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Thread And Seam Construction
 

Thread And Seam Construction

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A presentation on the technology of thread and seams, including thread and needle types, sizing conventions, seam and stitch types, and trouble shooting.

A presentation on the technology of thread and seams, including thread and needle types, sizing conventions, seam and stitch types, and trouble shooting.

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  • COTTON THREADCHANGES DURING MERCERIZING PROCESSA. Fiber level1.Swelling2.Cross sectional morphology changes from beam shape to round shape.3.Shrinkage along with longitudinal direction.B. Molecular level1.Hydrogen bond readjustment2.Orientation (parallelization) of molecular chains in amorphous region along the direction of fiber length.3.Orientation of the crystallinity in the direction of the fiber length.4.Increased crystallinity

Thread And Seam Construction Thread And Seam Construction Presentation Transcript

  • BY MACKENZIE WALTON MARCH 2012
  • • Thread sizing conventions• Common types of sewing thread
  • Thread size is determined the same way that yarn size is determined fortextiles. While there are different systems, they are all based on weightand length specifications, and not by diameter as might be assumed.• METRIC TICKET (Nm) # of 1,000 metre lengths in 1,000 grams• COTTON COUNT (Ne) # of 840 yard hanks in 1 pound• TEX grams per 10,000 metres• DENIER grams per 9,000 metres
  • GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THREAD SIZE SELECTIONSEWING THREAD SIZES BY FABRIC WEIGHT FABRIC WEIGHT GARMENT EXAMPLES TEX (GSM) (oz/yd2) 18, 24 65 - 140 2-4 T-shirts, Lingerie 24, 27, 30 140 - 200 4-6 Shirts, Dresses 30, 40 200 - 275 6-8 Light-Weight Bottoms 40, 60 275 - 400 8 - 12 Light-Weight Denim 60, 80, 105 400 - 500 12 - 15 Heavy-Weight Denim
  • COTTON THREADGenerally provides good sewing performance but strength and abrasionresistance is inferior to synthetic threads of equal thickness• Mostly used for piece-dye items• Shrinkage may cause puckering after wash/dye• Can be mercerized – reduces shrinkage, increases strength and luster, improves dye up-take
  • COTTON THREADMERCERIZATION
  • SPUN POLYESTER THREADMade with staple polyester fibers. Provides good sewingperformance, good dimensional stability and good stitch lockingproperties due to the fibrous surface.• Resistant to sunlight and chemicals• Stronger than cotton, including 4X better abrasion resistance• Ideal for light to medium weight fabrics
  • CORESPUN POLYESTER THREADMade by spinning staple polyester or cotton fibers around a continuousfilament polyester core. Provides enhanced strength and elongation whilemaintaining stitch locking ability and can be run at higher speeds withoutbreakages.• Higher machine speeds mean an increase in productivity by up to 21%• Best thread for heavy fabrics, like denim and outerwear• More consistent sewing quality due to better loop formation and resistance to damage• Most expensive general purpose sewing thread
  • TEXTURED FILAMENT THREADContinuous filaments of polyester or nylon are entangled by variousmethods to create softness and bulk. Ideal for overlocking and the looperof coverseams, these threads provide excellent coverage for raw edges• Most economical thread• Softness makes it ideal for lopping threads that sit close to the skin• Excellent elasticity for stretch fabric applications• Often found in intimates, baby clothes, and athletic wear
  • OTHER THREAD TYPES• Mono-filament ‘Invisible’ Thread• Embroidery Thread• Elastic Thread• Specialty – Lurex, Indigo• Locked Filament Thread• Glow in the Dark
  • LUBRICATIONRegardless of construction, all threads are finished with a lubricatingcoating. This facilitates the passage of the thread through the machine andneedles, reducing friction and heat that can cause damage.LIFE SPANUnder optimal conditions, thread will last about 18 months before thelubricants start to break down and thread quality starts to deteriorate.Unsurprisingly, most factories do not store thread in optimal conditionsand so this period is usually much shorter.
  • • Needle sizing conventions• Different Needle Types
  • Most sewing is done with rounded-pointneedles. Actual cutting points are onlyused for leather and similar fabrics. ‘SetPoints’ are normal, lightly rounded pointsused for wovens, while knits demandmore rounded needles, referred to as ‘ball points’Different levels of roundness are identified with letter markers
  • R = Normal round• for light woven fabricsSPI = Acute round• For densely woven fabricsSES = Light Ball• Fine to medium knits, fine denim, medium to heavy wovensSUK = Medium Ball• Stonewashed denims, corsetrySKF = Heavy Ball• Fine elastic materials, coarse knitsSKL = Special Ball• Medium to coarse elastic materials, coarse knits, lycra
