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The Cerebellum Bianca Ching CN 02 Kristin Te CN 24
Cerebellum – part of the brain, located under the cerebrum, towards the back, behind the brainstem and above the brainstem. largely involved in "coordination”; persons whose cerebellum doesn't work well are generally clumsy and unsteady
Functions Main Motor Functions : 1) Coordination 2)Speed and smoothness of movements 3)Walking or gait
The cerebellum consists of two halves called cerebellar hemispheres. Each controls one side of the body. Between the hemispheres is a thin central part (vermis) that controls our trunk (posterior vermis) and legs (anterior vermis).
Intention tremors may be present on an attempt to touch an object. A kinetic tremor may be present in motion.
The finger-to-nose and heel-to-knee tests are classic tests of hemispheric cerebellar dysfunction. While reflexes may be depressed initially with hemispheric cerebellar syndromes, this cannot be counted on.
Speech may be dysarthric, scanning, or have irregular emphasis on syllables.
The diagnosis of a cerebellar disorder is usually made by a neurologist, and is usually straightforward. MRI scanning often shows shrinkage of part or all of the cerebellum although this is not always the case. Blood tests for specific conditions are now commonly used when there is a family tendency towards these types of symptoms.
Ataxia comes from the Greek a taxia , meaning literally "no order". It is a blanket term referring to a loss of ability to control one's muscles. Ataxia has a number of causes and a number of treatments.
Ataxia can be broken into two distinct groups: sporadic and hereditary. Hereditary ataxia can usually be traced to a family history, and can be linked to twenty-two gene mutations. These mutations are labeled “ spinocerebellar ataxia type 1" through 22 in shorthand referred to simply as SCA1-22. Sporadic ataxia is a form of ataxia which is not linked to a genetic defect.
Sporadic ataxia is very difficult to diagnose, and often doctors will struggle as they rule out every possibility of hereditary ataxia before making a final diagnosis.
Some of the many terms used to describe sporadic ataxia are: spastic ataxia, Menzel's ataxia, Marie's ataxia, Holmes'ataxia, sporadic atrophy, and most commonly sporadic OPCA, or sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder. The muscles of the mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected.