Common Digestive ProblemsRyann TingCamille Chong
Indigestion Also knows as dyspepsia or upset stomach. It refers to a condition ofimpaired digestion. It characterized by recurrent pain in the upperabdomen, upper abdominal fullness and feeling full earlier than expectedwhen eating.• Symptoms-upper abdominal pain-bloating-fullness and tenderness on palpation-heartburn
IndigestionHow do we prevent or waneindigestion?• Dont go to bed with a full stomach.• Dont overeat.• Eat slowly.• Wear loose-fitting clothes.• Shed some pounds.• Don’t smoking.• Avoid alcohol.• Drink more water.• Take relief tablets or antacids
UlcersKinds of Ulcersduodenal ulceresophageal ulcergastric ulcer•Symptoms-abdominal pain-bloating-waterbrash (regurgitation of watery acid from the stomach)-nausea, and copious vomiting-loss of appetite and weight loss-vomiting of blood (gastric ulcer)-melena (tarry, foul-smelling feces due to oxidized iron fromhemoglobin)
UlcersHow do we prevent stomach ulcers?• Stop smoking• Don’t overindulge in citrus fruit• Avoid long term usage of NSAIDs• Exercise to raise your endorphin levels(brain chemicals that dull pain and elevate mood)How do we treat stomach ulcers?• take antacids• eat bananas• avoid spicy food and caffeine
DiarrheaDiarrhea is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day.• Symptoms-Abdominal bloating or cramps-Thin or loose stools-Watery stool-Sense of urgency to have a bowel movement-Nausea and vomiting-Blood, mucus, or undigested food in the stool-Weight loss-Fever
Diarrhea• How can diarrhea be treated? If you have a mild case of diarrhea, you can just let it run its course, or you can treat it with an over-the- counter medicine. Drink plenty of fluids. Instead of drinking liquids with your meals, drink liquids between meals. Drink small amounts of fluids frequently.
Cholera• Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by an infection in the intestines that can kill even a healthy adult in a matter of hours.• Symptoms-muscle cramps-diarrhea-vomiting-Cold or cool skin-Dry skin and mucous membranes (such as dry mouth)-Excessive thirst-Loss of skin elasticity-Muscle cramps and weakness-Reduced urine output-Sunken eyes-Weak pulse Vibrio cholerae
Cholera• How do we prevent cholera? Water purification-All water used for drinking, washing, or cooking should be sterilized.• How is cholera treated? Most cases can be treated through oral rehydration salts, which help reverse dehydration and restore potassium levels following the onset of acute diarrhea.
What is the Appendix?The Appendix is a worm-shaped appendage thatsticks out from the top portion of the largeintestine.The appendix can become inflamed. If aninflamed appendix is not treatedimmediately, the appendix can burst.
Appendicitis is a condition in which theappendix, a small inconsequentialappendage to the colon, becomes inflamedand swollen and many cases require removalof the inflamed appendix, either bylaparotomy or laparoscopy.
What are the symptoms of appendicitis?Progressively worsening pain-Coughing or sneezing is painful-Nausea-Vomiting-Diarrhea-Inability to pass gas (break wind, fart)-Fever-Constipation-Loss of appetiteNot everyone with appendicitis will have all of thesymptoms, especially children, pregnant women, and theelderly.
What Causes Appendicitis?Appendicitis occurs when the appendixbecomes blocked, often by stool, a foreignbody, or cancer. Blockage may also occurfrom infection, since the appendix swells inresponse to any infection in the body
What is the treatment for appendicitis?The surgery that corrects appendicitis called an appendectomy, is aprocedure with relatively little risk.Many surgeons are performinglaparoscopic appendectomy in which the appendix is removed. Once theuseless appendix is removed, there is no danger of appendicitisrecurring.Appendicitis can occur in persons of any age, but it is most prevalent inyoung adults. It tends to occur on its own with no particular cause.
What is typhoid fever?Typhoid fever, also called enteric fever, is acontagious, potentially life-threateningbacterial infection. Typhoid fever is causedby the bacterium Salmonella entericserotype Typhi (also known as SalmonellaTyphi), which is carried by infected humansin the blood and digestive tract and spreadsto others through food and drinking watercontaminated with infected feces.
What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?Symptoms of typhoid fever usually develop five to 21 daysfollowing ingestion of food or water contaminated withSalmonella Typhi bacteria and can last up to a month or longer.Typical symptoms of typhoid fever include:-Abdominal pain and tenderness-Diarrhea or constipation-Difficulty concentrating-Fever and chills. A sustained fever of 104 degrees Fahrenheit isnot uncommon with typhoid fever.-Headache-Malaise (general ill feeling)-Mood changes-Nosebleeds-Poor appetite-Rash (small, flat, red rashes on the belly and chest that are alsoknown as rose spots)-Weakness and fatigue
How is typhoid fever treated?Typhoid fever is a treatable disease and can often be curedwith a full course of antibiotics, such as ampicillin,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin. In somesevere cases, treatment may require rehydration withintravenous fluids and electrolyte replacement therapy. Withtreatment, symptoms typically improve within two to fourweeks. Symptoms may return if you have not been completelytreated.
What is bangungot?Bangungot,also known as,suddenunexpected death syndrome, or Suddenunexpected nocturnal death syndrome(SUNDS), is sudden unexpected death ofadolescents and adults during sleep.
SUDS has been cloaked in superstition. In Thailand it isparticularly believed to be linked to eating rice cakes.Filipinosbelieve ingesting high levels of carbohydrates just beforesleeping causes bangungot.CAUSESIt has only been recently that the scientific world has begun tounderstand this syndrome. Victims of bangungot have not beenfound to have any organic heart diseases or structural heartproblems. However, cardiac activity during SUDS episodesindicates irregular heart rhythms and ventricular fibrillation.The victim survives this episode if the hearts rhythm goes backto normal.Ongoing genetic studies by Spanish electrophysiologist Dr.Josep Brugada Terradellas show that SUDS results frommutations in the cardiac sodium channel gene. This means thatit is a chromosomal problem, which is why it runs in families.Thus, doctors say that families who have kin that have sufferedfrom or died of SUDS must see a heart specialist.
The Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease that is characterised byabnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and an increased risk of suddencardiac death. It is named by the Spanish cardiologists Pedro Brugada andJosep Brugada. It is the major cause of Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome(SUDS), and is the most common cause of sudden death in young menwithout known underlying cardiac disease in Thailand and Laos.Although the ECG findings of Brugada syndrome were first reported amongsurvivors of cardiac arrest in 1989, it was only in 1992 that the Brugadabrothers recognized it as a distinct clinical entity, causing sudden death bycausing ventricular fibrillation (a lethal arrhythmia) in the heart.A) Normal electrocardiogrampattern in the precordial leadsV1-3, (B) changes in Brugadasyndrome (type B)