Acute kidney injury (AKI)• a rapid loss of kidney functionCauses• Prerenal Volume depletion Hypotension Cardiovascular• Postrenal Calculus Blood clot Papillary necrosis Urethral stricture malignancy
Urinary tract infection(UTI)• A bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tractSymptoms:• frequent feeling and/or need to urinate• pain during urination• cloudy urineUrinary tract infection can be treated with antibiotics
Renal cell carcinoma• A kidney disease that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule (very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products)Symptoms• abnormal urine color (dark, rusty, or brown)• loin pain• abdominal mass• recurrent fevers• chronic fatigue• cold intolerance• back pain
Nephrotic syndrome• a nonspecific disorder in which the kidneys are damaged, causing them to leak large amounts of protein from the blood into the urineSymptoms• Foam in the toilet water, which may be caused by excess protein in your urine• Weight gain due to excess fluid retention• Swelling around your eyes and in your ankles and feetTreatment• Medicines• care for other conditions• changes in diet
Urinary retention a lack of ability to urinate or the inability to empty the bladderSymptoms• Urinate frequently• You may feel an urgent need to urinate but have little success when you get to the toilet• you may feel you still have to go after youve finished urinating
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