Endocrine System• System that “communicates” to control body functions• Uses chemicals called hormones• Hormones come from glands• Unlike digestive glands, these glands are ductless*If they are ductless, how do they “communicate” with the body?
Major Glands of the Endocrine System• hypothalamus• pituitary• thyroid• parathyroid glands• adrenal glands• pineal gland• pancreas*• reproductive organs (gonads)
Hypothalamus• found in the brain, lower central part• regulation of satiety, metabolism and body temperature• regulates the pituitary gland – somatostatin: stops release of growth hormone
Pituitary Gland• found below the hypothalamus, pea-sized• “most important gland of the endocrine system”• produces a vast number hormones• ex: growth hormone, TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, prolactin• ex: vasopressin, oxytocin
Thyroid Gland• found in the lower front part of the neck• regulates body metabolism• maintains normal blood pressure, heart rate, digestion
Parathyroid glands• pair of glands adjacent to the thyroid gland• regulates calcium in bone and blood
Adrenal glands• found on top of your kidneys• adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla• outer: corticosteroids – regulate metabolism, salt and water balance• inner: catecholamines – deals with physical and emotional stress (ex: adrenaline)
Pineal body• regulates circadian rhythm• SAD (seasonal affective disorder)
Pancreas• has both exocrine and endocrine function• “communicates” with the liver by hormones• islets of Langerhans – insulin – glucagon
Homework• Pheromones• Sex hormones – androgens – estrogens
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