Learning session on researchPresentation Transcript
Learning Session on Research Notre Dame of Midsayap College 22 August 2011
At the end of the learning session, the participants are able to:
Draw conceptual framework
Draft research problems and hypotheses
Design data gathering procedure
Identify appropriate statistical methods
Outline 1. Introduction Research Good research Research process 2. Formulation of a research concept or proposal Choosing research topics Drafting the conceptual framework Framing the problems and hypotheses Developing the measurement tools Sampling 3. Analysis and presentation
Research methods provide the knowledge and skills to solve problems and meet the the challenges in making decisions in a fast-paced environment
What is research?
Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypothesis about the presumed relationships among the phenomena.
Research is a systematic inquiry aimed at providing information to solve problems
Applied and Pure
Applied research is conducted to reveal answers to specific questions related to action, performance or policy needs (practical problem solving)
Pure or basic research aims to solve perplexing problems (questions) of a theoretical nature
Clearly stated research purpose or problems
Research procedure used described in sufficient detail
Research design must be carefully planned
Declare honestly the limitations or flaws of the research procedures
Adequate analysis of the data
Conclusions are justified by the data
Researcher is a person of integrity
Management question or problem
Analysis and interpretation
A variable is the property being studied.
A symbol to which values are assigned
Dependent and Independent variables
The designation of one variable as “Independent” and another as “dependent” presupposes that the two are capable of being causally related, such that the one variable might have an effect upon the other, either directly or indirectly. The independent variable is the one that is capable of influencing the other, and the dependent variable is the one that is capable of being influenced by the other.
IV DV Presumed cause Presumed effect Stimulus Response Antecedent Consequence Manipulated Observed outcome
Moderating variable is a second independent variable believed to have significant contributory effect to the originally stated IV DV relationships
Control variable refer to extraneous variables that possibly confound the hypothesized iv dv relations.
Intervening variable is that factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen, measured or manipulated; its effects must be inferred from the effects of the iv and mv on the dv
The formulation of a problem is far more often essential than its solutions Albert Einstein
Discrete – categories
Continuous – take on values from a range
Instrument development Measurement questions are those questions that respondents must answer to gather the desired information