Welcome to Classroom Management: The Effective Teacher Module I. You all are very effective teachers and this training is intended to build on your expertise in classroom management, not negate it.
An effective teacher has many characteristics including high expectations, effective classroom management and mastery teaching. This training focuses on effective classroom management. We will have subsequent training in Module II: High Expectations and Module III: Mastery Teaching.
As I look through the infractions from last year, I found that there were 46 students who repeated behaviors for which they had already received infractions. This year, the plan to improve classroom management is not a coincidence based on these infractions. I noticed that many of the problems were based on issues related to deficiency needs based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Students cannot learn, much less move to self-actualization unless the deficiency needs have been met. Many of the infractions stemmed from students who are sleepy, hungry, or cold/hot. In some instances, students just needed to use the restroom but had inappropriate actions rather than telling the teacher. I believe we can work together and reduce the number of infractions this year. By reducing the number of infractions, I am not saying that you should not write infractions as long as you follow the appropriate procedure. Reducing the number of infractions means that we reduce the number of occurrences of inappropriate behavior in the first place through improving classroom management. The truth is we all have some area of classroom management that could be improved.
I am asking that you refuse to work alone this year even if you prefer it. Your colleagues need your expertise, advice and encouragement even if you don’t believe you need theirs. Everyone has something they can pass to someone else. For veteran teachers, it might be experience and understanding because you have been here for many years. For new teachers, it might be that you inspire others with your desire to influence the lives of students. We can reignite the fire that brought us to the education field in the first place.
Classroom management starts the very first day teachers come back to school after summer break, not the first day students are present. Teachers must prepare classrooms and everything in the classroom before students arrive in order to set the stage for effective classroom management during the rest of the year. Preparation always starts with planning. Because student achievement at the end of the year is directly related to the degree the teacher establishes good control of the classroom procedures in the very first week of school, it is critical to know what your are doing, why you are doing it and how you will train students to do the same. For example, you will want to maintain a clean, well-organized room. You may have your own reasons but for students a clean, well-organized room fosters student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities. It also models organization to students. However, if you don’t train the students to maintain the clean, well-organized room you have created, it will be a matter of days before it turns into chaos.
Many behaviorists have contributed to theories that involve soliciting a particular behavior using different techniques. This module will explore the work of Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner in regard to conditioning student responses based on various stimuli. As experienced educators, you already have classroom strategies that work for you. This module provides useful classroom management strategies without taking the control of the teacher away. You are in control of your classroom. The classroom management strategies presented are not designed to be “ABC/123 steps to successful classroom management.” Using the ideas provided, you will decide how you will run your classroom. There are no cut out, scripted, cookie cutter strategies here. Classroom management is the responsibility of every teacher and no one desires to take that away from you. This module also provides time for you to decide how to implement classroom management strategies. I want you to be encouraged and inspired to think of things you have done that you want to continue doing and things that didn’t work. I will allow you time to discuss these things with your colleagues so that you may team up with other teachers and discover their secrets.
We must model positive attitudes and thinking so our students will follow. We can find a positive side for every learning experience regardless of whether or not the student failed. For example, if a student passes the reading TAKS test but not the math, we can respond by saying, “This is good. Now, we know that we need to focus on math for the next few weeks. Let’s me think of another way we can talk about fractions. What is your favorite food…” From here, we would explain fractions based on food that is pleasant for this specific student. The most important thing in affecting a student’s likes and dislikes is discovering what that student finds enjoyable and start there.
Again, modeling is important as we influence a student’s attitude toward learning. If the student says, “Fractions are really hard for me.” We often may respond by disputing the students thought and saying, “No, they aren’t. You can do this.” However, we must affirm the student’s thoughts as we redirect them. Instead we might say, “I know this is hard but I remember when addition was hard for you and you are really excellent at it now. Let’s get out my new puzzle and talk about fractions again.”
