The pragmatic use of language - linguistic knowledge - and how language is used and regulated - metalinguistic knowledge - are the basis for children's transition to literacy. How humans acquire linguistic and metalinguistic knowledge has been the on going discussion among linguists, socio-linguist, educators, psycholinguistics and educational psychologists.
Krashen, in his theory of second language acquisition (SLA), suggested that adults* have two different ways of developing competence in second languages: Acquisition and learning. &quot;There are two independent ways of developing ability in second languages. 'Acquisition' is a subconscious process identical in all important ways to the process children utilize in acquiring their first language, ... [and] ‘learning’... [which is] a conscious process that results in 'knowing about' [the rules of] language&quot; (Krashen 1985:1).
Acquisition vs learning.
Language Acquisition vs. Learning a Language Magda Enriquez-Beitler One Click! Your Solution
1 - The need for a Languageacquisition-rich environment. 2- The learner needs to communicate and is pushed to communicate. 3 - There is abundant opportunity for negotiating meaning. 4- There is abundant opportunity for children to communicate in a social context.
1 Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis "There are two independent ways of developing ability in second languages. Acquisition is a subconscious process identical in all important ways to the process children utilize in acquiring their first language, ... [and] ‘learning’... [which is] a conscious process that results in knowing about [the rules of] language" (Krashen 1985:1).
2 Natural Order Hypothesis The acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predicted progression. Certain grammatical structures or morphemes are acquired before others in L1 acquisition and there is a similar natural order in L2
3 Input Hypothesis People acquire language best by understanding input that is a little beyond their present level of competence
4 Monitor Hypothesis. Second language learners have two means for internalizing thetarget language: 1 - acquisition which is a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of a language. 2 - conscious learning process in which learners attend to form, figure out rules and are generally aware of their own process. The monitor should play a minor role editing and making alterationsor corrections as they are consciously perceived. Students should do
5 Affective Filter Hypothesis The learners emotional state is like an adjustable filter which freely passes or hinders input necessary to acquisition. The filter is affective because the factors which regulate its strength are self-confidence, motivation and anxiety state
Teachers use English as the medium forproviding content area instruction,Teachers adapt their language to theproficiency level of the students. There are abundant opportunities for teachers and students to negotiate meaning.
Teachers use gestures and visualaids to help students understand. Instruction focuses on content rather than language.
Students are allowed apre-speech stage or silentperiod and do not have tospeak until they are ready (Krashen and Terrell 1983,Krashen 1984, 1985).
All instruction is in English and issimplified to ensure comprehension. Simple sentences are used with a set of already developed standard directions Vocabulary is controlled
The teacher should speak at his/hernormal rate of speech, the pausesbetween sentence boundaries (i.e.,where there would be a comma,period, or question mark if speechwere written down) can belengthened slightly. . Emphasis is on the development of reading, writing, and thinking skills.