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PSB2014: RESEARCH METHODS IN
EDUCATION
Course Notes Writer: Prof. Dr. Abdul Razak Habib
Course Leader: Assoc Prof. Dr Abdu...
1.INTRODUCTION
Overview
Students should be able to:
(a)define research and educational research;
(b) explain stages in res...
Overview of Educational Research
Research &
Educational Research
Stages of Research
•Defining Research
•Defining Education...
DEFINITION OF RESEARCH AND
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Research and Educational Research
Defining Research
Defining Educational Research
Examples of Educational Research
Figure ...
•Research generally can be defined as “a process of
searching again the truth about certain facts or existing
theories in ...
•Educational research can be defined as “a process of
searching again the truth about educational facts or
existing educat...
•An example of educational fact is “the number of students
who cannot read and/or write after completing primary
school ed...
STAGES OF RESEARCH
Typically there are seven (7) stages of a research
regardless of the research methodology used to condu...
Stages of Research
7.Making Conclusions and Reporting the Research
6.Interpreting the Results and Stating the Findings
5.A...
1. Selecting a Problem:
To select a suitable/relevant research problem,
which is important for a researcher to embark on,
...
2.Reviewing the Literature: The second stage is to review
relevant literature on the problem which will help the researche...
4. Collecting the Data: The fourth stage is to collect data, that is,
to implement the planned procedure for data collecti...
6. Interpreting the Results and Stating the Findings:
to interpret the results of data analyses and stating the findings
b...
RESEARCH AS A PROBLEM-SOLVING
PROCESS
•George Polya (1962) proposed a problem-solving
model which involves four stages, na...
Research as a Problem-Solving Process
Select a Problem
Understand the Problem
Plan for Solution
Carry Out the Plan
Check t...
•Since research involves identifying research problem
and solving it, we can use Polya’s problem-solving
model to better u...
We can map the seven (7) stages of research to five
(5), namely:
(a) selecting research problem (identify the problem);
(b...
CHAPTERS/SECTIONS OF A RESEARCH
REPORT
This section will explain the typical chapters/sections
and contents of a research ...
Chapters/Sections of a Research Report
Research Problem
Review of the Literature
Research Method
Research Findings
Conclus...
Chapter/Section Titles:
Based on the problem-identifying and problem-solving
stages and the research stages, the five (5)
...
Table 1.1: The mappings between problem-identifying
and problem-solving stages, research stages and
chapter/section titles...
Problem-Solving
Stages
Research Stages Chapter/Section Title
Identify problem Selecting problem 1. Research Problem
Unders...
Chapter/Section Contents
1. Research Problem Explain research problem identified by researcher
Introduction State the purp...
2. Literature Review Bring in related literature and related research.
Introduction Explain the brief contents of section/...
3. Research Method •Explain research design and procedures.
• Introduction •Explain the brief contents of section/chapter....
4. Research Findings Explain the background of respondents
and research findings.
4.1 Introduction Explain the brief conte...
5. Conclusions Write the conclusions and provide related
discussions
5.1 Introduction Explain the brief contents of sectio...
References List the references that were
quoted in your report.
Appendices You may include documents, such
as questionnair...
SUMMARY
This topic maps the seven (7) research stages into five
(5) topics of a research report:
(a)Research Problem (sele...
1.7 TUTORIAL ACTIVITY
Find a short research article from a journal [around five
to ten (5-10) pages].
i) Identify and disc...
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  1. 1. PSB2014: RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION Course Notes Writer: Prof. Dr. Abdul Razak Habib Course Leader: Assoc Prof. Dr Abdullah Mohd Noor TOPIC 1: OVERVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
  2. 2. 1.INTRODUCTION Overview Students should be able to: (a)define research and educational research; (b) explain stages in research; (c) explain research as a problem-solving model; (d) explain the chapters/sections and contents of a research report; and (e) identify stages of research in a research article (Figure 1.1).
  3. 3. Overview of Educational Research Research & Educational Research Stages of Research •Defining Research •Defining Educational Research •Examples of Educational Research •Selecting a Problem •Reviewing the Literature •Designing the Research •Collecting the Data •Analyzing the Data •Interpreting the Results and Stating the Findings •Making Conclusions and Reporting the Research Research as a Problem Solving Process •Select a Problem •Understand the Problem •Plan for Solution •Carry Out the Plan •Check the Solution Chapters/Sections of a Research Report •Research Problem •Review of the Literature •Research Method •Research Findings •Conclusions
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
  5. 5. Research and Educational Research Defining Research Defining Educational Research Examples of Educational Research Figure 1.2: Research and Educational Research
  6. 6. •Research generally can be defined as “a process of searching again the truth about certain facts or existing theories in a particular area which is guided by intellectual curiosity and systematic planning of data collection and analyses that ends up with a research report about the research and also the new facts, new theories or verification of the existing theories”.
  7. 7. •Educational research can be defined as “a process of searching again the truth about educational facts or existing educational theories which is guided by intellectual curiosity and systematic planning of data collection and analyses that ends up with a research report about the research and the new educational facts, educational theories or verification of the existing educational theories”.