Developing a respect “FEAR” of authority does not mean that we want students to respect teachers. The respect discussed on this slide is the same as the respect we have of the police, government if we do not pay our taxes, and of the district if we break the rules. It is healthy for people to respect authority and that respect usually keeps them from having inappropriate behavior that might result in a negative consequence. A student without respect of authority is unruly, disrespectful and possibly dangerous. There are a few ways to instill respect without physical pain. The best way is to be consistent and coherent when students behave inappropriately. The students need to know that you are not going to miss anything. During the first week of school, it is imperative that teachers establish that themselves as an authority figure in the eyes of the students. This is done by making sure that all expectations and rules are followed and consequences occur in every instance that they are not. For example, if you have trained the students on Monday and Tuesday to put their hands behind their back. On Wednesday, if one student does not have his hands behind their back, then you might wait and tell the class that everyone is waiting on one student to remember how we line up. This shows the students that you are watching every detail of their actions. If they do not feel that they can get away with not putting their hands behind their back, then they are less likely to try running in the hall, touching another student or getting out of the line. This also establishes security because the students sense that because you are watching them closely, no one will be able to harm them without your knowledge.
Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning is much like Pavlov’s theory but indicates that the reinforcer must be given after the desired response instead of at the same time.
These ideas contribute to the notion that behavior is reinforced one way or another. An undesirable behavior that goes without notice can be viewed as positive reinforcement by the student and therefore continue. Note that reinforcers are not necessarily rewards because they may or may not be pleasant and desirable.
This model is useful when we need help deciding what to do about a behavior. It shows us how to increase the frequency of behaviors or how to extinguish them. I am handing out a copy of this slide for you to keep handy as you deal with student behavior. Be sure to remember that you focusing on a behavior that is already happening and deciding how to make it continue or stop.
Skinner has identified two major problems for us. We can combat these issues by planning ahead and providing reinforcements that can not only be given immediately but also relate to the concepts we are teaching in the present life of our students. We will use fractions again for an example. If the students successfully cut a cookie into halves then they can eat one half, then that half into fourths, eat one and so on. This reinforcer is immediate and directly relates to the objective we are teaching.
Many times we can correct inappropriate behavior simply by praising those with appropriate behavior. When we hear that Ms. Wonderful is always on time for work it makes us want to be on time for work. These strategies will work on our husbands, parents, siblings and our own children. My mother-in-law used to get gifts simply by singing the praises of one of the people in the group for buying her a new bracelet. The next time the group was together several people brought her gifts.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is essential for teachers because we must ensure that deficiency needs are met before we expect learning to occur. For example, if a student is sleepy at 8:00 in the morning when he comes in your classroom and falls asleep by 8:30 in the morning, then it might be more productive to let him sleep until 9:00 before you expect him to learn. If you do this, you must communicate with the parent so they can take responsibility for this need in the future. It is important to address it as a problem so that the behavior of not sleeping at home isn’t reinforced by getting to sleep in class. Parents may be unaware and will take responsibility for these needs if you communicate them. The student may be ineffective in communicating these needs or simply may not want them to be met because of what they might have to give up. It is unproductive to focus on needs that we cannot meet such as providing breakfast for our class everyday because parent’s do not feed them. However, we can have an influence by expressing to parents the breakfast hours and menu available in the mornings. We may also explain to parents that students need a good breakfast everyday, not just the day of the TAKS test. If they are hungry every morning as we teach concepts on the TAKS test and they did not learn them because they were hungry and could not focus, then having a good breakfast on the day of the TAKS test will not benefit them at all. The bottom line is that deficiency needs must be met before we can expect students to learn.
After you have done everything you can think of to prepare for your class, you should not be able to think of one thing that might occur for which you have no procedure, rule, consequence, or remedy.
No one can be expected to follow procedures that they do not know about. Parents are no exception. It is imperative that you send information about your classroom procedures home in the student’s home language. The home language can be found on each student’s home environment survey. Parents will rise to your expectations of them. If you expect them to communicate with you, sign homework folders, send notes regarding absences, etc, then they will do it. We do not want to punish a child for their parent’s neglect such withholding a treat because their parents didn’t sign a note. However, that does not mean that parents are off the hook. We must not be afraid to communicate with them.
I want you to have the opportunity to talk to each other about school related topics since you had the opportunity to catch up on personal topics during lunch. In most in-services, you have a set agenda to discuss and are not given time to discuss your own school related agendas during the in-service. That time is needed to develop relationships necessary to foster teamwork and the ability to ask for help when it is needed. These questions are just a starting place for your discussions. If you find yourself wandering from these questions but you are getting valuable information that will help you improve in some area, please do not stop your discussion. However, please keep your discussion focused on school. After this time, I want us to evaluate this training and present thoughts, ideas and conclusions about classroom management.
