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  • 1. Introduction to blood Fluid component of blood “ Formed elements” Function of blood Maintenance of blood volume
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  • 3. Total volume of blood is ~5.5 liters About 55% is plasma; rest is cells Most are red cells (RBCs) Cells are specialized to carry oxygen full of hemoglobin; no organelles 4-6 million RBCs per cc for males; 4-5 million for females What factors affect RBC count and activity?
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  • 5. Insufficient red cell production and/or oxygen delivery- anemia Causes: iron deficiency (most common) vitamin B12, folic acid (pernicious anemia) hemolytic anemia sickle cell anemia blood loss bone marrow disease infections
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  • 7. All blood cells are formed in the bone marrow Red blood cells White blood cells (leukocytes) neutrophils lymphocytes monocytes eosinophils basophils Platelets (megakaryocytes)
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  • 9. Leukocytes help fight infection Phagocytes neutrophils monocytes/macrophages phagocytes Inflammation neutrophils infiltrate site monocytes/mactrophages help control immune reactions basophils release chemicals involved in inflammation, allergy
  • 10. White cell counts is normally 5000-10000/cc Leukocytosis- elevated cell count Leukopenia- count is depressed Differential- neutrophils 50-75% lymphocytes 20-40% monocytes 5-10% eosinophils 1-3% basophils 0-1%
  • 11. Hemostasis (clotting; stoppage of blood loss) Platelets- plug formation; can repair small wounds Clotting factors (coagulation)
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  • 13. A cascade
  • 14. What’s in plasma? water nutrients plasma proteins albumins alpha and beta globulin gamma globulin (antibodies) all except gamma globulins are formed in the liver maintain osmotic pressure (and thus blood volume) gases; wastes
  • 15. Red blood cell antigens and blood typing Antigen: a molecule that is recognized as foreign by the immune system Lots of these: several different types of antigens found on red blood cells (RBCs) ABO system especially important Four blood types: A, B, AB, O A and B are dominant, O is recessive
  • 16. People with type A blood can tolerate type A blood from other individuals But type A people make antibodies to type B antigens People with type AB can tolerate all blood types: universal recipient (of CELLS) People with type O blood can donate to all but have antibodies to both A and B antigens: universal donor (of CELLS)
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  • 19. Rh antigen is also important People either have the antigen or do not Rh-negative people will develop antibodies to the Rh antigen if they are exposed to the Rh-positive blood If a Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with a Rh-positive fetus she may make antibodies to the fetus’ RBCs This can be prevented with RhoGAM
  • 20. Implications for: blood transfusions Blood type antigen antibody A A anti-B B B anti-A AB A, B neither O neither anti-A and B
  • 21. Transfusions are preferred between people of the same blood type If blood is properly processed and administered: A can receive from A and O B from B and O AB from AB, A, B and O O only from type O- but can donate to everyone else Rh-positive can receive from negative and positive Rh-negative only from negative
  • 22. Blood types are inherited In some parts of the world some blood types are more common than others In U.S.: ~45% are O, ~40% are A, 12% are B, and about 3% are AB about 85% are Rh-positive
  • 23. Roles of blood oxygen transport nutrient transport waste transport transport of other essential molecules (antibodies, hormones, etc.) regulation (temperature, metabolism, etc.) fighting infection