  8. 8. •An example of educational fact is “the number of students who cannot read and/or write after completing primary school education in Malaysia”. An example of an existing educational theory is the Expectancy Theory of Motivation, i.e. “Students who are satisfied with their work and will continue to work hard, if they believe their work will lead to things that are highly valued” (Hanson, 2003).
  9. 9. STAGES OF RESEARCH Typically there are seven (7) stages of a research regardless of the research methodology used to conduct it (AJR, 29): (a)selecting a problem; (b) reviewing the literature on the problem; (c) designing the research; (d) collecting the data; (e) analyzing the data, (f) interpreting the results and stating the findings; and (g) making conclusions and reporting the research
  10. 10. Stages of Research 7.Making Conclusions and Reporting the Research 6.Interpreting the Results and Stating the Findings 5.Analyzing the Data 4.Collecting the Data 3. Designing the Research 1. Selecting a Problem 2. Reviewing the Literature
  11. 11. 1. Selecting a Problem: To select a suitable/relevant research problem, which is important for a researcher to embark on, bearing in mind the time, efforts and money required to carry out the research. The researcher also must make sure the answer to the problem is not already available, the research methodology is available, and the answer can be used to solve a problem.
  12. 12. 2.Reviewing the Literature: The second stage is to review relevant literature on the problem which will help the researcher to understand the research problem deeper (e.g. concepts, theories, models & principles involved) and to gain knowledge about the past research on the problem and their findings, research methodology (design, instruments & analysis) used, recommended further research, and related references. 3. Designing the Research: The third stage is to design the research, that is, to plan how the research to be conducted to answer the research questions (converted from research problem). For a quantitative research, the design will include research population and sample, type of research (survey, experiment, etc.), treatment(s) to be given to respondents, research instrument(s) and procedures for data collection and analysis.
  13. 13. 4. Collecting the Data: The fourth stage is to collect data, that is, to implement the planned procedure for data collection to answer the research question(s). A quantitative researcher may use a test, questionnaire or inventory to collect data; while a qualitative researcher may use in-depth interview, participant observation or document analysis to collect data. 5. Analyzing the Data: The fifth stage is to analyse the data, that is, to implement the planned procedure for data analysis to answer the research question(s). A quantitative researcher may use graphics, descriptive or inferential statistics to analyse the collected data; while a qualitative researcher may use explanations in words (descriptions, observations, impressions) or to code the large mass of collected data in the analyses.
  14. 14. 6. Interpreting the Results and Stating the Findings: to interpret the results of data analyses and stating the findings based on research questions. A quantitative researcher may describe the current status, accept a hypothesis, or reject a hypothesis, and make conclusion(s); while a qualitative researcher may present the interpretations, conclusions and credibility of findings in narrative form. 7. Making Conclusions and Reporting the Research: to make conclusions and to report the research. The research report will include the research problem, the literature review, the research methodology, research findings, conclusions and discussions. Usually a researcher will explain each stage of the research clearly such that other researchers can later replicate the research. The researcher may also present the report in a seminar or publish it in a journal.
  15. 15. RESEARCH AS A PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS •George Polya (1962) proposed a problem-solving model which involves four stages, namely: • (a) understand the problem; • (b) plan for solution; • (c) carry out the plan; and • (d) check the solution (Figure 1.4). • In Polya’s model, the problem is given to a person (e.g. a student) to solve. However, in research, the problem is not given to the researcher, but he/she has to find/identify the problem.
  16. 16. Research as a Problem-Solving Process Select a Problem Understand the Problem Plan for Solution Carry Out the Plan Check the Solution Figure 1.4
  17. 17. •Since research involves identifying research problem and solving it, we can use Polya’s problem-solving model to better understand the process of research. •Using this model, we may simplify the seven (7) research stages into five (5) problem-identifying and problem-solving stages, namely: (a) identify problem; (b) understand the problem; (c) plan for solution; (d) carry out the plan; and (e) check the solution.
  18. 18. We can map the seven (7) stages of research to five (5), namely: (a) selecting research problem (identify the problem); (b) reviewing the literature (understand the problem); (c) designing the research (plan for solution); (d) collecting data, analyzing data, interpreting the results, and stating the findings (carry out the plan); and (e) making conclusions and reporting the research (check the solution) as shown in Table 1.1.
