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Crop protection   phytophthora management in macadamia production - femi akinsanmi
 

Crop protection phytophthora management in macadamia production - femi akinsanmi

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    Crop protection   phytophthora management in macadamia production - femi akinsanmi Crop protection phytophthora management in macadamia production - femi akinsanmi Presentation Transcript

    • C pPCrop ProtectionPhytophthora Management in Macadamia 6th International Macadamia Symposium, Brisbane, Australia, 18 20 Sept., Brisbane Australia 18-20 Sept 2012 Dr. ’ F e m i A k i n s a n m i University of Queensland, Brisbane uqoakins@uq.edu.au uqoakins@uq edu au Working together with the Queensland Government
    • ‘THE NUT RUSH Prospecting for Gold’
    • NEW 2012 1981 Macadamias prove a M d i guaranteed goldmine for farmers
    • Prospecting for Gold
    • ‘THE NUT RUSH Prospecting for Gold’Is Phytophthora a major clog in the wheel?
    • Phytophthora:Phytophthora: Ecology & Description There are about 120 Phytophthora species They infect > 3500 p y plant species p o Crops – Arable and tree crops o Forest trees o Mangroves o Lifestyle horticulture – flowers, trees, etc.• Able to cause large scale devastating diseases
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia• Trunk canker
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia• Tree decline
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia• Tree death
    • Phytophthora: Lifecycle
    • Phytophthora: Ecology & Description• Thrives in wet conditions• Rapid formation of sporangia• Abundant zoospore formation• Rapid life cycle• Many alternative hosts y• Infects multiple plant parts
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia P. P capsici : raceme, shoot and nut bli ht , i i h t d t blight - Hawaii 1975, 1979 P. tropicalis : Macadamia quick decline (with sap bleeding, frass) - - Hawaii P. palmivora : raceme, new leaf flush and nut blight - Hawaii 1975, 1979; Costa Rica – late 1960s 1975 P. cinnamomi : Stem canker, root rot, tree decline, dieback - South Africa, Hawaii, Australia, Kenya
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaPhytophthora cinnamomi • Most widespread • Most frequent • g Most devastating • Multiple symptoms but similar impact on production
    • Phytophthora cinnamomi: Impact • Over $300 million loss to Australian horticulture & agriculture • $US30 million loss to the US avocado industry • 60% macadamia yield loss in Kenya (Mbaka et sl. 2009) sl • 100s of macadamia trees died in SE Australia (Pegg,1981) ( gg, )
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia 1. Factors that i fl 1 F t th t influence di disease severity in macadamia it i d i • Rootstock & root density (Good foundation) • Soil fertility • Environmental stress: drought, waterlogged2.2 Management of diseases caused by Phytophthora
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaGoodG d root system provides a strong foundation t t id t f d ti Good soil Bad soil Ugly soil U l il
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaGood root system provides a strong foundation Very poor Poor Good Very good
    • Good root system contributes to macadamia resilience to adverse conditions 2010 Courtesy: David & Liz Kirby
    • Good root system contributes to macadamia resilience to adverse conditions 2011 Courtesy: David & Liz Kirby
    • Good root system contributes to macadamia resilience to adverse conditions 2012 Courtesy: David & Liz Kirby
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia Scion affects rootstock performance 5 y = 0.1384x + 0.0633 R 0 071 R² = 0.071 ating (0‐4) 4 severity ra 3 2Tree canopy s 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Trunk canker severity rating (0‐4) T k k i i (0 4)
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaEffect on grafted tree @ 3 years after planting: H2 (Hinde) rootstock 3.5 Treated (control) 3.0 Untreated 2.5 40% reduction Tree height (m) ) 2.0 1.5 15 h 60% reduction 60% d ti 1.0 0.5 05 0.0 842 816 Cultivar
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaSoil health – Soil fertility - Pc; + Fertilizer + Pc; + Fertilizer + Pc; - Fertilizer
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia Management of Ph t hth M t f Phytophthora di diseases Plant disease-free materials: good root structure Monitor tree health: changes in tree performance symptoms etc performance, symptoms, etc. Manage soil health: adequate soil fertility, structure and biological Apply treatment when disease conducive conditions prevail for extendedperiod Treat affected trees appropriately
    • Phytophthora in Macadamia y p• Do not treat plants in the nursery with metalaxyl or phosphonates• Disease Management options – Chemical • Metalaxyl –not effective in badly damaged trees; resistance • Phosphoric acid products – Cultural – Resistant rootstocks• Natural disease suppression (soil health)• Holistic approach – combination of 2 or more cultural, rootstock, chemical and biological tactics are most effective
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaManagement of Phytophthora: Chemical control 1.4 y = 0 22ln(x) + 1 01 0.22ln(x) 1.01 1.2 R² = 0.96 1.0 Mean disease severity rating y = 1.14 - 0.29ln(x) 0.8 R² = 0.98 e 0.6 06 y = 1.21 - 0.43ln(x) R² = 0.99 0.4 Potassium phosphonate 0.2 Metalaxyl-M Untreated control 0.0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Assessment period
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaBefore & after Phosphite treatment p
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaBefore & after Phosphite treatment p
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaDecision Guide for Application of Phosphite to Control Phytophthora inMacadamiaApplication strategy Severity level Description Application method ScaleHealthy None 0 None (Maintain good good  management practices)Maintenance Low ‐Medium 1 ‐ 2 Foliar Curative High 3 ‐ 4 Trunk or FoliarRestoration Very High 5 Trunk
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaManagement of Phytophthora: Cultural control Drainage is the most critical factor Inorganic nutrition e.g. Calcium - Can be li d l h t (gypsum) – slow release of C ++ C b applied as sulphate ( ) l l f Ca - Promotes resistance in roots - Acts as a mild fungicide - Improves soil drainage ~ aeration O ga c amendments: oody u c (C:N at os 5 00 ), Organic a e d e ts Woody mulch (C ratios 25-100:1), composts, Chicken and green manure, cover crops - P id a complex bi l i l suppression and promotes root growth Provides l biological i d t t th
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaManagement of Phytophthora: Resistant rootstock• Australian R t t k I A t li Rootstock Improvement Program tP – Evaluate rootstocks originating from three different ecological regions – Evaluate both clonal and seedling rootstocks – E l t M Evaluate Macadamia species d i i
    • Phytophthora in MacadamiaConclusionsC l i Holistic view of disease control is important Know the ecology and biology of the pathogen – waterlogging, drought Know your crop – agronomy, p y y p g y, physiology etc. gy Emphasis on sustainable management Reduced reliance on chemicals
    • Other major diseasesFruit & flower diseaseso Husk spot; Husk rot; Raceme blight; etc.Emerging and new disease developmentso Tree diebark ~ Botryosphaeriaceae
    • Husk spot Pseudocercospora macadamiae
    • Husk rot & Anthracnose Phomopsis sp.; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    • Botryosphaeria tree dieback
    • Floret blight
    • AcknowledgementsFunding & Support Team members & Contributors - Dr. Bruce Topp - Associate Prof. Andre Drenth - Dr Ken Pegg Dr. - Mr. Luke Smith Working together with the Queensland Government PENCITON FARMS