Assessment of Spider Families
Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae
as Potential
Biocontrol Agents of
Brassica Pests
Madali...
Project Aim
“to determine the potential of Clubionidae,
Lycosidae and Theridiidae to control
Plutella xylostella,
Crocidol...
Brassica Vegetable Pests
• Diamondback moth
Plutella xylostella
• Cabbage Cluster
Caterpillar
Crocidolomia pavonana
• Gree...
Brassica Vegetable Pests
• Diamondback Moth
P. xylostella
• Cabbage Cluster
Caterpillar
C. pavonana
• Green Peach Aphid
M....
Brassica Vegetable Pests
• Diamondback Moth
P. xylostella
• Cabbage Cluster
Caterpillar
C. pavonana
• Green Peach Aphid
M....
Brassica Vegetable Pests
• Diamondback moth
Plutella xylostella
• Cabbage cluster
caterpillar
Crocidolomia pavonana
• Gree...
Background
• Chemical resistance
• South East QLD Lockyer
Valley survey
– 70% utilise IPM
– 30% consciously protect
natura...
Spiders in Brassica
Vegetables
Clubionidae
-hunting plant dweller
Lycosidae
-hunting ground dweller
Theridiidae
-tangle we...
Spiders in Brassica
Vegetables
Clubionidae
-hunting plant dweller
Lycosidae
-hunting ground dweller
Theridiidae
-tangle we...
Spiders in Brassica
Vegetables
Clubionidae
-hunting plant dweller
Lycosidae
-hunting ground dweller
Theridiidae
-tangle we...
Spiders in Brassica
Vegetables
Clubionidae
-hunting plant dweller
Lycosidae
-hunting ground dweller
Theridiidae
-tangle we...
Spiders in Brassica
Vegetables
What impact will these spiders have in
reducing pests?
Objectives
• determine the ability of three spider families to
reduce pest populations
• determine if a connection exists ...
Laboratory Experiments
Exp 1
No choice Lepidoptera
predation
Diamondback & Cabbage cluster
Five larvae per trt
Six trts...
Experimental Collection
• Colonies
– Diamondback moth
– Green peach aphid
• Organic broccoli
plantings
– Spiders
– Cabbage...
Experimental Arena
Caged arena with broccoli
seedling
Experiment One
Lepidoptera predation
• Two-factor ANOVA
• No significant difference
between prey mortality
P = 0.715
• No ...
Experiment Two
Lepidoptera prey preference
• Chi-square analysis
• Significant prey
preference
– Clear choice of prey
depe...
Experiment Three
Lycosidae prey preference
• Chi-square analysis
• No significant prey
preference
– Prey choice independen...
Experiment Four
Prey species preference
• Chi-square analysis
• No significant prey
preference
– Prey choice independent o...
General Discussion
• All spider treatments will consume three
Brassica pests
– Generalist predator more effective than
sel...
Future Research
• Repeat experiments
– increase experimental
units
• Lycosidae on plant
Future Research
• Cage exclusion
trials
• Spider thresholds
– No. spider per metre²
Semi-excluded cage
Summary
• Clubionidae, Lycosidae &
Theridiidae will predate
Plutella xylostella
Crocidolomia pavonana
Myzus persicae
• Pot...
Acknowledgements
Dr. Graham Brodie
University of Melbourne
Dr. Lara Senior
Agri-Science Queensland
Ms. M. Firell
Agri-Scie...
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Assessment of Spider Families Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae as Potential Biocontrol Agents of Brassica Pests

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Assessment of Spider Families Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae as Potential Biocontrol Agents of Brassica Pests

  1. 1. Assessment of Spider Families Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae as Potential Biocontrol Agents of Brassica Pests Madaline HealeyMadaline Healey
  2. 2. Project Aim “to determine the potential of Clubionidae, Lycosidae and Theridiidae to control Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia pavonana & Myzus persicae in Brassica vegetable crops….”
