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  • 1. Learning Session on Research Notre Dame of Midsayap College 22 August 2011
  • 2. Objectives
    • At the end of the learning session, the participants are able to:
    • Draw conceptual framework
    • Draft research problems and hypotheses
    • Design data gathering procedure
    • Identify appropriate statistical methods
  • 3. Outline 1. Introduction Research Good research Research process 2. Formulation of a research concept or proposal Choosing research topics Drafting the conceptual framework Framing the problems and hypotheses Developing the measurement tools Sampling 3. Analysis and presentation
  • 4. Why research?
    • Research methods provide the knowledge and skills to solve problems and meet the the challenges in making decisions in a fast-paced environment
  • 5. What is research?
    • Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypothesis about the presumed relationships among the phenomena.
  • 6.
    • Research is a systematic inquiry aimed at providing information to solve problems
  • 7. Applied and Pure
    • Applied research is conducted to reveal answers to specific questions related to action, performance or policy needs (practical problem solving)
    • Pure or basic research aims to solve perplexing problems (questions) of a theoretical nature
  • 8. Good Research
    • Clearly stated research purpose or problems
    • Research procedure used described in sufficient detail
    • Research design must be carefully planned
    • Declare honestly the limitations or flaws of the research procedures
    • Adequate analysis of the data
    • Conclusions are justified by the data
    • Researcher is a person of integrity
  • 9. Research process
    • Management question or problem
    • Research question
    • Exploration
    • Design
    • Pilot testing
    • Data collection
    • Analysis and interpretation
    • Report results
  • 10. Variables
    • A variable is the property being studied.
    • A symbol to which values are assigned
  • 11. Dependent and Independent variables
    • The designation of one variable as “Independent” and another as “dependent” presupposes that the two are capable of being causally related, such that the one variable might have an effect upon the other, either directly or indirectly. The independent variable is the one that is capable of influencing the other, and the dependent variable is the one that is capable of being influenced by the other.
  • 12. IV DV Presumed cause Presumed effect Stimulus Response Antecedent Consequence Manipulated Observed outcome
  • 13. Moderating variable
    • Moderating variable is a second independent variable believed to have significant contributory effect to the originally stated IV DV relationships
  • 14. Control variable
    • Control variable refer to extraneous variables that possibly confound the hypothesized iv dv relations.
  • 15. Intervening variable
    • Intervening variable is that factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen, measured or manipulated; its effects must be inferred from the effects of the iv and mv on the dv
  • 16. The formulation of a problem is far more often essential than its solutions Albert Einstein
  • 17. Variables
    • Discrete – categories
    • Continuous – take on values from a range
  • 18. Measurement scale
    • Nominal
    • Ordinal
    • Interval
    • Ratio
  • 19. Instrument development Measurement questions are those questions that respondents must answer to gather the desired information
  • 20. Considerations in drafting questions
    • Subject content
    • Wording
    • Logical sequencing
    • Testing