Criminal Justice in Action Pamela Saunders Instructor: Mr. Kevin Rowe Course: CJS 200 Foundation of the Criminal Justice System University of Phoenix, Axia College October 11, 2009
Criminal Justiceis the system of practices and institutions of governmentsdirected at upholding social control, deterring andmitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate lawswith criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts.The rights of the accused are rights that protect thoseaccused of crime
Criminal justice system consist of three main parts: Criminal justice system The criminal justice system consists of three main parts: (1) law enforcement (police); (2) adjudication (courts); and (3) corrections (jails, prisons, probation and parole). In the criminal justice system, the People are represented by two separate yet equally important groups: the police, who investigate crime, and the district attorneys, who prosecute the offenders. Criminal justice agencies are intended to operate within the rule of law.
Roles of Police Officers police officer (also known as a constable in some countries) is employed in most cases by federal, state/provincial or municipal governments and has the responsibility (or duty) of enforcing federal, state/provincial laws along with municipal/city ordinances. They also have the responsibility of keeping the public peace. This is usually done by uniformed pro- active patrolling within their jurisdiction looking for and investigating law breakers, and by responding to calls for service. Police officers are required to keep notes of all situations in which they take action and appear as witnesses during both criminal prosecutions and civil litigation www.jobbankusa.com/.../police.../job_descriptions_definitions_roles_responsibility.html -
Roles of the Police Officer after a crime has been committed Police investigation When a crime is reported to the police they will usually start investigating it by talking to the victim of the crime and other witnesses. The details of what is said are typed up as statements and form part of the prosecution evidence. The police may also examine the crime scene for other evidence •Arrest and identification •When someone is suspected of committing a serious crime, they may be asked to attend an interview, or may be arrested and taken to a police station. The suspect may then be questioned and, if there is enough evidence, they will be charged. The police will interview the suspect and can record the questions and answers in writing. In serious matters, they may record the interview on audio or video tape. As part of the investigation, a victim or other witness may be asked to identify the person who is suspected of committing the crime. In most cases this is done by looking at photographs, but sometimes police use an identification parade
Courtroom and Trial Administrative Judge - Criminal Division Jeffrey A. Manning Bailiff : Announces the entrance of the judge Court Reporter: Recording all the proceeds during the trial Deputy Sheriffs: Transport prisoners to and from court proceedings Jurors: In trials, a group of people who are selected and sworn to inquire into matters of fact and to reach a verdict on the basis of the evidence presented to them. Prosecuting Attorney: The attorney for the State the crime was committed in. Defense Attorney: The attorney for the accused, this attorney can be either the accused own or the what is known as a Public defender. This was mention in the” Miranda Rights” Defendant: the person being trialed Judge: Listens to the evidence and determines the faith of the person on trial. Court Clerk; Paper pusher, evidence, transcripts prior to trial. This is a trial judge that everyone criminal known try not to come up against.
Black on Black Crime Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania In Pittsburgh and Allegheny County "Black on Black" crime has taken a deadly toll. In the past year, 95 people were murdered in Allegheny County and 70 of those were black men. Now some in the community are sounding the alarm. On Monday, two African-American men were gunned down in McKeesport. . "Were under attack and we made sure to answer were under attack by us. If there were marauding bands of white folks driving throughout our neighborhood firing, then a war would be on." For the past year, the paper has been publishing the names and race of people murdered in Allegheny County and the years end tally tells a grim tale. Of 95 people murdered, 77 were black and 70 of those were black men. While African Americans comprise 13.5% of the U.S. Population, 43% of all murder victims in 2007 were African American, 93.1% of whom were killed were African Americans. Victimizations of African Americans from violent crime which include the following; rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple Assault was 24.3% in 2007, with the highest percentages of victimizations within the age ranges of 15-24 totaling a percentage greater than 38%.
Black on Black Crime Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Serious violent crime rates declined in recent years for both blacks and whites. Trends in violent victimization by race, 1973 to 2008 In 2008 —- The rate of violent victimization against blacks was 26 per 1,000 persons age 12 or older; for whites 18 per 1,000 and for persons of other races, 15 per 1,000. Blacks were victims of rape/sexual assault, robbery and aggravated assault at rates higher than those for whites. According to the FBIs Uniform Crime Reports, in 2006 about 50% off murder victims were black, 47% were white, and 3% were Asians, Pacific Islander, and Native Americans. See also Homicide Trends in the United States and Data Online for characteristics of homicide victims by State and large locality. Blacks were more likely than whites to be victimized by a carjacking (3 versus 1 per 10,000 respectively) 1993-2002. Between 2002 and 2006, American Indians experienced violence at rates almost twice that of blacks, about 2 1/2 times that of whites, and more than 5 times that of Asians.
Punishment: Purpose The purpose of punishment has four basic principles: Retribution: “eye for an eye”, you reap what you sow. Deterrence; setting as example for wrong behavior. Incapacitation: detaining wrongdoers by separating them the community in prison. Rehabilitation: Assist in helping criminal change there lives around. The purpose of punishment according: “Professor Herbert Packer has said that punishing criminals serves two ultimatepurposes: the “deserved infliction of suffering on evildoers” and “the prevention of crime”.
Sentencing Structure The history of criminal sentencing in the United States has been characterized by shifts in among the three branches. The three branches include, legislatures, rehabilitative justice and judicial and administrative. Under each branch of sentencing are sub branches with enforces behavior in different format, but trying to reach the final results, to deter crime. The three branches include: Legislatures : responsible for making laws. Judicial Sentencing: judges makes the sentence depending upon each case. Administrative branches: working with the inmates on early paroles,.
Pennsylvania State Corrections SCI Dallas – Medium Security SCI Dallas SCI Dallas (Luzerne County, 10 miles from Wilkes-Barre) was opened in 1960 as an institution for defective delinquents. After the state Supreme Court decision of 1966 voidedthe concept of "defective delinquents," Dallas, like Huntingdon, became an adult institution. It now is a medium-security facility for men.
Pennsylvania State Corrections SCI Dallas – Medium Security SCI Muncy SCI Muncy (Lycoming County, 15 miles from Williamsport) is thediagnostic and classification center for the states female inmates. It was originally opened in 1920 as The Muncy Industrial Home, a trainingschool for female offenders between the ages of 16 and 30. Incorporated into the Bureau of Correction in 1953, SCI Muncy is a close-security prison that also houses all of the state’s female capital case inmates.
Pennsylvania State Correction SCI Graterford SCI Graterford The State Correctional Institution at Graterford is located 31 miles west of Philadelphia. The facility, built in 1929, is Pennsylvanias largest maximum-security prison. In 1989, an $80 million construction program was completed thatadded a new administration building, a 28-bed infirmary and 372 additional cells.
Pennsylvania Corrections Bootcamp Quehanna Bootcamp The Quehanna Motivational Boot Camp opened in June 1992 as the departments first military-style motivational boot camp. Inmates assigned to the boot camp undergo a rigid six-month disciplinary and training program which, if successfully completed, will result in their immediate release on parole. The minimum-security facility houses both male and female offenders.
What is the sequence of events in the criminal justice system?