  19. 19. CHAPTERS/SECTIONS OF A RESEARCH REPORT This section will explain the typical chapters/sections and contents of a research report. If your research report is in the thesis form, you may report in five (5) chapters. If your research report is in the article form, you may report your research in five (5) sections (Figure 1.5). The five (5) chapters/sections correspond to the five (5) problem-identifying and problem-solving stages as previously explained in Section 1.4. The brief explanations are given below:
  20. 20. Chapters/Sections of a Research Report Research Problem Review of the Literature Research Method Research Findings Conclusions Figure 1.5: Chapters/Sections of a Research Report
  21. 21. Chapter/Section Titles: Based on the problem-identifying and problem-solving stages and the research stages, the five (5) chapters/sections of a research report may have the following titles: (a)Research Problem; (b) Literature Review; (c) Research Method; (d) Research Findings; and (e) Conclusions. The mappings between the stages and section/chapter titles are given in Table 1.1
  22. 22. Table 1.1: The mappings between problem-identifying and problem-solving stages, research stages and chapter/section titles •Chapter/Section Contents: Research Problem includes research problem identified by researcher. Review of the Literature includes related literature and related research. Research Method includes research design and procedures. Research Findings includes background of respondents and research findings. Conclusions include conclusions and related discussions. Details are given in Table 1.2:
  23. 23. Problem-Solving Stages Research Stages Chapter/Section Title Identify problem Selecting problem 1. Research Problem Understand the problem Reviewing the literature on the problem 1. Literature Review Plan for solution Designing the research 3. Research Method Carry out the plan Collecting data Analyzing data Interpreting results Stating findings 4. Research Findings Check the solution Making conclusions Reporting Research 5. Conclusions
  24. 24. Chapter/Section Contents 1. Research Problem Explain research problem identified by researcher Introduction State the purpose of research and explain the brief contents/subtopics of section/chapter. Background of Research Explain the motivation for carrying out this research in terms of theoretical issues or practical problems. Statement of Research Problem Explain the factors/variables to be included in this research, show the conceptual/theoretical framework of research, and state the research problem. Purpose of Research Explain the purpose of research, research objectives, research questions and research hypotheses (if any). Importance of Research Explain the importance of research findings in terms of theory confirmation/building or their implications to practitioners. Limitations of Research Explain the restrictions of research in terms of population, sample, instruments, data analyses or other problems based on the availability of resources. Definition of Terms Give the constitutive (conceptual) and operational (measurement) definitions of the terms/variables used in the research. Summary Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter. Table 1.2: The subtopics of chapters/section of a research report
  25. 25. 2. Literature Review Bring in related literature and related research. Introduction Explain the brief contents of section/chapter. Related Literature Explain concepts, theories, principles or models that are related to the research problem. Related Research Explain and comment about previous/past research/ studies that are related to the research problem in terms of population, sample, instruments, analyses, findings and limitations. Summary Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter.
  26. 26. 3. Research Method •Explain research design and procedures. • Introduction •Explain the brief contents of section/chapter. • Research Design •Restate the purpose of research and explain suitable/ appropriate research design to be used in the research. • Population and Sample •Explain the scope/limitation of research in terms of population and sample & how respondents are selected. • Research Instruments •Explain research instruments to be used and how they are developed/ constructed. • Procedure for Data Collection •Explain step-by-step of the procedure for data collection from obtaining the permission to do research to how the data were collected. • Procedure for Data Analyses •Explain step-by-step of the procedure for data analyses from marking the test(s) to how the data were analyzed to answer each research question. • Pilot Study •Explain how you carried out the pilot study and improvements you made on your research after the pilot study. • Summary •Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter.
  27. 27. 4. Research Findings Explain the background of respondents and research findings. 4.1 Introduction Explain the brief contents of section/chapter. 4.2 Backgrounds of Respondents Explain the background of the research respondents, e.g. their gender, age, family income, etc. 4.3 Research Question 1 Explain the results of data analysis with together with a table and write the finding(s) for Research Question 1 4.4 Research Question 2 Explain the results of data analysis with together with a table and write the finding(s) for Research Question 2 4.5 …………. ……………………………… 6. Summary Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter.
  28. 28. 5. Conclusions Write the conclusions and provide related discussions 5.1 Introduction Explain the brief contents of section/chapter. 5.2 Summary of Research Briefly explain again the research purpose, design, population, sample, instruments and procedures for data collection and analysis. 5.3 Conclusions List the conclusions based on research questions and findings. 5.4 Discussion of the Findings Discuss the findings separately in terms of whether the each finding supports or does not support the finding of previous research. 5.5 Implications of the Findings Discuss the implications of the findings to theory verification/building or to practitioners. 5.6 Recommendations for Further Research Recommend what future researchers should do to improve the findings of this research. 5.7 Summary Give a summary of important aspects explained in this section/chapter.
  29. 29. References List the references that were quoted in your report. Appendices You may include documents, such as questionnaire or details of the results of data analyses in the appendices.
  30. 30. SUMMARY This topic maps the seven (7) research stages into five (5) topics of a research report: (a)Research Problem (selecting a problem); (b)Literature Review (reviewing the literature on the problem); (c)Research Method (designing the research), (d)Research Findings (collecting data & analyzing data), (e)Conclusions (interpreting findings, stating conclusions & reporting findings)
  31. 31. 1.7 TUTORIAL ACTIVITY Find a short research article from a journal [around five to ten (5-10) pages]. i) Identify and discuss the information on the five (5) sections of a research report: (a) Research Problem; (b) Literature Review; (c) Research Method, (d) Research Findings), (e) Conclusions. ii) Does the article include appendices? iii) Does the list of references cover exactly those cited in the article?
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