  3. 3. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella • Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana • Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae
  4. 4. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback Moth P. xylostella • Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar C. pavonana • Green Peach Aphid M. persicae Diamondback larvae damage
  5. 5. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback Moth P. xylostella • Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar C. pavonana • Green Peach Aphid M. persicae Cabbage cluster larvae damage
  6. 6. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella • Cabbage cluster caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana • Green Peach Aphid M. persicae Green peach nymph damage
  7. 7. Background • Chemical resistance • South East QLD Lockyer Valley survey – 70% utilise IPM – 30% consciously protect natural enemies • Spider dominant natural enemy in Brassica vegetables
  8. 8. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  9. 9. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  10. 10. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  11. 11. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  12. 12. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables What impact will these spiders have in reducing pests?
  13. 13. Objectives • determine the ability of three spider families to reduce pest populations • determine if a connection exists between spider and prey preference • determine spider predation potential as a naturally occurring biocontrol agent in Brassica vegetables
  14. 14. Laboratory Experiments Exp 1 No choice Lepidoptera predation Diamondback & Cabbage cluster Five larvae per trt Six trts, 2 controls Consumption after 24 hours Exp 2 Lepidoptera prey preference Diamondback & Cabbage cluster One larva of each prey Three trts, one control First prey attacked Exp 3 Lepidoptera prey preference by Lycosidae Diamondback & Cabbage cluster One larva each prey One trt, one control First prey attacked Exp 4 Prey species preference Cabbage cluster & Aphid One larva each prey Three trts, one control First prey attacked
  15. 15. Experimental Collection • Colonies – Diamondback moth – Green peach aphid • Organic broccoli plantings – Spiders – Cabbage cluster egg rafts Cabbage cluster egg raft
  16. 16. Experimental Arena Caged arena with broccoli seedling
  17. 17. Experiment One Lepidoptera predation • Two-factor ANOVA • No significant difference between prey mortality P = 0.715 • No interaction P = 0.195 • Spider families will readily predate both prey • No significant difference between treatments LSD = 1.361 Mean live larvae after 24 hours 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Clb&DBM (Trt1) Clb&Croc (Trt2) Lyc&DBM (Trt3) Lyc&Croc (Trt4) Thr&DBM (Trt5) Thr&Croc (Trt6)
  18. 18. Experiment Two Lepidoptera prey preference • Chi-square analysis • Significant prey preference – Clear choice of prey dependant on spider type χ² = 0.010 DBM – Diamondback moth CCC – Cabbage cluster 87.5 12.5 25 75 17 83 0 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Clubionidae Lycosidae Theridiidae Control Total % of larvae consumed first DBM CCC
  19. 19. Experiment Three Lycosidae prey preference • Chi-square analysis • No significant prey preference – Prey choice independent of spider type χ² = 0.157 33.5 66.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Diamondback moth Cabbage cluster caterpillar Total % of larvae consumed first
  20. 20. Experiment Four Prey species preference • Chi-square analysis • No significant prey preference – Prey choice independent of spider type χ² = 0.117 CCC – Cabbage cluster GPA – Green peach aphid 37.5 42.5 33.5 66.5 77.5 12.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Clubionidae Lycosidae Theridiidae Total % of prey consumed first CCC GPA
  21. 21. General Discussion • All spider treatments will consume three Brassica pests – Generalist predator more effective than selective • Prey preference – Physical and behavioural characteristics • Diamondback larvae active • Cabbage cluster larvae sluggish • Green peach aphid nymphs passive
  22. 22. Future Research • Repeat experiments – increase experimental units • Lycosidae on plant
  23. 23. Future Research • Cage exclusion trials • Spider thresholds – No. spider per metre² Semi-excluded cage
  24. 24. Summary • Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae will predate Plutella xylostella Crocidolomia pavonana Myzus persicae • Potential naturally occurring biological control agent
  25. 25. Acknowledgements Dr. Graham Brodie University of Melbourne Dr. Lara Senior Agri-Science Queensland Ms. M. Firell Agri-Science Queensland
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