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Teach UseFrançois Gouin (1880) Exclusive use of target language in the classroomAlexander von Humboldt (1886) Language cannot be taught, one can only create conditions for learning to take place
Teach UseInternational Phonetic Association – (1896) - Spoken form of language is primary and it should be taught first - Phonetics should be applied to language teaching - Teachers and learners should be trained in phonics
Grammar Translation Instruction is given in L1 Little use of target language for communication Focus is on grammar, reading texts, translations Teacher does not have to speak target language
Direct Approach No use of L1 Conversational style Use of actions and pictures Grammar is learned inductively Reading is for pleasure Target culture is taught inductively Teacher must be proficient in L2
Reading Approach Reading comprehension is emphasized and grammar is only taught as needed Vocabulary is first controlled and then expanded Translations are used Teacher does not need good oral proficiency
1945 US - Audiovisual ApproachUK - Oral or Situational Approach
Audio-lingualism Lesson begins with dialogue Use of mimicry and memorization Use of listening, speaking, reading in a sequence. Writing is postponed Grammatical structures are also sequenced Controlled vocabulary and pronunciation to prevent learners’ mistakes Teacher must be proficient in the structure given by the learning activities and materials
Oral-Situational Inspired in behaviorist psychology (Skinner 1957) Spoken language L1 All materials are presented orally first Only target language is used in the classroom Grammatical structures go from simple to complex New items are presented and practiced situationally
Cognitive Inspired by cognitive psychology (Neisser1967) and the Chomsky Revolution (1959, 1965) Language is acquired, not learned, and grammar is taught deductively Learning is individualized Reading, writing and vocabulary are important Errors are part of the learning process Teacher must be proficient in target language
Affective Humanistic Inspired in the concept of affective consideration Emphasizes respect, meaningful communication and cooperative learning Learning environment is more important than materials or methods Cooperative learning Teacher is viewed as facilitator and should be proficient in L1 and L2
Comprehension-Based L2 is acquired in the same form as L1 (Krashen and Terrell, 1983) Listening comprehension is very important to spontaneously develop speaking, reading and writing Learners: Begin by listening to comprehensible input Speak only when they feel comfortable Progress by scaffolding comprehensible input Uses rules to monitor learning Can understand and be understood Teacher can use audiotapes and videotapes when not a native speaker
Communicative Goal is for learner to communicate in target language Cooperative learning Uses authentic language and real life situations Skills are integrated from the beginning Teacher is a facilitator who is proficient in target language
Active participantsin the interpretation, expression and negotiation of meaning
Communicative competence includesnot only grammatical competence,but pragmatic competence in aninteractive way
Communicative CompetenceGrammatical Competence-The ability to recognize the lexical, morphological, syntactic and phonological features of a language not by stating the rule but by using the rule.
Discourse Competence-Bottom-up processing- Identification ofisolated words helps understand the whole-Top-down processing – Understanding thetheme or topic helps understand the whole-Coherence-Cohesion
Socio-cultural competence or Cultural awareness- Understanding of social context in which language is used- The roles of the participants- The information they share- The function of the interaction
Strategic Competence- Communicative competence is relative- Coping is needed
? Question is… ? ? ? ?How do we as teachers can facilitateCommunicative Language Teaching?