?The Steps of Curriculum Development •FOUR STEPS TO CURRICULUM: "The Tyler •Rationale" 1. What educational purposes should the school see 2.What educational experiences can be provided tha 3. How can they be organized? 4. How can we determine whether? these purposes are being attained
How to write objectivesObjectives can be indicated as •generalized patterns (To DevelopAppreciation, To develop broadinterests.) These are more goals thanobjectives. It is necessary to specifythe content to which this . behavior applies
What educational experiences can be. 2 provided that are likely to attain these ?purposes Criteria for selecting experiences; are • : they •valid in light of the ways in which knowledge- •and skills will be applied in out-of-school? experiencesfeasible in terms of time, staff expertise,- •facilities available within and outside of the? school, community expectationsoptimal in terms of students learning the- • ?content
capable of allowing students to develop their •? thinking skills and rational powerscapable of stimulating in students greater •understanding of their own existence as? individuals and as members of groupscapable of fostering in students an openness •to new experiences and a tolerance for ?diversity
such that they will facilitate learning and •? motivate students to continue learningcapable of allowing students to address their •? needssuch that students can broaden their •? interestssuch that they will foster the total •development of students in cognitive,affective, psycholmotor, social, and spiritual ?domains
How can the educational. 3 ?experiences be organizedEducation experiences must be organized to •. reinforce each other Vertical vs. horizontal organization •Continuity - refers to the vertical reiteration of major •curricular elements.Reading social studies materials continued up through higher gradesSequence - refers to experiences built upon •preceding curricular elements but in more breadthand detail. Sequence emphasizes higher levels of. treatmentIntegration - unified view of things. Solving •problems in arithmetic as well as in other . disciplines
How can we determine whether these . •?purposes are being attainedThis question concerns evaluation, •which we will discuss in theAssessment of Educational Sites.module
Taba also wanted TEACHERS to be – primary curriculum developersHunkins adds initial step of –"conceptualization and legitimation,involving deliberation of the nature of curriculum and its valueHunkins also adds "feedback loops" –among various steps, showing thatcurriculum development is an iterative process
Outcome-Based Education (OBE) means" •organizing for results: basing what we doinstructionally on the outcomes we want toachieve.... Outcome-based practitioners start bydetermining the knowledge, competencies, andqualities they want students to be able todemonstrate when they finish school and face thechallenges and opportunities of the adult world....OBE, therefore, is not a "program" but a way ofdesigning, delivering, and documenting instructionin terms of its intended goals and outcomes." )(Source
Participants in curriculum development process • Possible participants •teachers –students –principals –curriculum specialists –associate superintendent –superintendent –boards of education –lay citizens –federal government –state agencies –regional organizations –educational publishers –testing organizations –professional organizations –other groups –
Types of curriculum designsSubject-centered •Many learning activities in schools emphasize •subject-matter or academic disciplines. Either aparticular subject-area, the broader themes of adiscipline, interdisciplinary concepts or themes, thecorrelations among two or more subject areas, orparticular processes can serve as this organizingcenter. In each case, the characteristics of thesubject-matter, and the procedures, conceptualstructures or relationships which are found within oramong the subject-matter, dictate the kinds of. activities that will be selected
Learner-centered •Dewey’s emphasis on native impulses •of the child (socialize, construct,inquire, create)Negotiated curriculumInterest-centered curriculumFreierian dialogic educationHunkins: disrupt the status quo of students’ understanding
Humanistic •Can emphasize development of fully-functioning •students, through focus on subjective, feeling,perceiving, becoming, valuing, growing (Maslow);curriculum encourages the tapping of personalresources of self-understanding, self-concept,personal responsibility (Carl Rogers)Confluent education: strive to blend subjective andintuitive with the objectiveCurriculum should provide students withalternatives from which they can choose what to feel
Problem-centered •Planned prior to arrival of students, but willing to •adjust to fit needs of studentsProblem can be interdisciplinaryLife situationscore designssocial problem/reconstructionist designsSocial problems, social reconstructionism;educators potentially affect social change throughcurriculum developmentEngages learner in analyzing severe problems facingmankind Furthering the good of society
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