breast Health Awareness Program within
your own setting
• Promote breast cancer awareness to staff nurses at Hospital M
• Discuss the anatomy and function of the breasts.
• Identify significance for breast examination
• Demonstrate techniques for breasts examinations.
Purpose of the wellness program
• Increase the number of nurses who follow recommended
guidelines for early detection
• Reduce the number of nurses diagnosed with late stage breast
• Increase the number of nurses surviving breast cancer diagnosis
Wellness program delivery
• Use visual aids and hand-outs
• Attend to logistics—room setup, quiet environment, no
• Provide a list of resources for women to get more information
about breast health and breast cancer
• Provide resources for getting help with a breast health question
Definition of Wellness
• Wellness defined by Hatfield (2008) as, “the conscious and
deliberate process by which people are actively involved in
enhancing their well-being: intellectual, physical, social,
emotional, occupational and spiritual” (Freund, 2000).
Implications for Wellness Program
• The effectiveness of a Wellness Programme is to ensure that
employees maximize workplace performance by being in a
stable state of emotional, physical and mental health
• The wellness program seeks to promote the health of nurses
through health promotion and health education programs of
monthly breast examination. In keeping with the current
worldwide trend, the emphasis on health is on preventive
measures and promotion of primary health care.
Breast anatomy and Functions
What is Breast Cancer?
• Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among
women in Trinidad and Tobago
• When diagnosed early, the chance of survival is greater. When
the cancer is confined to the breast, the 5-year survival rate in
highest among women
• Although more common among women over 40, younger
women also can develop the disease.
• All women are at risk for breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Con’t
• Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths
for women aged 15 to 64.
• Worldwide, one person is diagnosed with breast cancer every
• Worldwide, one person dies of breast cancer every 90 seconds.
• The light circles represent normal breast cells, while the dark-
shaded circles represent cancerous breast cells. As the
cancerous cells grow and multiply, they develop into a
malignant tumour within the breast.
Clinical Breast Examination
Monthly Breast Self Examination (BSE)
Factors that may increase your risk of
• Getting older — the older you get, the greater your risk of
Having an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 breast
Having a previous biopsy showing hyperplasia or carcinoma in
Family history of breast cancer
Having high breast density on a mammogram
Being exposed to large amounts of radiation, such as having
very frequent spine X-rays during scoliosis treatment or
treatment for Hodgkin’s disease at a young age
Personal history of breast or ovarian cancer
Factors that may increase your risk of
• Starting menopause after age 55
• Never having children
• Having your first child after age 35
• High bone density
• Being overweight after menopause or gaining weight as an
Having more than one drink of alcohol per day
Currently or recently using combined estrogen and progesterone
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Being younger than 12 at the time of your first period
Current or recent use of birth control pills
Signs and symptoms of Breast Cancer
• Lump, hard knot or thickening
• Swelling, warmth, redness or darkening
• Change in the size or shape of nipple or breast
• Dimpling or puckering of the skin
• Itchy, scaly sore or rash on the nipple
• Pulling in of your nipple or other parts
• Nipple discharge that starts suddenly
• New pain in one spot that does not go away
• Pain or tenderness not associated with menstrual cycle
Once every month starting at the age of 20
Frequency of CBE
20 – 39 yrs- Every 3 years
40 yrs -Every Year
• Indirect evidence supports the effectiveness of CBE, especially when
women are screened with both CBE and mammography (Andaz 2003)
• The proper technique includes
• Thoroughness of the search
• Vertical-strip search pattern
• Proper position and movement of the fingers
• CBE duration of at least 3 minutes per breast
Breast self-examination con’t
• A careful exam of an average-sized breast takes 3 minutes
• A well-conducted CBE can detect 50% of asymptomatic
cancers and may contribute to reduction of mortality rate
• Research has shown that monthly breast examination when
performed properly has benefits to women worldwide (Freund,
2000). Breast cancer education, early detection and treatment
can prevent cancer and /or debilitating complications (Freund,
• Employee Wellness Programs. (2007). Retrieved December
21, 2011, from http://www.employee-wellnessprograms.com/employee-wellness-program.html
• Freund, K. M. (2000). Rationale and Technique of Clinical
Breast Examination: Management of the Patient With Lumpy
Breasts. Medscape General Medicine.
• Orem, D. (2011, January 4). Dorothea Orem's Self-Care
Theory. Retrieved August 30, 2011, from Nursing Theories:
• Sullivan, S. (2000). Wellness Programs. Retrieved December
21, 2011, from e-HResources.com: http://www.ehresources.com/Articles/Nov2.htm
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.