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Reproductive system day3

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this will be tested on friday FEB 17

this will be tested on friday FEB 17

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

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  • 1. Reproductive System Day 3: Spermatogenesis, oogenesis and the menstrual cycle
  • 2. Gametes
    • reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
    • haploid (single set of unpaired chromosomes)
      • In humans we have 23 pairs or 46
        • chromosomes are packaged DNA
    • formed by gametogenesis
      • spermatogenesis
      • oogenesis
  • 3. Mitosis
    • cell division
    • undergoes several phases:
      • interphase*
      • prophase
      • prometaphase*
      • metaphase
      • anaphase
      • telophase
      • cytokinesis*
    • results into two identical daughter cells
      • IF a diploid cell undergoes mitosis, the result is a diploid cell.
  • 4.  
  • 5. Meiosis
    • Cell division
    • results into two daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes
      • IF a diploid cell undergoes meiosis, the resulting cells are haploid cells
      • Meiosis only happens in gametes.
  • 6.  
  • 7. Spermatogenesis
  • 8.  
  • 9. Oogenesis
  • 10.  
  • 11. Differences in gametes
    • sperms
    • male
    • Meiosis results in four sperms.
    • Sperms are motile.
    • relatively small
    • in the millions
    • ova
    • Female
    • Meiosis results in one mature ovum and three polar bodies
    • The ovum is nonmotile.
    • relatively large
    • Just one ovum is released every month.
  • 12. The Sperm Cell
  • 13. Parts of a sperm
    • head: acrosome
      • has enzymes to penetrate the egg cell
      • triggers acrosome reaction
        • prevents other sperms from fusing with the egg
    • midpiece: ATP production (energy)
      • fructose from seminal fluid
    • tail: flagella for movement
  • 14. The Ovum
  • 15. Parts of an ovum
    • yolk
      • cytoplasm and nutritive
    • germinal vesicle
      • nucleus
    • zona striata or zona pellucida
      • protection
      • in between the cytoplasm and corona radiata
    • corona radiata
      • outer protection, 2 or 3 cell layers thick
  • 16.  
  • 17. Menstrual cycle
    • monthly cycle ~28 days
      • In adults 21 to 35
      • In teens 21 to 45
    • “ bleeding”
      • shedding of the endometrium of the uterus
      • lasts 3 to 5 days
  • 18. What happens in the menstrual cycle?
    • follicle-stimulating hormone (ripening)
    • increase of estrogen
      • prepares the uterus for pregnancy
      • the lining grows and thickens
    • luteinizing hormone (release)
      • Day 14, the ovum is released from the ovary.
    • Progesterone prepare and maintain the endometrium
    • Pregnancy can occur 3 days before or during ovulation.
  • 19.
    • IF fertilization does not occur:
      • ovum breaks
      • hormones drop
      • the uterine lining is shed
  • 20.
    • IF fertilization occurs
      • Egg is “planted” in the endometrium
      • Human chorionic gonadotropian (HCG)
        • Continues secretion of progesterone
        • *provide the blood vessels (endometrium)
  • 21. Complications of the menstrual cycle
    • amenorrhea
      • Lack of menstruation
        • Excessive weight loss
        • Stress
        • Excessive exercising
    • dysmenorrhea
      • painful menstruation, cramps
        • excess prostaglandin
          • contracts and relaxes smooth muscles
  • 22. Menopause
    • the menstrual cycle stops
    • happens at age 45 -55
    • What happens at menopause?
    • Ovulation stops.