Responding to floods in Pakistan 2011 - 2012


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Covering our appraoch to shelter over the years, what makes best costs sense, and why.. what people think, and what other issues they have to deal with - like the price of food and how they recovery after major disaster.

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Responding to floods in Pakistan 2011 - 2012

  1. 1. DFID – Pakistan: How we respond to major floods in Pakistan 2011 to 2013
  2. 2. What is resilience in this context?
  3. 3. Can we help these people to become resilient to future floods?
  4. 4. Scale and comparisons Recent FLOODS In Pakistan: 2012: 5m 5,600,000 4,200,000 3,750,000 3,200,000 3,000,000 2011: 8m 2,273,723 2010: 20m
  5. 5. Challenges and priorities • • • • • • • The problem of design (= vulnerability) Social fabric strong (happy people) Pre-existing poverty Do no Harm! Build on lessons from 2010, etc. Livelihoods: deeper into debt. What to do? Deal with emergency first
  6. 6. Often destruction starts from the roof-down
  7. 7. Both katcha (mud) and pukka (brick) houses collapsed These were built with international donor funds, and will all have to be taken down and rebuilt.
  8. 8. An overview of “conventional” response Large tent, £130 - £180 range. Limited adaptability – can’t be used to reconstruct the home. And expensive!
  9. 9. £18 / Unit Cheap but not very good (not much protection and dignity)
  10. 10. Cheaper tent (£100) Pretty useless though…
  11. 11. In contrast – a DFID / IOM designed family shelter £60 / family – including a solar light
  12. 12. Whole families: better protection, enhanced dignity
  13. 13. The “Roofing Kit” idea • £58 per unit • Used as temporary shelter • Later to build a roof • Double the value of a tent • And half the price
  14. 14. Roofing kit as seen from outside Double value kit = good VfM
  15. 15. Hasheema is home and dry
  16. 16. Keila, mother of four, built walls by herself Says “this is so much better than a tent”
  17. 17. Mustafa, project manager for HANDS, discussing options to further reinforce the walls so this house will be more flood resistant.
  18. 18. Overall Results Emergency shelter: • 300,000 people reached • (45,000 families) • At cost of £3.4m • or £11 per person.
  19. 19. Solar lights
  20. 20. OK but what does it mean? Research: Protection for women? Economic savings? Potential for small businesses? Ref. Grameen Shahkti Bangladesh
  21. 21. Next phase: Flood Resistant Shelters Criteria: • Low cost – replicable • Respect local vernacular • Must be flood resistant Design improvement # 1: • Extended roof eaves
  22. 22. Thick walls with LIME
  23. 23. Lime is the key • Flood resistant for 5,000 years • Good local production • Cheap • Sukkur Barrage & Rome – as evidence • Leading experts as advisors
  24. 24. Hydraulic lime goes hard underwater. So let’s use it in the foundations and walls!
  25. 25. People build their own homes: bring training to them
  26. 26. Raise the level of the house
  27. 27. Keep what works well
  28. 28. Offer training on range of different designs
  29. 29. Engage whole communities: • CBOs • Conditional cash transfers • The ability to listen
  30. 30. Before and after
  31. 31. If we do nothing – what really happens?
  32. 32. Key results – durable shelters • 45,000 families (c.300,000 people) in durable homes • £11m invested • Equals £260 per family (all costs) • Compares with £3,500 per family in Aceh • Or £1,800 per family Punjab / Sindh Govt.
  33. 33. Livelihoods: 41,000 families helped to avoid debt for wheat crop 87,000 families are helped to start kitchen gardens WHAT IMPACT?
  34. 34. Household economy Cash helped But cash can’t build resilience 80 to 100% spend on FOOD Huge food price increases! “We don’t grow our own vegetables” “Of course we’d like to learn”
  35. 35. Kitchen gardens – introducing for the first time, focusing on women.
  36. 36. The rationale for “joined-up programmes” – Shelter, WASH, Livelihoods – to build resilience
  37. 37. What next? • • • • • • Bring the Government on board Research and building evidence – 2010 to now Engage academia Validate the best strategy (VfM, technical) Link into the broader resilience strategy Innovate, test, research, validate
  38. 38. Poorly designed overflow from septic tanks A common sight all over Pakistan A serious public health problem has been created, not resolved.
  39. 39. This series of pictures portrays normal village life in many villages in Pakistan and how, with community mobilisation and low-cost, appropriate design, the transformation that could be achieved. This need cost no more than conventional WASH and early recovery projects. Residual water from hand-pump lying stagnant Overflow from septic tanks creating disease With lack of fodder, goats roam free and eat emerging trees and plants Slide 1: A normal village in Sindh: little shade in the extreme heat, no kitchen gardens, high malnutrition, poor health and hygiene, deforestation, denuded environment, etc.
  40. 40. Slide 2: Hand-pump residual water directed to sunken “sponge” gardens, planted with bananas or other species; septic tanks linked to constructed wetlands; key tree species planted, rainwater collection initiated.
  41. 41. Slide 3: Goats enclosed and controlled. Sunken beds below hand-pumps planted. Kitchen gardens have started; constructed wetland for septic tank operational; specific native trees planted around the compound, including mango / other fruits, neem and moringa species for multiple nutritional and health benefits.
  42. 42. 3 to 5 years on, Moringa trees providing fodder for animals, increasing milk production by up to 50% and weight gain < 35% While providing multiple nutritional and health benefits for people Kitchen gardens saving 30 – 50% people’s income on food while improving nutrition Increased shade, wind and flood protection, better hygiene, sanitation and nutrition, household income boosted. Overall resilience enhanced. Constructed wetland system provides complete treatment for sewage waste while providing habitat for bamboo and other useful species Concept: DFID Illustration and artwork: UNHABITAT