By: Marsan Melanie, SafadiGabrielle, Tilley Margarett, Schmidt Katielynn and
According to behaviorism, knowing is giving the correct response when exposed to a particular stimulus. The behaviorist is not concerned with how or why knowledge is obtained, but rather if the correct response is given. Yu Ching Chen’s web site on behaviorism states that, “Learning is defined as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior”. In terms of the concept of learning -the process tends to be passive with regard to the behaviorist theory. -The learner uses low level processing skills to understand material and the material is often isolated from real-world contexts or situations -Little responsibility is placed on the learner concerning his/her own education.
Typical classroom instruction consistent-the behaviorist theory includes; classroom management, rote memorization, and drill and practice.Example 1 is using a token system to reinforce positive academic performance and student behavior. A classroom application of using drill and practice includes computer software, such as Math Blaster’s. These types of software provide positive and negative reinforcements for answering math problems correctly or incorrectly.Example 2 highlighting the behaviorist theory is rote memorization. Rote memorization may include memorizing addition or multiplication facts or memorizing state capitals.Approach understanding basic skills and core subject knowledge. The approach of using positive and negative reinforcements to elicit desired behaviors of students is also useful in establishing and maintaining classroom management.
Albert Bandura suggested that environment causes behavior but behavior causes environment as well. This was called reciprocal determinism.He saw personality as an interaction among 3 thing:The environmentBehaviorPerson’s psychological processes.Bandura’s modeling steps Attention Retention- remember what you paid attention to Reproduction- reproduce the translated images and descriptions into actual behavior Motivation- Self- regulation- controlling our own behavior. Links to self- observation, judgement, and self-response.
He emphasized external behavior of people and their reactions on given situations rather than internal.
Condition reflex- conditioning involves presentations of neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance, the “unconditional stimulus”
Theory- Radical behavior seeks to understand the behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences. Reinforcement is the central concept in Behaviorism.
Behaviorist approach is based on these assumptions: -Psychology should be seen as a science -Behaviorist’s primary concern is observable behavior therefore research and experiments can take place. -All behavior is the result of a stimulus- response. -All behavior is learned from the environment.
Behaviorism is a theory based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. 2 types of conditioning:Classical conditioningOperant conditioning
Classical conditioning- a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. In the end, the neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the naturally occurring stimulus. The results are then the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned results.
Operant conditioning- is a method that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through this conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence. Through operant conditioning Skinner found that positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior and punishment weakens the likelihood of a behavior occurring again.