Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />Marcela Ray<br />1˚<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Presente (-ar, -er, -ir)<br />Stem Changers<br />Irregulars (-go, -zco, -oy)<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />Reflexives<br />‘Se’ Impersonal<br />Present tense with dipthongs (with accents)<br />Verbs like –uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir<br />Hace + que + present tense<br />Imperfect<br />
  3. 3. 1. Presente<br />Yo Nosotros<br />TúVosotros<br />Él/Ella/ Ellos/Ellas/<br />UstedUstedes<br />-ar<br />-o -amos<br />-as -áis<br />-a -an<br /> -er<br />-o -emos<br />-es -éis<br />-e -en<br /> -ir<br />-o -imos<br />-es -ís<br />-e -en<br />
  4. 4. 2. Stem Changers <br />e -> ie<br />e -> i<br />o -> ue<br />u -> ue<br />Example:<br /> Cerrar(e-ie): cierro cerramos cierras cerráis cierra cierran <br />There is no stem change for nosotros or vosotros.<br />These are also called boot verbs<br />
  5. 5. 3. Irregulars: -car/-gar/-zar<br />-car: -co -qué<br />-gar: -go -gué<br />-zar: -zo-cé<br />Example:<br />Empacar: empaquéempacamos<br />empacaste<br />empacóempacaron<br />It only changes in the first person singular tense.<br />
  6. 6. (3) SpockVerbs<br />
  7. 7. (3) Cucaracha Verbs<br />Andar: anduv- <br />Estar: estuv-<br />Poder: pud-<br />Poner: pus-<br />Querer: quis-<br />Saber: sup-<br />Tener: tuv-<br />Venir: vin- <br />Conducir: conduj-<br />Producir: produj-<br />Traducir: traduj- <br />Decir: dij-<br />Traer: traj-<br />-e<br />-iste<br />-o<br />-imos<br />-isteis<br />-ieron<br />
  8. 8. (3) Snake and Snakey verbs<br />Snake and Snakey verbs are verbs that change in <br />the third person only.<br />Example of snake verbs:<br />Pedir: pedípedimos<br />pediste<br />pidieronpidieron<br />Example of snakey verbs:<br />Leer: leíleímos<br />leíste<br />leyóleyeron<br />Snakey verbs change the ‘i’ to ‘y’ in the 3rd person.<br />
  9. 9. 4. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Saber and Conocer both mean “to know,” but they are not interchangable.<br />Saber: to express knowledge or ignorance of information, skills, or facts.<br /> ex: Élsabematemáticas.<br />Conocer: to say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, place, or an object.<br /> ex: Yo no conozco a Juan.<br />
  10. 10. 5. Reflexives<br />Reflexive verbs show action being done to oneself.<br />They use the pronouns: <br /> me nos<br />teos<br /> se se<br />- The pronouns can go in front of the verb or hook on to the end of the infinitive form of the verb. (Se baña/ bañarse)<br />
  11. 11. 6. ‘Se’ Impersonal<br />In english, people frequently say things like, “You shouldn’t smoke” or “One shouldn’t text and drive,” but “you” and “one” are’t really referring to anyone specific. These are called impersonal expressions. <br />In spanish, you add the pronoun ‘se’ in front of the verb you are using.<br />Example:<br /> How does one say “icecream” in Italian?<br /> = ¿Cómose dice “helado” en italiano? <br />
  12. 12. 7. Present tense with dipthongs (with accents)<br />Some verbs need an accent to break up the dipthong in order to place stress on the proper syllable. <br />A dipthong is a weak vowel (such as ‘i/y’ or ‘u’) with a strong vowel (‘a’, ‘e’, ‘o’), or two weak vowels coming together to form one syllable.<br />Example: <br />Esquiar (to ski): esquíoesquíamos<br />esquías<br />esquíaesquían<br />
  13. 13. 8. Verbs like –uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir<br />
  14. 14. 9. Hace+ que + present tense<br />
  15. 15. 10. Imperfect<br />Imperfect verbs describe an ongoing or repeated action taking place in the past. (“I used to…”)<br />Examples: Los pajaroscantaban. -> The birds were singing.<br />Mi mamáteníaunacarabonita. -> My mom had a pretty face.<br />-ar: -aba -ábamos -er/-ir: -ía - íamos<br /> -abas -ías<br /> -aba -aban -ía - ían<br />
  16. 16. (10) Iregular Imperfects<br />

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