Grammar Book       Marcela Ray
1.    Present Tense2.    Stem Changers3.    Irregular “yo” verbs4.    Saber vs. Conocer5.    Reflexives6.    „Se‟ Imperson...
For present tense                Yo          Nosotrosverbs, youreplace the                      Tú          Vosotrosar/er/...
Ir        Estar       Ser       Dar• Voy     • Estoy     • Soy     • Doy• Vas     • Estás     • Eres    • Das• Va      • E...
e → ie     (Perder)e→i        (Pedir)o → ue     (Dormir)u → ue     (Jugar)Example: Cerrar (e-ie):   cierro         cer...
-car: -co → -qué-gar: -go → -gué-zar: -zo → -céExample:      Empacar: empaqué                empacamos                 ...
Saber and Conocer both mean “to know,” but they are not interchangable. Saber: to express knowledge or ignorance of  info...
 Reflexive verbs show action being done to oneself. They use the pronouns:       me nos       te    os       se    se-Th...
 In english, people frequently say things like,  “You shouldn‟t smoke” or “One shouldn‟t text  and drive,” but “you” and ...
 Some verbs need an accent to break up the  dipthong in order to place stress on the proper  syllable. A dipthing is a w...
Gustar and verbs similar to gustar do not conjugate like normal verbs. Gustar only conjugates to “gusta” or “gustan.” You ...
Coger          Exigir9. Verbs like   • Cojo         • Exijo-ger/-gir,                • Coges        • Exiges              ...
The verb "hacer" can be used to indicate the  length of time an action has been taking  place. Use the formula: Hace + ti...
  Imperfect verbs describe an ongoing or repeated   action taking place in the past. (“I used to…”)  Examples:   Los paj...
• iba       • ibas                Trigger Words:       • iba           •Todos los dias Ir:   • íbamos       • iban        ...
   The preterite is a past tense perfected action or    a snapshot of time, and it has a beginning    and/or an ending. ...
Ir/Ser    Dar/Ver     Hacer          fui        d/vi       hice         fuiste     d/viste    hiciste          Fue       d...
Andar:         anduv-                     Estar:         estuv-                     Poder:         pud-                   ...
   Snake and Snakey verbs are verbs that change in the    third person only.   Example of snake verbs:    Pedir:     ped...
Superlatives describe what is the most or least of  something.Subject + Noun + Mas/Menos + Adjective/Adverb + de + Ex: Es...
1) Ir + a + infinitive is the future tense for the  immediate future. (“Going to”)2) The more formal way to use the future...
   Decir: dir-                  Trigger Words:   Haber: habr-             •La próxima semana   Hacer: har-             ...
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Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book Marcela Ray
  2. 2. 1. Present Tense2. Stem Changers3. Irregular “yo” verbs4. Saber vs. Conocer5. Reflexives6. „Se‟ Impersonal7. Present tense with dipthongs8. Verbs Similar to Gustar9. Irregular Verbs ending in –uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir10. Hacer Expressions11. Imperfect12. Preterite13. Comparitives/Superlatives14. Future tenseTable of Contents
  3. 3. For present tense Yo Nosotrosverbs, youreplace the Tú Vosotrosar/er/ir endingwith the related Él/Ella/ Ellos/Ellas/conjugation. Usted Ustedes -ar -er -ir -o -amos -o -emos -o -imos -as -áis -es -éis -es -ís -a -an -e -en -e -en1. Present Tense
  4. 4. Ir Estar Ser Dar• Voy • Estoy • Soy • Doy• Vas • Estás • Eres • Das• Va • Está • Es • Da• Vamos • Estamos • Somos • Damos• Van • Están • Son • Dan(1.) Present Tense Irregular Verbs
  5. 5. e → ie (Perder)e→i (Pedir)o → ue (Dormir)u → ue (Jugar)Example: Cerrar (e-ie): cierro cerramos cierras cerráis cierra cierran There is no stem change for nosotros or vosotros. These are also called boot verbs.2. Stem Changers
  6. 6. -car: -co → -qué-gar: -go → -gué-zar: -zo → -céExample: Empacar: empaqué empacamos empacaste empacó empacaron It only changes in the first person singular tense.3. Irregulars (-car,-gar,-zar)
  7. 7. Saber and Conocer both mean “to know,” but they are not interchangable. Saber: to express knowledge or ignorance of information, skills, or facts. ex: Él sabe matemáticas. Conocer: to say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, place, or an object. ex: Yo no conozco a Juan.4. Saber vs. Conocer
  8. 8.  Reflexive verbs show action being done to oneself. They use the pronouns: me nos te os se se-The pronouns can go in front of the conjugated verb (Se baña) or hook on to the end of the infinitive form of the verb (bañarse).Reflexive verbs include: lavarse, llamarse, and vestirse5. Reflexives
