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Adapt don’t adopt


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  • 1. Adapt Don’t AdoptHistorical Bases of Today’s Options Magda Enriquez Beitler
  • 2. Approaches on a Pendulum
  • 3. To use a languageTo analyze a language
  • 4. Teach UseJohan Amos Comenius – 1631Students:• Imitate• Repeat• Limit vocabulary• Practice reading• Get meaning through pictures
  • 5. Teach AnalysisKarl Ploetz –(1880)Grammar Translation
  • 6. Teach UseFrançois Gouin (1880) Exclusive use of target language in the classroomAlexander von Humboldt (1886) Language cannot be taught, one can only create conditions for learning to take place
  • 7. Teach UseInternational Phonetic Association – (1896) - Spoken form of language is primary and it should be taught first - Phonetics should be applied to language teaching - Teachers and learners should be trained in phonics
  • 8. XX Century
  • 9. TheoryApproach Philosophy Research Paradigm
  • 10. Method Set of Procedures
  • 11. Classroom DeviceTechnique Activity
  • 12. Nine Approaches of the XX Century
  • 13. Grammar Translation Instruction is given in L1 Little use of target language for communication Focus is on grammar, reading texts, translations Teacher does not have to speak target language
  • 14. Direct Approach No use of L1 Conversational style Use of actions and pictures Grammar is learned inductively Reading is for pleasure Target culture is taught inductively Teacher must be proficient in L2
  • 15. Reading Approach Reading comprehension is emphasized and grammar is only taught as needed Vocabulary is first controlled and then expanded Translations are used Teacher does not need good oral proficiency
  • 16. World War IIUrgent need to Communicate
  • 17. 1945 US - Audiovisual ApproachUK - Oral or Situational Approach
  • 18. Audio-lingualism Lesson begins with dialogue Use of mimicry and memorization Use of listening, speaking, reading in a sequence. Writing is postponed Grammatical structures are also sequenced Controlled vocabulary and pronunciation to prevent learners’ mistakes Teacher must be proficient in the structure given by the learning activities and materials
  • 19. Oral-Situational Inspired in behaviorist psychology (Skinner 1957) Spoken language L1 All materials are presented orally first Only target language is used in the classroom Grammatical structures go from simple to complex New items are presented and practiced situationally
  • 20. Cognitive Inspired by cognitive psychology (Neisser1967) and the Chomsky Revolution (1959, 1965) Language is acquired, not learned, and grammar is taught deductively Learning is individualized Reading, writing and vocabulary are important Errors are part of the learning process Teacher must be proficient in target language
  • 21. Affective Humanistic Inspired in the concept of affective consideration Emphasizes respect, meaningful communication and cooperative learning Learning environment is more important than materials or methods Cooperative learning Teacher is viewed as facilitator and should be proficient in L1 and L2
  • 22. Comprehension-Based L2 is acquired in the same form as L1 (Krashen and Terrell, 1983) Listening comprehension is very important to spontaneously develop speaking, reading and writing Learners: Begin by listening to comprehensible input Speak only when they feel comfortable Progress by scaffolding comprehensible input Uses rules to monitor learning Can understand and be understood Teacher can use audiotapes and videotapes when not a native speaker
  • 23. Communicative Goal is for learner to communicate in target language Cooperative learning Uses authentic language and real life situations Skills are integrated from the beginning Teacher is a facilitator who is proficient in target language
  • 24. XXI Century
  • 25. Communicative Language Teaching CLT PassiveListening Viewing = InputReading Receptive
  • 26. ActiveSpeakingWriting = Output Productive
  • 27. Input must be comprehensible Output must communicate
  • 28. Listening Viewing PassiveReading
  • 29. Active participantsin the interpretation, expression and negotiation of meaning
  • 30. Communicative competence includesnot only grammatical competence,but pragmatic competence in aninteractive way
  • 31. Communicative CompetenceGrammatical Competence-The ability to recognize the lexical, morphological, syntactic and phonological features of a language not by stating the rule but by using the rule.
  • 32. Discourse Competence-Bottom-up processing- Identification ofisolated words helps understand the whole-Top-down processing – Understanding thetheme or topic helps understand the whole-Coherence-Cohesion
  • 33. Socio-cultural competence or Cultural awareness- Understanding of social context in which language is used- The roles of the participants- The information they share- The function of the interaction
  • 34. Strategic Competence- Communicative competence is relative- Coping is needed
  • 35. ? Question is… ? ? ? ?How do we as teachers can facilitateCommunicative Language Teaching?