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Assessment of Spider Families Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidaeas Potential Biocontrol Agents of Brassica Pests
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Assessment of Spider Families Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae as Potential Biocontrol Agents of Brassica Pests

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  • 1. Assessment of Spider Families Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae as Potential Biocontrol Agents of Brassica Pests Madaline HealeyMadaline Healey
  • 2. Project Aim “to determine the potential of Clubionidae, Lycosidae and Theridiidae to control Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia pavonana & Myzus persicae in Brassica vegetable crops….”
  • 3. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella • Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana • Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae
  • 4. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback Moth P. xylostella • Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar C. pavonana • Green Peach Aphid M. persicae Diamondback larvae damage
  • 5. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback Moth P. xylostella • Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar C. pavonana • Green Peach Aphid M. persicae Cabbage cluster larvae damage
  • 6. Brassica Vegetable Pests • Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella • Cabbage cluster caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana • Green Peach Aphid M. persicae Green peach nymph damage
  • 7. Background • Chemical resistance • South East QLD Lockyer Valley survey – 70% utilise IPM – 30% consciously protect natural enemies • Spider dominant natural enemy in Brassica vegetables
  • 8. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  • 9. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  • 10. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  • 11. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables Clubionidae -hunting plant dweller Lycosidae -hunting ground dweller Theridiidae -tangle web-weaver
  • 12. Spiders in Brassica Vegetables What impact will these spiders have in reducing pests?
  • 13. Objectives • determine the ability of three spider families to reduce pest populations • determine if a connection exists between spider and prey preference • determine spider predation potential as a naturally occurring biocontrol agent in Brassica vegetables
  • 14. Laboratory Experiments Exp 1 No choice Lepidoptera predation Diamondback & Cabbage cluster Five larvae per trt Six trts, 2 controls Consumption after 24 hours Exp 2 Lepidoptera prey preference Diamondback & Cabbage cluster One larva of each prey Three trts, one control First prey attacked Exp 3 Lepidoptera prey preference by Lycosidae Diamondback & Cabbage cluster One larva each prey One trt, one control First prey attacked Exp 4 Prey species preference Cabbage cluster & Aphid One larva each prey Three trts, one control First prey attacked
  • 15. Experimental Collection • Colonies – Diamondback moth – Green peach aphid • Organic broccoli plantings – Spiders – Cabbage cluster egg rafts Cabbage cluster egg raft
  • 16. Experimental Arena Caged arena with broccoli seedling
  • 17. Experiment One Lepidoptera predation • Two-factor ANOVA • No significant difference between prey mortality P = 0.715 • No interaction P = 0.195 • Spider families will readily predate both prey • No significant difference between treatments LSD = 1.361 Mean live larvae after 24 hours 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Clb&DBM (Trt1) Clb&Croc (Trt2) Lyc&DBM (Trt3) Lyc&Croc (Trt4) Thr&DBM (Trt5) Thr&Croc (Trt6)
  • 18. Experiment Two Lepidoptera prey preference • Chi-square analysis • Significant prey preference – Clear choice of prey dependant on spider type χ² = 0.010 DBM – Diamondback moth CCC – Cabbage cluster 87.5 12.5 25 75 17 83 0 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Clubionidae Lycosidae Theridiidae Control Total % of larvae consumed first DBM CCC
  • 19. Experiment Three Lycosidae prey preference • Chi-square analysis • No significant prey preference – Prey choice independent of spider type χ² = 0.157 33.5 66.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Diamondback moth Cabbage cluster caterpillar Total % of larvae consumed first
  • 20. Experiment Four Prey species preference • Chi-square analysis • No significant prey preference – Prey choice independent of spider type χ² = 0.117 CCC – Cabbage cluster GPA – Green peach aphid 37.5 42.5 33.5 66.5 77.5 12.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Clubionidae Lycosidae Theridiidae Total % of prey consumed first CCC GPA
  • 21. General Discussion • All spider treatments will consume three Brassica pests – Generalist predator more effective than selective • Prey preference – Physical and behavioural characteristics • Diamondback larvae active • Cabbage cluster larvae sluggish • Green peach aphid nymphs passive
  • 22. Future Research • Repeat experiments – increase experimental units • Lycosidae on plant
  • 23. Future Research • Cage exclusion trials • Spider thresholds – No. spider per metre² Semi-excluded cage
  • 24. Summary • Clubionidae, Lycosidae & Theridiidae will predate Plutella xylostella Crocidolomia pavonana Myzus persicae • Potential naturally occurring biological control agent
  • 25. Acknowledgements Dr. Graham Brodie University of Melbourne Dr. Lara Senior Agri-Science Queensland Ms. M. Firell Agri-Science Queensland