Reproductive System Day 3: Spermatogenesis, oogenesis and the menstrual cycle
Gametes <ul><li>reproductive cells (sperm and egg) </li></ul><ul><li>haploid (single set of unpaired chromosomes) </li></u...
Mitosis <ul><li>cell division </li></ul><ul><li>undergoes several phases:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interphase*  </li></ul></...
 
Meiosis <ul><li>Cell division </li></ul><ul><li>results into two daughter cells with  half  the number of chromosomes </li...
 
Spermatogenesis
 
Oogenesis
 
Differences in gametes <ul><li>sperms </li></ul><ul><li>male </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis results in  four sperms. </li></ul>...
The Sperm Cell
Parts of a sperm <ul><li>head: acrosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has enzymes to penetrate the egg cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
The Ovum
Parts of an ovum <ul><li>yolk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cytoplasm and nutritive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>germinal vesicle </li><...
 
Menstrual cycle <ul><li>monthly cycle ~28 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In adults 21 to 35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In teen...
What happens in the menstrual cycle? <ul><li>follicle-stimulating hormone (ripening) </li></ul><ul><li>increase of estroge...
<ul><li>IF fertilization does not occur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ovum breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones drop </li><...
<ul><li>IF fertilization occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg is “planted” in the endometrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human...
Complications of the menstrual cycle <ul><li>amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Menopause <ul><li>the menstrual cycle stops </li></ul><ul><li>happens at age 45 -55 </li></ul><ul><li>What happens at meno...
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Reproductive system day3

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this will be tested on friday FEB 17

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Reproductive system day3

  1. 1. Reproductive System Day 3: Spermatogenesis, oogenesis and the menstrual cycle
  2. 2. Gametes <ul><li>reproductive cells (sperm and egg) </li></ul><ul><li>haploid (single set of unpaired chromosomes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In humans we have 23 pairs or 46 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes are packaged DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>formed by gametogenesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spermatogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oogenesis </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Mitosis <ul><li>cell division </li></ul><ul><li>undergoes several phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interphase* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prophase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prometaphase* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metaphase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anaphase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telophase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cytokinesis* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>results into two identical daughter cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IF a diploid cell undergoes mitosis, the result is a diploid cell. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Meiosis <ul><li>Cell division </li></ul><ul><li>results into two daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IF a diploid cell undergoes meiosis, the resulting cells are haploid cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis only happens in gametes. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Spermatogenesis
  6. 9. Oogenesis
  7. 11. Differences in gametes <ul><li>sperms </li></ul><ul><li>male </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis results in four sperms. </li></ul><ul><li>Sperms are motile. </li></ul><ul><li>relatively small </li></ul><ul><li>in the millions </li></ul><ul><li>ova </li></ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis results in one mature ovum and three polar bodies </li></ul><ul><li>The ovum is nonmotile. </li></ul><ul><li>relatively large </li></ul><ul><li>Just one ovum is released every month. </li></ul>
  8. 12. The Sperm Cell
  9. 13. Parts of a sperm <ul><li>head: acrosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has enzymes to penetrate the egg cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers acrosome reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prevents other sperms from fusing with the egg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>midpiece: ATP production (energy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fructose from seminal fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tail: flagella for movement </li></ul>
  10. 14. The Ovum
  11. 15. Parts of an ovum <ul><li>yolk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cytoplasm and nutritive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>germinal vesicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>zona striata or zona pellucida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in between the cytoplasm and corona radiata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>corona radiata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outer protection, 2 or 3 cell layers thick </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. Menstrual cycle <ul><li>monthly cycle ~28 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In adults 21 to 35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In teens 21 to 45 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ bleeding” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shedding of the endometrium of the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lasts 3 to 5 days </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. What happens in the menstrual cycle? <ul><li>follicle-stimulating hormone (ripening) </li></ul><ul><li>increase of estrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prepares the uterus for pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the lining grows and thickens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>luteinizing hormone (release) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 14, the ovum is released from the ovary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Progesterone prepare and maintain the endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy can occur 3 days before or during ovulation. </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>IF fertilization does not occur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ovum breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones drop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the uterine lining is shed </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>IF fertilization occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg is “planted” in the endometrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human chorionic gonadotropian (HCG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continues secretion of progesterone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*provide the blood vessels (endometrium) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 21. Complications of the menstrual cycle <ul><li>amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive weight loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive exercising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>dysmenorrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>painful menstruation, cramps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>excess prostaglandin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contracts and relaxes smooth muscles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Menopause <ul><li>the menstrual cycle stops </li></ul><ul><li>happens at age 45 -55 </li></ul><ul><li>What happens at menopause? </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation stops. </li></ul>
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