  9. 9.  In english, people frequently say things like, “You shouldn‟t smoke” or “One shouldn‟t text and drive,” but “you” and “one” aren‟t really referring to anyone specific. These are called impersonal expressions. In Spanish, you add the pronoun „se‟ in front of the verb you are using. Example: How does one say “ice cream” in Italian? =¿Cómo se dice “helado” en italiano?6. ‘Se’ Impersonal
  10. 10.  Some verbs need an accent to break up the dipthong in order to place stress on the proper syllable. A dipthing is a weak vowel („i/y‟ or „u‟) with a strong vowel („a‟, „e‟, „o‟), or two weak vowels coming together to form one syllable. Example: Esquiar (to ski): esquío esquíamos esquías esquía esquían7. Present Tense with dipthongs
  11. 11. Gustar and verbs similar to gustar do not conjugate like normal verbs. Gustar only conjugates to “gusta” or “gustan.” You use “gusta” if the object that you like is singular, and you use “gustan” if the object you like is plural.Ex: Me gusta la clasa. Te gustan las comidas.Verbs similar to gustar include: Aburrir (to bore), fascinar (to facinate), bastar (to be sufficient), importar (to be important to), interesar (to interest), molestar (to bother), etc.8. Verbs like Gustar
  12. 12. Coger Exigir9. Verbs like • Cojo • Exijo-ger/-gir, • Coges • Exiges • Coge • Exige-cer/-cir, • Cogemos • Cogen • Exigimos • Exigen-uir/-guir Conocer Decir • Conozco • Digo • Conoces • Dices • Conoce • Dice • Conocemos • Dicimos • Conocen • Dicen Atribuir Conseguir • Atribuyo • Consigo • Atribuyes • Consigues • Atribuye • Consigue • Atribuimos • Consigimos • Atribuyen • Consiguen
  13. 13. The verb "hacer" can be used to indicate the length of time an action has been taking place. Use the formula: Hace + time + que + present tense (Hacer + the amount of time needed for the action to be completed + que + the present tense form of the verb being used.)10. Hace + time + que + present tense
  14. 14.  Imperfect verbs describe an ongoing or repeated action taking place in the past. (“I used to…”)  Examples: Los pajaros cantaban. → The birds were singing. Mi mamá tenía una cara bonita. → My mom had a pretty face.-ar: -aba -ábamos -er/-ir: -ía - íamos -abas -ías -aba -aban -ía -ían11. Imperfect
  15. 15. • iba • ibas Trigger Words: • iba •Todos los dias Ir: • íbamos • iban •Siempre •A menudo •Con frecuencia •De vez en cuando • era •Habitualmente • eras • era •NormalmenteSer: • éramos • eran •A veces •Todas las noches •Cada dia •Por/en la tarde • veía •Por/en la noche • veías •Por lo general • veía •Por lo regularVer: • veíamos • veían •Frecuentemente •Etc.(11.) Irregular Imperfects and Trigger Words
  16. 16.  The preterite is a past tense perfected action or a snapshot of time, and it has a beginning and/or an ending. Conjugations: -ar -er/-ir -é -amos -í -imos -aste -iste -ó -aron -ió -ieronTrigger Words:Anteayer, el dia anterior, ayer, el jueves pasado, la semana pasada, el fin de semana pasado, el mes pasado, el otra dia, una vez, esta tarde, etc.12. Preterite
  17. 17. Ir/Ser Dar/Ver Hacer fui d/vi hice fuiste d/viste hiciste Fue d/vio hizo fuimos d/vimos hicimos fueron d/vieron hicieron(12.) Spock Verbs
  18. 18. Andar: anduv- Estar: estuv- Poder: pud- Poner: pus- -e Querer: quis- -iste Saber: sup- -o Tener: tuv- -imos Venir: vin- -isteis Conducir: conduj- -ieronIf there is a „j‟- Producir: produj-drop the „i‟ on Traducir: traduj-„ieron‟ Decir (e-i): dij- Traer: traj-(12.) Cucaracha Verbs
  19. 19.  Snake and Snakey verbs are verbs that change in the third person only. Example of snake verbs: Pedir: pedí pedimos pediste pidieron pidieron Example of snakey verbs: Leer: leí leímos leíste leyó leyeron Snakey verbs change the „i‟ to „y‟ in the third person.(12.) Snake and Snakey Verbs
  20. 20. Superlatives describe what is the most or least of something.Subject + Noun + Mas/Menos + Adjective/Adverb + de + Ex: Esta es la playa más bonita de todas. This beach is the prettiest of all.Comparatives compare one thing to another. (better, older, etc.) >Mas/menos + adj/adv/noun + que >tan (or tanto) + adj/adv (or noun) + como Ex: Mi equipo de fútbol favorito es mejor que el tuyo. My favorite soccer team is better than yours.13. Superlatives and Comparatives
  21. 21. 1) Ir + a + infinitive is the future tense for the immediate future. (“Going to”)2) The more formal way to use the future tense is by conjugating the verb (“I will”). Verbs in the future tense all use the same endings, no matter if they are –ar, -er, or –ir. You do not take the –ar, -er, or –ir off the verb when you are conjugating it. (Nadaré) Endings: -é -ás -á -emos -án14. Future Tense
  22. 22.  Decir: dir- Trigger Words: Haber: habr- •La próxima semana Hacer: har- •En ocho años Poder: podr- •Luego -é •Mañana Poner: pondr- -ás •Planifico Querer: querr- -á •Espero Saber: sabr- -emos •Etc. Salir: saldr- -án Tener: tendr- Valer: valdr- Venir: vendr-(14.) Irregular Future and Triggers

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