This year, let’s concentrate on keeping our thoughts centered on those things that we can influence, change and affect. Our goal is to model a positive attitude.
Classroom Management:The Effective Teacher Module I Exemplary Elementary
Characteristics of an Effective Teacher I dule Mo High Classroom Expectations Management Mastery Teaching Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management Last year, there were 210 total infractions written. 46 students who repeated behaviors for which they had already received infractions. More than half of the infractions resulted from ineffective classroom routines, procedures or rules. Conclusions: 1) The school’s discipline plan is not effective and must be addressed. 2) Improving classroom management will decrease infractions. Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management As we discuss classroom management, one important point to remember is YOU ARE NOT ALONE! Your classroom is yours and you will ultimately decide how you want to manage it. This module is designed only to enhance your classroom management skills and encourage teamwork between teachers to improve classroom management. Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management Classroom management includes all of the things a teacher must to do toward these two ends: 1. To foster student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities. 2. To establish a productive working environment. Exemplary Elementary
Objectives Understand proven research and sound theories that provide a foundation for quality classroom management Share effective classroom management strategies Implement classroom management strategies Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Pavlov Classical Conditioning – Presenting a conditioned stimulus serves as a signal that the unconditioned stimulus is coming Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan PavlovBasic principles of Classical Conditioning Theory: A neutral stimulus is a stimulus to which an person does not respond (NS). An unconditioned response (UCR) can be learned using a neutral stimulus just before an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). After being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, the previous neutral stimulus now elicits a response and is no longer “neutral.” The NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the person has learned a conditioned response (CR). Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan PavlovClassical Conditioning Procedure Before Conditioning During Conditioning Conditioned Incapable of Stimulus (CS) Unconditioned Unconditioned producing | Response Stimulus (UCS) conditioned Unconditioned (UCR) response (CR) Stimulus (UCS) After Conditioning Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Response (CR) Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan PavlovUsing Classical Conditioning to Develop Classroom Procedure Before Conditioning During Conditioning Morning Bell Students sit Conditioned down, look at Morning Bell Start Class Stimulus (CS) teacher and (UCS) Incapable of producing (CR) listen for Start Class directions Unconditioned (UCR) Stimulus (UCS) After Conditioning Morning Bell Start Class Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Response (CR) Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Using classical conditioning, we have the ability to: Affect students likes/dislikes Influence our student’s attitudes Develop a respect for authority Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Affecting Students Likes/Dislikes Classical Conditioning Theory indicates that people develop a taste for pleasant experiences and aversions to experiences they find unpleasant Therefore, we must intentionally provide learning experiences for which the students find pleasant if we want students to enjoy learning. Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Influencing students’ attitudes toward learning Classical Conditioning Theory suggests that students will develop a positive attitude toward learning simply by presenting content along with words and images that evoke positive feelings such as “excellent”, “awesome,” and “good work.” Therefore, we must intentionally incorporate words and images in our classrooms that evoke positive feelings for students. Exemplary Elementary
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Develop a respect of authority Classical Conditioning Theory explains that people develop respect/fear based on conditioned stimuli that are associated with unpleasant unconditioned stimuli. This theory also suggests that people do not have to experience the unpleasant stimuli first hand but will develop respect/fear of conditioned stimuli by watching someone experience an unpleasant unconditioned stimuli. Therefore, we must instill a healthy sense of “respect” ofauthority so that students will avoid behaviors that result in unpleasant consequences. Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning – “A Response that is immediately followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and is therefore more likely to occur again.” (1) Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Skinner’s Basic Law of Operant Conditioning Theory: Reinforcer – a response that increases in frequency when preceded with a stimulus or event. Almost any behavior can be learned through operant conditioning including academic, social and psychomotor. Undesirable behaviors are reinforced just as easily as desirable behaviors. Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Important Conditions for Operant Conditioning: The reinforcer must follow the response. The reinforcer must follow immediately. The reinforcer must be contingent on the response. Positive and Negative Reinforcers Positive Reinforcement involves the presentation of a stimulus after a response such as a smile, positive words, and a good grade. Negative Reinforcement increases a response through the removal of a stimulus. Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Punishment is not negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a response by taking away a negative stimulus. For example, homework is not given to a student because of his/her positive behavior. Punishment decreases the frequency of a response by giving a negative stimulus or taking away a positive stimulus. Talk with your table about some examples of this. Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner What do you want the behavior to do? Increase? Decrease? Give Positive Take Away Stimulus Negative Stimulus Punishment Give Negative Stimulus or Positive Take Away Positive Stimulus Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Skinner’s assessment of operant conditioning and teaching. Reinforcement in the classroom usually occurs inconsistently and not soon enough after the desired response has occurred. If immediate reinforcement is impossible, then environmental cues that indicate reinforcement is coming later can be effective. Therefore, we must use reinforce positive behaviorimmediately after it occurs if possible and use environmental cues only as a second option. Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Skinner’s assessment of operant conditioning and teaching. Teachers have the difficult task of teaching behaviors that will be useful for students in their future. Students do not see the natural positive reinforcers immediately that they might in the realize in the future. As a result, teachers use artificial reinforcers such as stickers which are ineffective because students do not se how they connect to their behavior. Therefore, we must make learning relevant to students’present interests and provide effective connections between learning and the reinforcement method we choose. Exemplary Elementary
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Skinner’s assessment of operant conditioning and teaching. Teachers find themselves punishing misbehaviors rather than reinforcing appropriate responses. For example, when most of the students are in line appropriately and one or two students are misbehaving, the teacher will punish the two students who are misbehaving rather than praising the rest of the class for their appropriate behavior. Therefore, we must focus on reinforcing the desirable behaviors of some students in order to solicit appropriate responses from the rest of the students. Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management StrategiesClassroom management refers to all of the things that a teacher does toorganize students space, time, and materials so instruction in contentand student learning can take place. It is important to: Use Mavlov’s Hierarchy of needs to ensure the classroom environment provides for meeting deficiency needs of the students Establish routines and procedures for every task Communicate discipline plan which includes positive and negative consequences or reinforcers “Effective teachers MANAGE their classrooms. Ineffective teachers DISCIPLINE their classrooms.”(2) Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management StrategiesMeeting Mavlov’s Hierarchy of Needs Growth Need Need for Self-Actualization Deficiency Needs Esteem Needs Love and Belongingness Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Discuss ways you meet Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs for your students with the people at your table Remember to focus on the needs you can meet, not the needs you can’t meet Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management StrategiesEstablishing Classroom Routines and Procedures Knowledge of classroom procedures tells the students things like: What to do when the bell rings What to do when the pencil breaks What to do when you hear an emergency alert signal What to do when you finish your work early What to do when you have a question What to do when you need to go to the bathroom What to do when you want the my attention Where to turn in assignments What to do at dismissal of class Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management StrategiesEstablishing Routines and Procedures for Parents Parents also need to follow procedures for the school and your class: You must be a model and follow the school’s procedures How can you expect students and parents to follow procedures if you don’t follow them? Allowing a parent to drop off a student tardy without a tardy pass because you don’t want to ask them to walk to the office and back will hurt you in the long run. That parent will not understand when you call and explain that their child does not follow procedures because they saw that you didn’t follow them either. Communicate classroom and school procedures to parents the first week of school and expect parents to follow them. Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management StrategiesEstablishing a Discipline Plan Investing time in teaching discipline and procedures will be repaid multifold in the effective use of class time. Here are a few things to keep in mind as you are establishing rules: Rules are expectations of appropriate behavior. You can state your expectations as rules Rules immediately create a work-oriented atmosphere Rules create a strong expectation about the things that are important to you. Include consequences – What the student chooses to accept if a rule is broken. Include rewards – What the student receives for appropriate behavior Exemplary Elementary
Classroom Management StrategiesTeamwork – Implementing Classroom Management Take some time to discuss with your colleagues things that you have done that worked and things that didn’t work. What are the areas are the strongest? Weakest? How can you help another colleague in the area where you are strongest? What do you need to improve the areas you thought were weak? What materials and/or resources are needed in order to improve your classroom management skills this year? Exemplary Elementary
“There is absolutely no researchcorrelation between success and family background, race, national origin, financial status, or even educational accomplishments. There is but one correlation with success, and that is ATTITUDE.” Harry K. Wong (2) Exemplary Elementary
Works Cited 1. Ormrod, J. (2004). Chapter 7 Social Cognitive Theory. Human Learning 4th ed. New Jersey. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. 2. Wong, Harry K., Rosemary T., (1998). The First Days of School. Mountain View. Harry K. Wong Publications. Exemplary Elementary