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  • 1. Chapter Two Curriculum and Course Design
  • 2. According to this model there are four questions • asked by the curriculum developer. These :questions are What educational purposes should the school • ?seek to attain What educational experiences can be provided • ?that are likely to attain these purposes How can these educational experiences be • effectively organised? How can we determine whether these purposes ?are attained
  • 3. :stages in the curriculum design process 8 • , Step One: Diagnosing Needs • , Step Two: Formulating Specific Objectives • , Step Three: Selecting Content • , Step Four: Organising Content • , Step Five: Selecting Learning Experiences • , Step Six: Organising Learning Experiences • Step Seven: Evaluating • Step Eight: Checking for Balance and Sequence •
  • 4. Knowledge. 1 • Knowledge is defined as the remembering • . of previously learned material Examples of learning objectives at this • level are: know common terms, know specific facts, know methods and procedures, know basic concepts, know .principles
  • 5. SKILLS DEMONSTRATED • observation and recall of information • knowledge of dates, events, places • knowledge of major ideas • mastery of subject matter • Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, • identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who,when, where, .etc
  • 6. Comprehension. 2 Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp • . the meaning of material Examples of learning objectives at this level are: • understand facts and principles, interpret verbal material, interpret charts and graphs, translate verbal material to mathematical formulae, estimate the future consequences implied in .data, justify methods and procedures
  • 7. Skills demonstrated • understanding information • grasp meaning • translate knowledge into new context • interpret facts, compare, contrast • order, group, infer causes • predict consequences • Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, • contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
  • 8. Application. 3 • Application refers to the ability to use learned • . material in new and concrete situations Examples of learning objectives at this level are: apply concepts and principles to new situations, apply laws and theories to practical situations, solve mathematical problems, construct graphs and charts, demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure •
  • 9. Analysis. 4 Analysis refers to the ability to break down • material into its component parts so that its .organizational structure may be understood Examples of learning objectives at this level are: • recognize unstated assumptions, recognizes logical fallacies in reasoning, distinguish between facts and inferences, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyze the organizational (.structure of a work (art, music, writing
  • 10. use old ideas to create new ones • generalize from given facts • relate knowledge from several areas • predict, draw conclusions •
  • 11. Synthesis. 5 Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts • together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new .patterns or structure
  • 12. Examples of learning objectives at this • level are: write a well organized theme, gives a well organized speech writes a creative short story (or poem or music), propose a plan for an experiment, integrate learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem, formulates a new scheme for classifying objects (or ).events, or ideas
  • 13. Synthesis • use old ideas to create new ones • generalize from given facts • relate knowledge from several areas • predict, draw conclusions •
  • 14. Evaluation. 6 Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge • the value of material (statement, novel, poem, .research report) for a given purpose Examples of learning objectives at this level are: • judge the logical consistency of written material, judge the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by the use of internal criteria, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by .use of external standards of excellence
  • 15. Evaluation • compare and discriminate between ideas • assess value of theories, presentations • make choices based on reasoned argument • verify value of evidence • recognize subjectivity • Question Cues: assess, decide, rank, grade, • test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
  • 16. Constructivist Methods The Constructivist Learning Model (CLM) is • based on the theory that people learn best by actively constructing their own knowledge. In this model of learning, students are encouraged to explore possibilities, invent solutions, try out ideas, collaborate with others, rethink problems, and in the end present the best solution they can devise. The CLM believes that knowledge is .personal and contextual
  • 17. :The CLM holds the thought that • knowledge cannot be transmitted from one. 1 • ;person to another directly the learner will build their own knowledge by . 2 • being actively involved with hands on ;experiences ;each person’s knowledge is unique. 3 • personal knowledge is confirmed through . 4 • social interaction and application within the .learner’s environment :Three phases of constructivist learning •
  • 18. Clarifying existing knowledge. 1 • Identifying, receiving and understanding . 2 • new information Confirming and using new knowledge. 3 •