  • The fabric and end use will determine the thread size and type, and needletype that you will use. The chosen thread will determine the needle size.There will be a range of possible thread sizes and types that can be usedwith any given fabric, depending on the application.
  • • Seam Types• Stitch Types• Applications• What makes a good seam
  • • Superimposed Seams (basic simple seam)• Lapped Seams • Lapped felled seams• Flat Seams• Bound seams• Edge finishing
  • SUPERIMPOSED SEAMS STANDARD SEAM FRENCH SEAM
  • LAPPED SEAMS LAPPED SEAM FELLED SEAM
  • FLAT SEAMS
  • BOUND SEAMS
  • EDGE FINISHING
  • 301 - LOCKSTITCH• Basic 1-needle straight stitch• Uses least amount of thread• Tightest and most secure stitch• High abrasion resistance due to low profile on the fabric• No stretch
  • 304 - ZIGZAG• 1-needle zigzag lockstitch• Can stretch, and can provide edge coverage• Used to apply lace or appliques• Used for bar tacks and button holes
  • 101 - CHAINSTITCH• Formed using 1 thread only – no bobbin or looper• On its own it is only suitable as a basting stitch• Blind hemming is a variation of this stitch
  • 401 - CHAINSTITCH• Formed using 2 threads – needle and looper• Appears the same as 401, but is much more secure and durable• Ability to stretch• Excellent for setting elastic• Frequently used for topstitching and for lapped seams on high-wear garments like denim• Less thread passes through the fabric than on a lockstitch, which can reduce seam pucker• 404 – Zigzag chainstitch
  • 406 and 407 – COVER STITCH• 406 uses 3 threads, 407 uses 4• Excellent stretch. 407 has the most stretch• Excellent strength• Looper stitches are more efficient because you don’t have to change a bobbin• Less thread passes through the fabric than on a lockstitch, which can reduce seam pucker• Increased seam bulk• Increased cost
  • 503 – 2-THREAD OVEREDGE SERGE• Formed using 1 needle and 1 looper thread• No structural strength – only suitable for coverage of inner seam allowances504 – 3-THREAD OVEREDGE SERGE (OVERLOCK)• Formed using 1 needle thread, 1 looper thread, and 1 cover thread• Most common for overlocking, and often used for sewing seams on knit fabric
  • 512 and 514 – MOCK SAFETY STITCH• Formed using 2 needle threads, 1 looper, and 1 cover thread• Common for seaming knits, and can be used for wovens as well• Only 514 should be used on knits as it has better stretch
  • 515, 516 – SAFETY STITCHES• A combination of an overedge stitch with a 401 chainstitch• 515: 4-thread safety uses a 503 overedge serge• 516: 5-thread safety uses a 504 overlock stitch
  • FLATLOCK – 600 CLASS• Formed using 2 – 4 needle threads plus 1 looper thread and 1 cover thread• Fabric edges butt together but do not overlap• Highly elastic seams with very low profile for maximum comfort• Efficient to sew• Very high thread consumption• Common for performance and scuba wear
  • SPECIALTY STITCHES• Pick Stitch - classic• Pick Stitch – on knits
  • SPECIALTY STITCHES• Whip Stitch• Blanket Stitch (single buttonhole)
  • • Tension• SPI• Thread Choice• Stitch Choice• Needle Type• Needle Condition• Seam Width• Additional Elements
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • SEAM PUCKER• Bad tension• Bad feed• Fabric-Thread instability • Uneven shrinkage during finishing • Thread-bloat from washing• Structural jamming/Inherent pucker • Tight weaving does not have enough room between yarns for thread • Sewing caused yarns to be pushed out of place
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • Grinning• Loose tension• Incorrect stitch choice • Lockstitch is the tightest stitch and will grin less than other stitches
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • SKIPPED STITCHES• Bad tension• Machine timing is off • Bobbin hook or looper is not entering needle thread loop at correct time• Incorrect needle choice • The wrong needle can cause problems in creating the needle thread loop• Damaged needle • If the needle is bent, or is striking the throat plate, it may not create the loop in the right place for the hook to catch
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • NEEDLE THREAD BREAKAGE• Tight tension• Trapping at package base• Snarling before tension disc• Poor needle choice • If eye is too small, there will be increased friction• Excessive heat• Poor quality thread
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • BOBBIN/LOOPER THREAD BREAKAGE• Tight tension• Badly wound bobbin• Incorrect fit of bobbin case• Trapping at package base (for loopers)
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • NEEDLE DAMAGE• Incorrect needle/thread choice• Damaged needle
  • SEAM PROBLEMS• Seam Pucker• Grinning• Skipped Stitches• Broken Needle Threads• Broken Bobbin Threads• Needle Damage on Fabric• Seam Slippage
  • SEAM SLIPPAGE• Problem is with the fabric – not the stitch• Low yarn count, and continuous filament yarns that don’t grip each other well are to blame• Very minimal improvement can be achieved through increasing seam allowance, adding topstitching, or changing to a lapped felled seam• When possible, seams can be fused• Best option – Change fabric
  • BY MACKENZIE WALTON MARCH 2012